290 Slices
Medium 9781902375212

Criteria for project control

Tony Baxendale Chartridge Books Oxford ePub

CHAPTER 5

Operational Monitoring and Control

Project Progress Control

A project is dynamic and must respond to changing conditions if it is to be completed successfully. There is a continual need for reassessment and reappraisal of the project plan. Factors affecting an existing plan will include:

     Changes in the technical specification.

     Changes in the required dates.

     Changes in relative priorities.

     Revision of activity duration estimates.

     Reassessment of resource requirements for individual activities.

     Changes in resource availabilities.

     Inaccuracies in planned sequences.

     Technical difficulties.

     Failure of deliveries.

     Unexpected weather conditions.

It is therefore necessary to have a monitoring system which generates feedback that enables corrective action to be taken. There are usually some deviations that do not allow the project to proceed in accordance with the plan. It is therefore necessary to review operations periodically and to update or replan when a change is revealed. Close or detailed control of resources is not always considered. Close control is where resources are fully considered during the initial stages of the project and the timing of every activity is fixed, so as to obtain optimum use of resources. Flexible or overall control is often exercised during the initial scheduling of the project. Flexible control only considers resources to avoid peaks in key resources or those resources that are in limited supply. The frequency of review will depend on the overall duration of the project and the timescale on which the activities are measured. In general a weekly programme should be reviewed weekly and a daily programme daily.

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Medium 9781902375106

4.3 Energy Surveys

Stephen Howard Chartridge Books Oxford ePub

CHAPTER 4

Energy Audits and Surveys

4.1   Introduction

Together with routine monitoring, energy audits and surveys are key elements of a good energy management strategy because they provide the information needed to ensure that energy is managed properly by an organisation.

Energy may often only be a relatively small percentage of an organisation’s expenditure but it is a controllable cost. Energy audits and surveys are essentially techniques to promote the effective control of energy consumption and costs by identifying where and how effectively energy is being used.

Many organisations have recognised that improving their control of energy use not only reduces operating costs but can also produce environmental benefits with consequent benefits in promoting an organisation’s activities. However, in reality cost control is normally the main driving factor behind the implementation of any energy efficiency measures. The financial benefits of energy efficiency therefore needs to be weighed against the cost and Chapter 6 gives more detail on the financial analysis of energy efficiency projects.

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Medium 9781902375014

4.1 Introduction

Low Sui Pheng Chartridge Books Oxford ePub

CHAPTER 4

Legal implications for the construction industry

4.1 Introduction

Traditionally, a client’s expectations with regard to quality in construction works are ensured and upheld by building contracts. With the recent emergence of ISO 9000 quality management systems, however, the definition and assurance of quality have taken on a new dimension. Many contractors have since applied quality management systems in their organisations without understanding its intricate relationship with the building contract used. This chapter examines the likely conflicts and compatibility between Standard Forms of Building Contract and quality management systems. An understanding of the possible legal obligations that may arise from adopting a quality management system contractually will help contractors and clients protect their interests when defects arise. In addition, many contractors are in the process of establishing their quality management systems to increase their competitive and bidding edge.

This trend has raised questions as to the application of quality systems to Standard Forms of Building Contracts in the construction industry. There is a tendency for both the Quality Manager and Construction Manager to consider quality systems and their associated legal obligations separately from building contracts. This may be acceptable when the quality system is still in its infancy stage. As the quality system matures, however, there would be unavoidable interaction between quality systems and contractual/legal obligations at different levels, especially when there is evidence of reliance by the purchaser on certification such as ISO 9000.

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Medium 9781902375106

4.6 Evaluation

Stephen Howard Chartridge Books Oxford ePub

CHAPTER 4

Energy Audits and Surveys

4.1   Introduction

Together with routine monitoring, energy audits and surveys are key elements of a good energy management strategy because they provide the information needed to ensure that energy is managed properly by an organisation.

Energy may often only be a relatively small percentage of an organisation’s expenditure but it is a controllable cost. Energy audits and surveys are essentially techniques to promote the effective control of energy consumption and costs by identifying where and how effectively energy is being used.

Many organisations have recognised that improving their control of energy use not only reduces operating costs but can also produce environmental benefits with consequent benefits in promoting an organisation’s activities. However, in reality cost control is normally the main driving factor behind the implementation of any energy efficiency measures. The financial benefits of energy efficiency therefore needs to be weighed against the cost and Chapter 6 gives more detail on the financial analysis of energy efficiency projects.

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Medium 9781902375212

Case study

Tony Baxendale Chartridge Books Oxford ePub

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