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Chapter 3 RTI Procedures for Number Sense and Early Mathematics Skills

Wiliam N. Bender Solution Tree Press ePub

As we discussed previously, the RTI process has drastically impacted instruction in early reading and early literacy; much work has been done in those areas to develop benchmarks to allow for universal screening and repeated performance assessment of the skills that undergird successful reading during the preschool and kindergarten years (Bender, 2009a). Based on that large body of research, educators are able to assess early reading skills at the beginning of kindergarten, and thus early intervention can be initiated quickly and targeted to specific problems in literacy (Bender & Shores, 2007). This suggests that the major emphasis on RTI procedures in mathematics may likewise focus on mathematics readiness skills and early mathematics skills at the primary level.

However, the research base for early mathematics assessment and interventions is much smaller than for early reading skills, and therefore, much less is known about what the actual precursors of successful mathematics are, compared to reading during the early years (Bender, 2009a; Fuchs, Fuchs, Compton, et al., 2007). Furthermore, the early research suggests that kindergarten screening in mathematics may be more time consuming than in reading, since mathematical abilities seem to be more multifaceted than the early phoneme skills on which reading is based (Fuchs, Fuchs, Compton, et al., 2007; Jordan, 2007). Today, there are many questions left unanswered on how RTI procedures might apply in early mathematics, which is one reason we chose to devote an entire chapter to what is known about RTI procedures aimed at early mathematics skills.

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Chapter 4: Accomodating Mathematics for Students With Special Needs

r4Educated Solutions Solution Tree Press PDF
Chapter4: Accommodating Mathematics for Students With Special Needs
Make everything as simple as possible, but not simpler.—Albert Einstein

The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (2000, pp. 12–14) established the following as its equity principle: “High expectations and worthwhile opportunities for all, accommodating differences to help everyone learn mathematics, and providing resources and support for all classrooms and students.”Accommodations are practices and procedures of presentation, response, setting, and timing or scheduling that provide equitable access during instruction and assessment. Accommodations are tools that assist students in accessing the curriculum, just as eyeglasses or corrective lenses allow many people to access written material.Modifications are changes in the content and/or curriculum and performance expectations. Only after implementing high-quality, effective instruction and trying all appropriate accommodations in the classroom should modifying the grade-level expectations be even considered. Data reflecting that the student is incapable of accessing grade-level mathematics, along with the list and results of documented quality accommodations tried, are critical in making the decision to modify the curriculum for a student. Modifications or changes to the curriculum can only be made through an individualized education program (IEP) committee and must be recorded in an IEP document. See All Chapters
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Chapter 1 Principles of Effective Reading Instruction

Timothy V Rasinski Solution Tree Press ePub

P. David Pearson and James V. Hoffman

Attorneys practice law. Physicians practice medicine. Teachers, however, practice to get ready to teach. Teachers are more like hockey players in the way they practice than they are like attorneys, doctors, and other major service professionals. This positioning of teaching as technical and not professional arises as much from a self-imposed view found in the discourse that surrounds teaching as it does from comments made by those outside of education. Educators typically speak of teaching practices (even best practices) as tied to teaching behaviors and not to the kinds of thought processes, dispositions, and passions that research has demonstrated as critical to effective teaching. Whether the omission of these professional dimensions of teaching practices is intentional or not, the consequences are the same: teaching is “doing,” and effective teaching is reduced to “doing the right thing.” Nothing, we believe, could be further from the truth.

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Chapter 2 Implementing the Common Core State Standards for Reading

Fisher, Douglas Solution Tree Press ePub


To what extent does your team understand the Reading standards: What is familiar? What is new? What may be challenging for students? What may be challenging for teachers?

Examine current texts being used in grades 3–5 and assess them quantitatively and qualitatively and for reader and task demands. Which ones work? Which ones should be used in another grade or eliminated all together?

How do grades 3–5 teachers at your school extend the foundational skills of reading that are taught in grades K–2?

Consuelo Martinez’s third-grade students are exploring the world around them without ever leaving their classroom. They have been reading If the World Were a Village: A Book About the World’s People (Smith, 2002) to understand the diverse makeup of the world’s cultures and to see their place within them. The book’s premise is that the descriptive statistics of the world’s population can be understood as an imaginary village of one hundred people. Ms. Martinez is using this informational text within the students’ mathematics class.

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Chapter 5: Five Steps to Changing Behavior

Ambrose Panico Solution Tree Press ePub

Chapter 5

Five Steps to Changing Behavior

He is the best sailor who can steer within fewest points of wind, and exact a motive power out of the greatest obstacles.

—Henry David Thoreau

Now that you understand the different kinds of intervention tools, this chapter will explain the five-step process for developing thoughtful, viable behavior change plans that incorporate those tools. This chapter also contains a collection of essential questions that serves as a useful resource for a problem-solving team engaged in developing behavior change plans. The questions provide thinking points and discussion prompts to help define the nonproductive behavior, secure the student’s input, determine the function of the behavior, and select the appropriate behavior change tools.

Overview of the Plan to Do Better Process


Step 1: Identify and describe the nonproductive behavior, including the behavior’s characteristics and context.

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