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Aphids as Crop Pests

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26: IPM Case Studies: Leafy Salad Crops

van Emden, H.F.; Harrington, R. CABI PDF

26

IPM Case Studies: Leafy Salad Crops

G. Mark Tatchell,1* Rosemary H. Collier2 and Gemma L. Hough3

1

Laurels Farmhouse, Sherborne, UK; 2Warwick Crop Centre, School of Life

­Sciences, University of Warwick, Wellesbourne, UK; 3Syngenta, Jealott’s Hill

International Research Centre, Bracknell, UK

Introduction

What are leafy salad crops?

Leafy salads across the world show great diversity, dependent on local cultures and plant biodiversity, and include both species that are cultivated intensively and those that are gathered from the wild.

For the purposes of this review, discussion will be confined to the commercial production of the

Asteraceae, which include many varieties of lettuce,

Lactuca sativa (Fig. 26.1).

However, the principles developed here can be applied to any vegetable with a short growing season and leaves that are harvested and eaten raw.

These crops may be grown outdoors or under different degrees of protection, ranging from fleece or polythene covers to glasshouses. The different levels of environmental protection are used both to extend cropping seasons and to protect crops from invasion by aphids, as well as by moths and leaf miners

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Medium 9781780647098

9: Host-plant Selection and Feeding

van Emden, H.F.; Harrington, R. CABI PDF

9

Host-plant Selection and Feeding

Jan Pettersson,1* W. Fred Tjallingii2 and Jim Hardie3

1

Department of Ecology, The Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences,

Uppsala, Sweden; 2EPG Systems, Wageningen, The Netherlands; 3Royal

Entomological Society, St Albans, UK, and Imperial College London,

Department of Life Sciences, Ascot, UK

Introduction

Prominent traits in aphid ecology are rapid reproduction and advanced adaptation to host-plant ecology and physiology. This includes host-plant and feeding-site discrimination using sensitive chemosensory information that has proved to be an important research topic over the past few decades

(Chapter 8, this volume). Cues shown to be important in host-plant selection, phloem finding, phloem acceptance and the sensory aspects are described in the sequence of choices from a distance, to the plant surface, to the internal plant factors, and ultimately to phloem feeding.

Visual cues constitute an initial step in host selection for alate aphids and have an important role for approaching and landing on a plant. Different aspects of spectral patterns have been studied with regard to orientation (Döring and Chittka, 2007).

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Medium 9781780647098

11: Predators, Parasitoids and Pathogens

van Emden, H.F.; Harrington, R. CABI PDF

11

�Predators, Parasitoids and Pathogens1

Jacques Brodeur,1* Ann E. Hajek,2 George E. Heimpel,3

John J. Sloggett,4 Manfred Mackauer,5 Judith K. Pell6 and the late Wolfgang Völkl7

1

Institut de Recherche en Biologie Végétale, Département de Sciences B

­ iologiques,

Université de Montréal, Montréal, Canada; 2Department of ­Entomology, ­Cornell

University, Ithaca, USA; 3Department of Entomology, ­University of ­Minnesota,

­St-Paul, USA; 4Maastricht Science Programme, ­Maastricht University, ­Maastricht,

The Netherlands; 5Department of ­Biological Sciences, Simon Fraser University,

Burnaby, Canada; 6J.K. Pell Consulting, Luton, UK; 7Department of Animal Ecology,

University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany

Introduction

Aphids occur in most terrestrial habitats. They are commonly attacked by predators, parasitoids and pathogens; often collectively termed Aphidophaga

(Völkl et al., 2007). Predators kill their prey by feeding on them. In some families of aphid predators

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