4039 Chapters
Medium 9781574411713

2: Impact of Federal Bilingual Education Policy

Guadalupe San Miguel Jr. University of North Texas Press PDF

T H E E X P A N S I O N O F B I L I N G U A L E D U C AT I O N , 1 9 6 8 – 1 9 7 8


Lau Remedies Compliance Reviews, 1975–78

In addition to these procedures, the federal government also developed an elaborate civil rights enforcement mechanism and pressured local school districts to develop bilingual education programs. Although there were programmatic and interpretational problems and even opposition to the Lau Remedies, the Office for Civil Rights used it to negotiate compliance plans with over 500 local school districts in the late 1970s. Coercion or the threat of coercion and the withdrawal of federal school funds served as the basis for the development of bilingual education programs.38


The origins of and changes in federal bilingual education policy had a significant impact on various aspects of American political and educational life. For instance, this policy significantly impacted state and local governments, the political fortunes of minority groups, and language use. More importantly, it encouraged a political opposition to voice its opinion and to speak out against this policy.

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Medium 9781574412246

10. Ed Brown

Corey Recko University of North Texas Press PDF


Ed Brown

After arriving in Socorro, William Sayers learned that Maximiano

Griego, the man Miller claimed Brown would hire to kill McDonald, was in jail at the time of the Fountain murder. This information originated from a man named Doherty, who also stated that Brown allegedly had said that he could find the bodies. Sayers reported,

“Mr. Doherty is quite positive that Brown did not kill Fountain, but he is equally certain that Brown knows all about the affair.”

From Doherty and Elfego Baca, Sayers learned that Green

Scott had left the C. N. ranch to, as he claimed, attend court in

Lincoln, and returned after the murder of Fountain. Doherty and

Baca were both in Lincoln at that time and did not see Scott there.

Baca said he spoke to Scott once about the killing and “Scott said he was glad of it and wished to God they had gotten the rest of the family.” Sayers learned that a man named Punch Williams was the main witness against Scott in a cattle rustling charge, but Williams had since disappeared and was said to have been killed by Scott.

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Medium 9781574413533

Chapter 9. Desperate-Looking Character

Rick Miller University of North Texas Press ePub

Chapter 9

Desperate-Looking Character

Although Fuller did not mention it in his account, Longley claimed that after he left Bell County, he went southwest to Mason County, where he moved about under the alias of “William Henry.” He said that he attended a horse race at old Fort Mason, which had been abandoned by the army in 1869, and met James J. Finney, the sheriff of Mason County.1 A former blacksmith,2 Finney was first appointed county sheriff in October 1869 under the military government of Reconstruction, then elected in his own right in November 1872.3

Longley said that Finney suspected his true identity because of descriptions that the lawman had received, but the two talked, drank, and gambled for four or five days. Longley claimed that he was suspicious of the sheriff. By mere chance, according to Longley, when Finney was ready to spring his trap, Longley happened to ride up to Fredericksburg in Gillespie County. He had not been there but a few hours when Finney and another man arrived in town, talked with Longley, and invited him to a saloon to take a drink. In the saloon, Longley said, he carefully avoided getting between the two men and kept the bar counter between them, frustrating their intent to surprise and overwhelm him. He said that he accepted their invitation to meet there again later that night to play cards, but that he instead mounted up and rode southwest some twenty miles to Kerrville in Kerr County.4

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Medium 9781574414479

The End of Reading

Gibson Fay-LeBlanc University of North Texas Press PDF
Medium 9781574414820

Chapter 25. The Outsider

Mitchel P. Roth and Tom Kennedy University of North Texas Press ePub



The man who succeeded Harry Caldwell was as low key as Caldwell was confrontational and aggressive. B. K. Johnson smiled more often, listened silently but thoughtfully and doled out orders without bite and sting. When Caldwell announced his retirement in February 1980, Mayor Jim McConn quickly informed the City Hall press corps that he didn’t feel the need to go outside. He soon decided on Johnson after pouring some Scotch for the current Command Staff members in order to solicit their candid opinions about the individual who would follow Caldwell.

In his brief tenure Johnson followed most of the policies Caldwell established without the same eloquent expressions of opinion before microphones and cameras. The HPD assistant and deputy chiefs and captains who despised Caldwell welcomed a decidedly low key leader who had had a wide range of experience since graduating from the same cadet class as both Caldwell and Pappy Bond. Johnson was talked up as “the high school dropout who became police chief.” The man always identified as “B. K.” was never thought to be slow and dumb. He took civil service promotion tests with the gray matter dexterity of a valedictorian, making some of the highest scores in history. “He was a good man, one of the sharpest individuals ever,” said Chester Massey, an HPD legend. He had beaten Carrol Lynn on the exam in the mid-1970s, prompting Mayor Fred Hofheinz to ask him to step aside so Lynn could be the chief of police, promising to make him deputy chief the next day. It was hard to take but Johnson endured.1

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