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5.6 Updating Standards and Targets

Stephen Howard Chartridge Books Oxford ePub


Management Information

5.1   Introduction

A successful business must use all resources efficiently. Energy must not be an exception to this rule but too often there is little control over how and where energy is being used. Before the use of energy can be examined, however, it must first be measured. Therefore one of the first tasks in gaining control over energy use is to set up a monitoring and recording system so as to provide the management information required to determine how and where energy can be saved.

A technique which can provide the necessary information is Monitoring and Targeting (M&T). This is a management technique which aims to control energy costs by integrating energy management into the existing site management structure. Managers are made responsible for energy use in the areas under their control, in the same way as they are responsible for other controllable resources.

In order to control energy costs managers need information on energy use and performance. Energy consumption must also be related to the variables which affect it. This information must then be provided to nominated managers responsible for energy in a manner which is both timely and appropriate.

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4.6 Evaluation

Stephen Howard Chartridge Books Oxford ePub


Energy Audits and Surveys

4.1   Introduction

Together with routine monitoring, energy audits and surveys are key elements of a good energy management strategy because they provide the information needed to ensure that energy is managed properly by an organisation.

Energy may often only be a relatively small percentage of an organisation’s expenditure but it is a controllable cost. Energy audits and surveys are essentially techniques to promote the effective control of energy consumption and costs by identifying where and how effectively energy is being used.

Many organisations have recognised that improving their control of energy use not only reduces operating costs but can also produce environmental benefits with consequent benefits in promoting an organisation’s activities. However, in reality cost control is normally the main driving factor behind the implementation of any energy efficiency measures. The financial benefits of energy efficiency therefore needs to be weighed against the cost and Chapter 6 gives more detail on the financial analysis of energy efficiency projects.

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Medium 9781902375212

Level of detail for integration

Tony Baxendale Chartridge Books Oxford ePub


Operational Monitoring and Control

Project Progress Control

A project is dynamic and must respond to changing conditions if it is to be completed successfully. There is a continual need for reassessment and reappraisal of the project plan. Factors affecting an existing plan will include:

     Changes in the technical specification.

     Changes in the required dates.

     Changes in relative priorities.

     Revision of activity duration estimates.

     Reassessment of resource requirements for individual activities.

     Changes in resource availabilities.

     Inaccuracies in planned sequences.

     Technical difficulties.

     Failure of deliveries.

     Unexpected weather conditions.

It is therefore necessary to have a monitoring system which generates feedback that enables corrective action to be taken. There are usually some deviations that do not allow the project to proceed in accordance with the plan. It is therefore necessary to review operations periodically and to update or replan when a change is revealed. Close or detailed control of resources is not always considered. Close control is where resources are fully considered during the initial stages of the project and the timing of every activity is fixed, so as to obtain optimum use of resources. Flexible or overall control is often exercised during the initial scheduling of the project. Flexible control only considers resources to avoid peaks in key resources or those resources that are in limited supply. The frequency of review will depend on the overall duration of the project and the timescale on which the activities are measured. In general a weekly programme should be reviewed weekly and a daily programme daily.

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7.3 Energy and Quality Management

Stephen Howard Chartridge Books Oxford ePub


Energy, the Environment and Quality

7.1   Introduction

Since the early 1980s there has been a growing demand for organisations to reduce their environmental impact The major environmental impact of many organisations is that from their use of energy, whether directly using fossil fuels, or indirectly as electricity. Table 7.1 shows the importance of fossil fuel combustion to the emission of pollutants.

Table 7.1. Importance of fossil fuel use in the generation of air pollutants in 1992

Source: Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions

While the removal of pollutants such as sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides is technically feasible at a price, no practical techniques currently exist for the removal of carbon dioxide from flue gases. It is the emission of carbon dioxide, however, which is one of the greatest causes for concern since it is implicated in the ‘global warming’ phenomenon.

Current solutions for tackling global wanning include:

The UK government’s long term policy appears to be moving away from nuclear power sources. The British Isles is well placed to exploit renewable energy sources. It has among the world’s best wind, wave and tidal resources. In 1996 renewables contributed energy sufficient to replace 1.72 million tonnes of oil equivalent (MTOE) - most of this was due to the use of bio fuels such as landfill gas and large-scale hydroelectricity generation.

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Medium 9781902375359


Trevor Payne Chartridge Books Oxford ePub


Customer Focus

This chapter will concentrate on the principles of customer focus and the concept of providing a ‘seamless’ one-stop shop for facilities services which will ensure that facilities services are accessible and appropriate and can serve the requirements of both the host organisation and the customer. However, to do this is it is vital initially to identify:

Who the customer is.

The chapter will highlight the difficulties that can be encountered when applying established organisational and management theory into practice in a practical or work-based setting. Areas of conflict will be highlighted in relation to user needs vs. organisational needs (i.e. micro vs. macro issues). The importance of effective and relevant service specifications will be reinforced, demonstrating that the service specification forms the blueprint of effective service delivery and that specifications can be either input or output based. If the specification is the blueprint for service delivery then service level agreements are vital to underpin the construction of solid and reliable service delivery. Statistics show that there are real benefits in developing an effective service recovery strategy for the instances when service delivery goes wrong, that is effective corrective action applied ‘right time – first time’.

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