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6 The Women of the YMCA

Lettie Gavin University Press of Colorado ePub

Service in World War I was but the latest chapter in a long history of cooperation with the military for the Young Men’s Christian Association (the YMCA, or Y), an English organization that opened its doors in the United States in 1851. During the Civil War, YMCA volunteers worked beside this country’s troops (both Union and Confederate), and in 1861 President Abraham Lincoln commended Y leaders for their “benevolent undertaking for the benefit of the soldiers.” This undertaking involved establishing tents for social activities, providing stationery and periodicals, ministering to the needs of prisoners of war, and rendering other personal services for the soldiers. After the war, the YMCA established the nation’s first recreational, sports, and counseling services for U.S. soldiers and sailors. More than 500 Y workers participated in the Spanish-American War, and when that war ended late in 1898 the YMCA’s governing body established a permanent Army and Navy Committee to oversee the group’s work among the military forces. Within five months, the committee began constructing large, well-equipped buildings to house their work. The first, located at the Brooklyn Navy Yard, opened in February 1899, and soon they were found around the world.

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Gail M. Beaton University Press of Colorado ePub

“1958 Miss America Runner Up: Miss Georgia, Jody Elizabeth Shattuck.” With that pronouncement, Marilyn Van Derbur became the second Miss Colorado in three years to be named the nation’s ranking beauty queen. Crowned by the 1957 winner, Van Derbur walked calmly down the 120-foot runway in Atlantic City’s Convention Hall before a wildly applauding audience. Although she had not won top places in the preliminary judging, Van Derbur’s victory was not a surprise. Two of her three older sisters and her mother, Gwendolyn “Boots,” were former beauty queens at the University of Colorado (CU). Van Derbur started her climb to Miss America as the Phi Beta Kappa candidate for Miss CU. Winning that crown placed her in the Miss Colorado contest, where she was chosen to represent the state in the 1958 Miss America competition. Although part of her piano recital was blacked out to television viewers by a local advertisement, every member of the Van Derbur family was in the audience to cheer her and to join her onstage.1

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1 Historical Background

Ethelia Ruiz Medrano University Press of Colorado ePub

A few years after the conquest of Mexico, a Spanish judge, Don Alonso de Zuazo, heard and pronounced judgment in a dispute concerning matters of land that arose among members of the native nobility. The conflict was apparently serious enough that it not only dragged on for some time but also resulted in the deaths of antagonists on both sides. In the course of the dispute, the Indian nobles presented several codices to the judge (“paintings” was the term used during the colonial period to describe these manuscripts). After he had examined the codices, the judge noted in laudatory fashion that the numerous details and fine points they contained allowed them to be treated like any other comprehensible and admissible legal document: “they provide evidence as much as any other writings provide it.” The parties involved in the litigation took a different line, however, maintaining that the codices neither reflected their problem nor offered a possible solution. Consequently, the judge ordered that the tlacuilo (the person who painted the manuscripts, also indigenous scribe), whom he referred to as “amantecas” (artisan), repaint the codex, but this remedy failed to placate the Indian litigants. The judge then decided to bring in an enormous dog (lebrel) he had previously let loose on more than 200 criminals and Indians convicted of idolatry. The dog had been fattened on human flesh. With the terrifying sight of the ferocious animal as a backdrop, the judge informed the Indians that if they did not “paint the truth denoting the markers and boundaries of that controversy,” the dog would be unleashed to kill them. Instantly, as if by magic, the artist painted a manuscript that was “altogether certain, and the parties approved it.” The legal dispute was thus fully resolved, and the litigants on both sides emerged satisfied. Indeed, so content were they with the Spanish magistrate’s clear judgment that the Indians decided to convert to Christianity.1

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Appendix C. Tribal Oil and Gas Production Subsurface Leases and Permits

Donald L. Fixico University Press of Colorado ePub





Navajo Tribe (including NM, UT)




Southern Ute Tribe


Ute Mountain Tribe




Seminole Tribe




Kickapoo Tribe




Saginaw Chippewa Tribe




Assiniboine and Sioux Tribes


(Turtle Mountain off-reservation)


Blackfeet Tribe


Chippewa-Cree Tribe


Crow Tribe


Gras Ventre and Assiniboine Tribes


Turtle Mountain (off-reservation)




Isleta Pueblo


Jicarilla Apache Tribe


San Felipe Pueblo


Santa Ana Pueblo


Ute Mountain Tribe

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Joshua Kryah University Press of Colorado ePub

Or we were poor and we did not know we were.

Or we were not poor and we thought we were.

Or we knew we were not poor.

Or just enough we did not deny being poor.

Or others told us we were poor and we believed we were.

Or this is what we told ourselves when we disliked others.

Or it was good to be poor among those who were not poor.

Or we had friends who were poor but did not know they were.

Or the poor were always among us.

Or we wanted nothing to do with the poor even if we were poor.

Or someone somewhere in our family had been poor.

Or it was a story we learned from our older brother who told us we were poor.

Or we told ourselves “at least we’re not poor.”

Or we made up things to make our lives a little less poor.

Always blood and those who give of it so freely.

The hemophiliac, the martyr.

The meatpacking plant at the end of the street.

Piles of ice dumped out back, soaked with the blood of deer, their hind legs broken, stabbed through, hung to drain.

And the children, always the children.

Gathering the ice into small handfuls, licking it as one would a snow cone.

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