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19 NATURAL RESOURCES

Duane A. Smith University Press of Colorado ePub

Protecting our state’s natural resources from pollution, destruction, and overuse is one of the biggest challenges Coloradans face. How much of our land should be used for agriculture? How much for houses? How much for shopping malls? How many mountains should be left untouched and how many turned into ski areas? How many forests should be used for timber or be protected as wilderness? How much water can be diverted from rivers before it causes shortages downstream? Balancing the need to conserve resources for future generations with today’s needs for those same resources requires hard choices.

Coloradans have always faced questions about how best to use the state’s natural resources. How can we both use and preserve our limited oil, coal, natural gas, water, and other resources? These questions remain major challenges in the twenty-first century. As the price of gas climbed from a dollar to nearly four dollars a gallon, people began to realize that oil, like other riches of the earth, is becoming scarce.

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9 The Salvation Army

Lettie Gavin University Press of Colorado ePub

“I want to send my Army to France,” said the Salvation Army’s U.S. commander Evangeline Booth to Gen. John J. Pershing, who headed the American Expeditionary Forces (AEF) overseas. It was spring 1917, and the United States had just entered the European conflict. “I have an army in France,” Pershing replied. “But not MY army,” Evangeline Booth shot back.1 And thus the Salvation Army became one of the devoted social service organizations working with U.S. troops during the First World War.

By the time the vanguard of Pershing’s two-million-man force arrived in France in June 1917, Commander Booth had been busy organizing her own army. She was, after all, the imperious daughter of the fiery father of the Salvation Army, William Booth, who took his stand in 1865 in front of London’s Blind Beggar saloon to proclaim the simple message of salvation to the city’s outcast masses.2 Earlier in the war, she had been eager to aid wounded soldiers and civilians throughout the battle zone. She appealed to the public through newspaper articles and pleas in the Salvation Army publication The War Cry asking for contributions of old linen. Enlisting volunteers to help, Salvationists cut and rolled the linen into bandanges, sterilized and packed them into bales, and shipped them overseas. In New York City, Commander Booth herself supervised the Old Linen Campaign.

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2. Morphology—Inflection

Andrew Cowell University Press of Colorado ePub

Although the inflection of noun stems is less complex than that of verb stems, they still show a rich variety of processes. Noun stems can be inflected for plural, obviative, vocative, and locative (using suffixes), as well as for possession (prefixed person markers, suffixed number markers). In addition, all nouns are either animate or inanimate gender. There are no specific inflections marking gender—it is a property of the noun stems themselves. But the gender of the noun determines the exact form of many inflectional markers. For this reason, we begin by discussing gender and then proceed to discuss the inflectional morphology.Animacy and inanimacy are fundamentally grammatical categories, but there is important semantic correspondence. For example, all humans, animals, birds, and other semantically animate objects are grammatically animate as well. In addition, all celestial objects (sun, moon, star, names of constellations) are animate, as are nouns for spirits, ghosts, and so forth. And conversely, most semantically inanimate objects are grammatically inanimate. In addition, virtually all nouns formed using verbal participles are inanimate. But there are a significant number of semantically inanimate objects that are nevertheless grammatically animate. Examples include:

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TEN. COASTAL OAXACA AND FORMATIVE DEVELOPMENTS IN MESOAMERICA

Arthur A. Joyce University Press of Colorado ePub

CHRISTOPHER A. POOL

Over the past two decades, archaeologists have focused increasingly on how individuals and groups use material, social, and ideological resources to acquire and maintain power (e.g., Baines and Yoffee 1998; Blanton et al. 1996; Clark and Blake 1994; Demarest and Conrad 1992; Demarrais et al. 1996; Earle 1997). Arthur Joyce has been a particularly thoughtful proponent of archaeological approaches that, drawing on Giddens (e.g., 1984), view “people as dynamic actors in a social process” and “population-level phenomena . . . as the outcome of behavioral strategies which are both enabled and constrained by the biophysical and social environment” (Joyce and Winter 1996, 35). In this volume Joyce and his collaborators demonstrate the value of an actor-based framework for multidisciplinary research that combines environmental, sociopolitical, and ideological investigation.

The Formative period focus of their research in the lower Río Verde Valley of coastal Oaxaca offers rich opportunities for comparison with the development of sociopolitical complexity in other regions of Mesoamerica. While Mesoamerica in general exhibits a shared pattern of increasing population and complexity through the Formative period, social change was not uniform through time or across space. Instead, the timing of critical events and the implementation of particular political strategies varied between and within regions as environmental change, distant wars, shifting alliances, internal social processes, and the competing interests of local actors conspired to promote the growth and dissolution of communities and polities across Mesoamerica. The multidisciplinary research conducted in the lower Río Verde Valley illuminates the interplay of these processes.

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4 The Hello Girls of the Army Signal Corps

Lettie Gavin University Press of Colorado ePub

Soon after he arrived in France with his American troops in April 1917, Gen. John J. Pershing concluded that he could not fight the Imperial German Army while he was battling the atrocious French telephone system. That system, never very efficient, had suffered during the three years of conflict and was incapable of meeting the vast wartime demands placed upon it. The problem was humorously stated in a popular doughboy lyric of the time: “If you want to get hold of a friend to talk, the phones are there, but it’s quicker to walk!” Pershing quickly realized that he would need an entirely new communications network, plus highly skilled people to operate the system.

As Col. Parker Hitt, chief signal officer of the U.S. First Army later noted, “Since the early days of the American Expeditionary Forces, it had always been the contention . . . that an Army telephone central would have to have American women operators to be a success. Our experience in Paris with the untrained and undisciplined English-speaking French women operators, and experience elsewhere with the willing but untrained men operators was almost disastrous.1 Thus, in November 1917 Pershing asked that the War Department send him 100 French-speaking U.S. telephone operators. Because telephone operators at the time were exclusively female, this meant that Pershing was asking for women to operate the Army switchboards. These women would not be armed or assigned to combat, he specified, but “the women who go into the service will do as much to help win the war as the men in khaki.”

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