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10 The Concept of Pre-Hispanic Art

Fernando Armstrong-Fumero University Press of Colorado ePub

Works of art that are unearthed by archaeologists are often qualified as aesthetic or anti-aesthetic. But why they are thus qualified is almost never explained. Archaeological2 art is judged subjectively, as each person thinks that it should be, and not as it is. It is prejudged, not judged, since we have not developed a real sensibility toward the archaeological work of art.

What is artistic about pre-Hispanic artistic productions? Does an archaeological sample cease to be artistic because of the simple fact that it does not inspire us toward an aesthetic emotion that is equal to that inspired by a Classical or modern artwork? It is doubtless that, given how ignorant we are of pre-Hispanic history, these objects do not appear artistic according to our aesthetic sense. Still, there is no logical reason why this art should be denied the artistic character that it had for earlier peoples. We should also ask ourselves why it is that some archaeological productions seem artistic to us and others do not, even if all of them possessed an artistic character when they were created.

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FIVE Buying Out the Union: Jobs as Property and the UAW

E. Paul Durrenberger University Press of Colorado ePub

Peter Richardson

American companies and government institutions have shunted unions out of a role in regulating the labor process since at least the early 1980s. In a process David Harvey has referred to as accumulation by dispossession (Harvey 2003),1 they have deprived union memberships of rights. Dispossessing unions of wages, benefits, and work rules (i.e., rights in the workplace) has been part of a process economists insist is necessary for the American auto industry to return to profitability.2

To provide an extended case study of how workers’ perspectives have changed over time in the face of different waves of buyouts, this chapter takes an ethnographic look at buyouts offered to autoworkers at the Sylvania parts plant outside Detroit between 2003 and late 2006. A focus on change and temporality (including imaginings of the future) brings insight into how persons and social institutions interact and into what is contingent, local, and path-dependent.

The buyouts Detroit auto manufacturers have offered to United Auto Workers (UAW) members have given them varying sums of money for relinquishing the contractual rights their union—the UAW—has negotiated for their jobs, healthcare, and pensions. These are promises the auto companies (here Ford and its spun-off parts supplier, Visteon) have made over the past decades. A pension promise made to a current worker may stretch back forty years, to when that worker first took a job. The buyouts transform what were collective rights the union had negotiated into private, transferrable property people can sell.

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7. Narrative Structure and the Drum Major Headdress

Kerry M. Hull University Press of Colorado ePub

NARRATIVE STRUCTURE AND THE DRUM MAJOR HEADDRESS

KAREN BASSIE-SWEET, NICHOLAS A. HOPKINS, AND J. KATHRYN JOSSERAND

Classic period inscriptions refer to the accession of a lord into the office of king in a variety of ways. One accession statement refers to the fastening of a white headband on the new king (k’ahlaj “fasten, enclose, bind, or tie,” sak huun “white head-band”) (Grube, cited in Schele 1992: 39–40; Schele, Mathews, and Lounsbury 1990: 4–5; Stuart 1996: 155). Several scenes, such as the Palenque Temple XIX platform and Bonampak Sculptured Stone 1, show a sak huun headband being handed to the incoming ruler. This crown of kingship is illustrated as a flexible headband of bark cloth tied onto the head with a large knot in the back (Schele 1992: 22–24). Another headdress that appears on four monuments at Palenque has been nicknamed the drum major headdress for its visual similarity to headgear worn by the leader of a marching band. This headdress is composed of a tall base of jades capped with a short crop of feathers and long tail feathers. In some examples, the long feathers are tipped with jade beads. The drum major headdress has also been identified as a crown of kingship (Fields 1991: 167; Freidel 1990: 74; Schele 1978; Taube 1998: 454–460). By examining the narrative structure of these four monuments, we will argue in this chapter that the drum major headdress represented an office or function that was related to, but quite separate from, the office of king. We will also discuss the possibility that one of the duties of the secondary lords of Palenque, who carried the title yajawk’ahk’, may have been to maintain one particular drum major headdress and the buildings that housed it.

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1 The First Women of the Navy

Lettie Gavin University Press of Colorado ePub

“Is there any regulation which specifies that a Navy yeoman be a man?” With that question to his counsel, U.S. secretary of the Navy Josephus Daniels made military history. And he also solved the tremendous manpower shortage that plagued the Navy in the spring of 1917 as the United States prepared to enter the war in Europe. Navy shore stations, where activities were increasing dramatically, urgently needed help. Every bureau and naval establishment called for more stenographers, draftsmen, and other clerical help. The Navy was awash in its own paperwork, but every man was needed at sea on the hundreds of naval vessels then readying for action in the Great War.

Secretary of the Navy Josephus Daniels waves to the crowd before a speech at the League Island Navy Yard, Philadelphia, PA, in 1917. Daniels is generally credited with being the first U.S. official to approve enlistment of women in the armed forces. Some 11,000 female yeomen joined the Navy before the end of the war in 1918. (Philadelphia Press Photo, Naval Historical Center, Washington Navy Yard, Washington, DC)

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3 Music of Colorado and New Mexico’s Río Grande

Arturo J. Aldama University Press of Colorado ePub

Lorenzo A. Trujillo

Traditional Río Grande Chicano/Hispano1 music and dance in Colorado and New Mexico are influenced by many cultures of the world. Indigenous peoples, European settlers, and recent Mexican and Latino immigrants have all created a unique expression in music and dance among Río Grande peoples. This chapter provides insight into the many influences in the traditions, old and new, that we hear and see. More important, it presents common themes of culture transmission through many generations. The music and dance of Hispano populations of Colorado and New Mexico have developed over the past 600-plus years. The evolution begins and moves through various hallmark periods in time: the medieval period (1100–1400), the conquest of Mexico (1500–1600), the early explorations into New Mexico and Colorado (1700–1800), the early 1900s into the last half of the 1900s, to today.

Spain is a country of many influences: Celt-Iberians, Iberians, Greeks, Phoenicians, Carthaginians, Romans, Jews, Visigoths, Moors, and Arabs. From 711 until 1492, Spain was under the tremendous influence of the Moors and Arabs. Moorish and Arabic influences are very evident today in the architecture, music, dance, and general culture of Spain as it has evolved into Hispano America. Ceramic tiles, the flair for clicking the heels in a flamenco-type rhythm, the syncopation of beats, and the sense of honor, pride, and the importance of the caballo 2 all bring to life the influence of the Moors and Arabs.

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