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CHAPTER FOURTEEN: The induction of transference regression during the symbolizing phase: sessions 232 to 243

Norbert Freedman Karnac Books ePub

Norbert Freedman and Rhonda Ward

In 1950, Macalpine published a memorable paper on the nature of transference, in which she asserted that a regressive transference is not only inevitable, but is evoked and actually induced by forces inherent in the frame of the psychoanalytic process. For us, the regressive transference is a paradoxical situation in which the patient may feel received, even supported, yet at the same time confronted by an enigmatic force that pulls in a downward direction. This precise situation was encountered by Ms Y during the symbolizing phase of this transformation cycle.

Macalpine's statement, based on an extensive review of the cumulative psychoanalytic knowledge up to 1950, raises for us two fundamental issues deserving separate consideration. The first concerns what we might call the induction hypothesis, the other we will call the reverberation hypothesis. Regarding the induction hypothesis, Macalpine spells out a series of specific transference forces, mobilized by the explicit and implicit analytic frame, which activate a pull towards a lower level of mental organization. This implies a paradoxical situation: the patient experiences an enigmatic force, pulling in the direction of lesser differentiation, and occurring at the very point of feeling heard and received. In the reverberation hypothesis, what we call regression is not only experienced by the patient, but is also communicated to and experienced by the person of the analyst, lending depth to analytic work.

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CHAPTER TWO. Psychoanalysis and the origins of dynamic neuropsychology: the work of Luria

Karen Kaplan-Solms Karnac Books ePub

In this chapter we describe one of the major developments that has occurred, since Freud’s death, in the branch of neuro-science out of which psychoanalysis arose. We believe that this development provides a method by means of which psychoanalysis can be rejoined with neuroscience in a way that is compatible with Freud’s basic assumptions.

Luria and Soviet psychoanalysis

In 1922, a young Russian psychologist wrote to Freud to apply for formal recognition of a new psychoanalytic society he had formed in the city of Kazan. This man was Aleksandr Romanovich Luria.1Freud granted the recognition, and a brief correspondence ensued, which can still be studied in Luria’s family archives in Moscow.2During the following two years, Luria conducted extensive psychoanalytical research, published a large number of articles, monographs, and brief reports, and conducted clinical work in a local psychiatric hospital.3 Luria then moved to Moscow and joined the Russian Psychoanalytical Society, where he continued his intensive psychoanalytic programme for the remainder of the decade.4 Luria was drawn to psychoanalysis, he wrote, because it was the only branch of psychology that was both solidly rooted in materialist science and studied the living experience of real human beings. Van der Veer and Valsiner (1991) state that “it is no exaggeration to say that the institutional history of psychoanalysis in the Soviet Union was to a substantial degree determined by his efforts” (p. 79).

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CHAPTER FIVE: Twentieth-century genocide: brief examples from history

Aida Alayarian Karnac Books ePub

“The man who wrote that word upon the wall disappeared from the midst of the generations of man many centuries ago; the word, in its turn, has been effaced from the wall of the church; the church will, perhaps, itself soon disappear from the face of the earth” (Hugo, 1831, p. viii)

The twentieth century was marked by unparalleled human cruelty, ethno-political conflict, war, terrorism, and genocide. Unfortunately, the trend towards mass violence is continuing unabated into the twenty-first century. During the past century, government genocidal policies alone resulted in over 210 million deaths: eighty per cent of these were civilian deaths (170 million) and represent nearly four times the number of individuals killed in combat during international and domestic wars during this same period of time (Robinson, 1998; Rummel, 1996).

In a time when human rights violations and structural violence continue to occur in many countries, indicating enormous disrespect not just to human rights, but also to human life, in both physical and psychological terms, it becomes important to look at the historical roots and long-term effects of such violence. This can enable a closer and cross-cultural understanding of the psychosocial roots of human cruelty and organized mass violence, and the serious consequences of ignoring these. This is particularly important in relation to the prevention of such tragedies for future generations.

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5: Deep impact: “They are all nutcases”

Michael Gunter Karnac Books ePub

Martin had twice been brought in to us in an ambulance after threatening his mother. The first time it was reported that he had initially pestered his mother because he wanted to buy some things. During the car journey he had smashed the rear view mirror and damaged the dashboard. Back at home, he had taken the family phone to his room and locked himself in. The mother had complained about telephone bills amounting to hundreds of euros. In the end he had smashed the phone. On a number of occasions he had threatened her with a knife. The mother also reported that she herself had needed admission to hospital for psychotherapeutic treatment because of the stress the boy had caused her. Martin had been placed in a residential home at that time, but she had taken him back home after massive pressure, in actual fact after threats (which were not detailed) from him. Before this period in the residential home, Martin had already been admitted for child psychiatric treatment at the age of nine. He had threatened to kill his mother and himself. There were repeated aggressive outbursts at home, during which he would destroy objects. He had already injured his mother and used abusive language to her. He completely lost control if his mother scolded him.

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MEDITATION THREE. A pattern of madness

Neville Symington Karnac Books ePub

If our task is to make contact with the infinite through an act of understanding, I must emphasize that this act of understanding is not just an intellectual act. Bion said this, although I have a suspicion that people haven’t quite realized that he said it; he said that in order to have an act of understanding there has to be: (1) the intellectual grasp, an illumination; but he says also that there has to be (2) what he referred to as a move from PS to D. PS to D sounds a scientific type of business, but what he meant was from a paranoid way of looking at things—which basically means that you look at things as something that is outside and something that is hated outside or feared outside—to depressive, where you realize something inside. That is the basic religious position. He was saying that the scientific and the religious have to intersect; that the scientific act of understanding will only come if it’s connected to what he referred to as a depressive state—that is, a state of concern—and this is not concern for the other but concern for the ultimate, or the infinite. Neither science on its own nor religion on its own will do the trick.

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