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10. Roads and Bridges

Jacques D. Bagur University of North Texas Press PDF

10. Roads and bridges


The county commissioners courts were responsible for road maintenance and the licensing of ferries and bridges. Because they did not have staffs for road work, these responsibilities were allocated to the landholders in the vicinity of the road segment that was being created or improved. The actual work was done by slaves. It is possible to gain a fairly precise understanding of old road systems because persons and landmarks are named in connection with road work in the minutes of the commissioners’ meetings. Unfortunately, there are no records for Bowie County for the 1840–1845 period. Harrison County records, which cover development south of Cypress Bayou, begin in

July 1843, and Cass County records begin in July 1846.

The only roads preceding the development of Jefferson in 1845 were the road from Daingerfield and the Big Cypress Valley Road from

Alley’s Mills, both of which entered the townsite from the northwest.

The former crossed over Cypress Bayou at the foot of Houston Street by ferry, and the latter crossed the bayou by ferry in the proximity of the present-day railroad. The formation of the town in 1845 initiated a flurry of activity in road construction, extension, and repair that is recorded in the minutes of the Cass County commissioners court. The major features of Jefferson’s early road system were completed by 1850

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Chapter 9. Joining the Vietnam Veteran's Class of 1970

James T. Gillam University of North Texas Press PDF


Joining the Vietnam Veteran’s

Class of 1970


It was midmorning on May 15 when the helicopters began to land at LZ Jood to withdraw the 1st Battalion, 22nd Infantry from Cambodia. Happily for the men of B Company, the usual policy of first men in, first men out of an LZ put second platoon in the first lift to leave that miserable place. I was the acting platoon sergeant, so when the choppers got close, I popped a yellow smoke grenade on the landing pad to mark the wind direction and ground-guided the first lift of six choppers to the ground.

They clattered in and raised a huge dust storm.We waded through it, flopped down in the doorway, and they lifted off.

There was a shortage of Cobra gunships to escort the slicks back to Vietnam, so we had to circle the firebase until three lifts of six slicks were loaded up and ready to be escorted by two gunships.

When we passed over our side of the perimeter we saw the damage from the sapper attack. An obvious damage site was the base commander’s conex. They were pretty nice places to live until an attack happened. They were big steel boxes that had bunks with real mattresses. They had a gasoline generator to power electric lights and air conditioning, too. But, its high profile and the noise

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Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF


Little is known of the designer of the Stafford family of projectiles. He was probably well connected politically, based on the political controversy highlighted below. The projectiles were sub-caliber projectiles, meaning that the bulk of the projectile was substantially smaller than the caliber of the rifle. This is similar in concept to the sabot rounds used in current models of Abrams tanks. The concept of sub-caliber projectiles is to achieve much higher velocities at short range than full-caliber projectiles can attain, enabling the shell or bolt to penetrate deeper in a narrower space.

Stafford projectiles had brass ring sabots. Some were encased in a wood sleeve, others had a brass ring, or an enlarged head to fit the rifle bore. The sabot was a brass ring type, which was held in place by iron pins or nails driven into the metal core, into the wood casing, or between the two.

Staffords were produced in several calibers, including 5.1-inch, 6.4-inch, and 8-inch.

No survivors are known in the 8-inch caliber. One hundred 8-inch Stafford projectiles were purchased by the Union Navy and tested by the South Atlantic Blockading Squadron in 1863 off Charleston.1 They were reported on July 27, 1863, to have performed unsatisfactorily.2 Ironically, only five days before the navy test results were reported,

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Cedar Aroma Renewal

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF
Medium 9781574415001

Chapter 4 - “Fit to Get Down to Serious Business”

Gregory W. Ball University of North Texas Press PDF


“FIt to get doWN to serIous BusINess”

The 142d Infantry Regiment, still containing a large core of men from the old 7th Texas Infantry and the former 1st Oklahoma Infantry regiments, arrived in France at a critical moment in the war. The German Army had launched a massive series of offensives beginning in March of 1918, which German leaders hoped would end the war before the influence of the United States could be felt too strongly on the Western Front. While German forces gained ground, by the summer the offensives along the Western Front had failed to achieve their strategic objectives, and the dynamic changed as the American Expeditionary Forces (AEF) continued to strengthen.1

As commander of the AEF, Gen. John J. Pershing struggled with the

Allied leadership over whether or not American units arriving in France should be “amalgamated” into the European armies or used to build a strictly American army. For obvious reasons, Pershing desired the latter while the Allies pressed for amalgamation. By the time the 36th Division arrived in France, Pershing’s goal had been realized with the creation of the First American Army. The question for Colonel Bloor and the soldiers of the 142d Infantry was how they were going to fit into this larger picture, and where and with whom would they fight on the

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