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4. Technology Integration

Marge Maxwell Solution Tree Press ePub

In Ms. Denning’s second-grade mathematics class, the students examine examples of symmetry in nature and human creations. Students are instructed to use symmetry to design a beautiful picture that will inspire students in their class. Using Picreflect, students practice uploading pictures and create a reflection of various images. Groups discuss what makes the picture visually pleasing. Students use Picreflect or Doodle Buddy to design their images. Groups evaluate the various images and select one image to display in the classroom.

With advances in technology doubling every eighteen months (McGinnis, 2006), there is a plethora of technologies available to schools. Schools must have a planned approach in order to maximize the impact of these technologies to enhance student learning (Pence & McIntosh, 2010). Educators, however, struggle to integrate technology in meaningful ways that involve higher-order thinking, collaborative tasks, and authentic problem solving (the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization [UNESCO], 2004). Optimally, technology integration is a seamless component of instruction to engage students in authentic, creative-thinking tasks, as demonstrated in this chapter’s opening scenario.

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Chapter 2 Acknowledging and Reframing Fear

Casey Reason Solution Tree Press ePub

As we saw in the previous chapter, emotion is the lynchpin for learning. We now focus on the one emotional state that halts organizational learning in its tracks—fear (Wood, Norris, Waters, & Stoldt, 2008; Sprinkle, Hunt, Simonds, & Comandena, 2006; Lipton, 2008).

From an evolutionary standpoint, emotions operate in direct proportion to our needs. Curiosity, for example, keeps us innovative and allows us to improve our living conditions. Love keeps us from spending too much time at work and ensures that we take the time to pass on our genes. Empathy and sorrow add to the complexity of our human experience and connect us to one another. Arguably, however, our successful evolution as a species has had a lot more to do with our sensitivity to fear than to any other emotional state. Fear kept your ancestors away from bears and keeps you from using your cell phone while driving. Fear gets you to temporarily suspend emotional states like love, empathy, and sorrow when your survival is on the line. Our fear sensitivity is always there waiting to interrupt the broadcast.

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Chapter 13

Charlotte Jones Solution Tree Press ePub

Shira felt her heart stop when the footsteps paused just outside the door to her cell. She stood and ran her hands over her long curls, which she had pulled back into a simple braid after she had calmed down and shaken the dirt from the floor off of herself. With a deep breath, Shira hid her fear in the pit of her stomach and put on a calm, determined face. Whoever was coming could not know what she thought.

A key slid into the door. Shira shuddered, praying silently as the lock clicked. The door swung open, and two Cloudic men in dark blue stood in the entrance, staring at her. One of them took a step forward and threw a few dirty rags at Shira’s feet.

“Put those on.” His voice was cold. Shira glared at him stubbornly. “If you do not change, you will be deprived of the clothes you are wearing and be forced to wear nothing at all.”

Shira scowled, trying to bury her humiliation. She bent and picked up the tatters from the floor. “Get out.”

The man smiled. “Your modesty is becoming, your highness, but you will change immediately, or everything I have threatened will become true.”

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Chapter 11 Innovation Through Technology

James A Bellanca Solution Tree Press ePub


There is no turning back. The Internet has become integral to life in the 21st century—a place for work, play, communication, and learning. It is easy to lose sight of just how integral it has become, and how knowledge-based the world economy has become. The combination of human ingenuity and digital tools has led to innovations that have, in some cases, become viral (Foray & Lundvall, 1998). The statistics are staggering: in 2009, the mobile world celebrated its four billionth connection (Global System for Mobile Communications, 2009); over one trillion unique URLs have been registered in Google’s index (The Official Google Blog, 2008); there have been nearly sixty-one million views to date of the YouTube most-watched video, Guitar (Jeong-hyun, n.d.; Shah, 2005); on average, nine hundred thousand blogs are posted every twenty-four hours (Singer, 2009); over 2.5 billion tweets have been sent (Reed, 2008); YouTube was sold to Google in 2006 for $1.65 billion (Associated Press, 2006); over one hundred million users are logging onto Facebook every day; and approximately 2.6 billion minutes globally are dedicated to using Facebook daily, in thirty-five different languages (Singer, 2009).

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Chapter 8: Summative Assessment and Evaluation: The Last Judgment

Kay Burke Solution Tree Press ePub

The purpose of summative assessment is to provide the last opportunity for students to demonstrate their ability to meet standards within a specified learning period. After this final assessment has been administered, teachers synthesize all the formative and summative assessment data they have collected, evaluate the students’ work using school or district guidelines, and assign a final grade based upon students’ mastery of learning goals.

Summative assessments represent the culminating experience of a learning segment. A learning segment could be a chapter in the textbook, a curriculum unit, the first half of a grading period, an entire course, a quarter, a trimester, a semester, or a year. Summative assessments are usually administered after students have had multiple opportunities to master a skill through instructional guidance, repeated practice, and formative assessments. Airasian (2000, p. 95) says that summative assessments are used to “evaluate, or sum up, the outcomes of instruction.” The major difference between formative assessments and summative assessments is their relation to grades. Formative assessments provide feedback and are either not graded or graded but weighted less than summative assessments, since students are still in the “formative stages” of learning. They affect the instructional decisions teachers make during the learning segment. In contrast, summative assessments are almost always graded because their purpose is to determine whether or not the student has mastered the standards, and they are administered at the end of the learning segment. The grade could be in the form of a letter grade, percentage score, or label such as “meets standards” or “exceeds standards.” These grades are what Airasian (2000, p. 95) describes as “official grades,” because they become part of the students’ report cards and permanent records.

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