264 Slices
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24 Final Run, 1991

Richard Westwood Utah State University Press ePub

By the 1990s it is estimated that two and a half million people annually are boating on the wild rivers of America with commercial outfitters, spending over $250 million in the process. Two Eastern rivers, the Natahala in North Carolina and the Ocoee in Tennessee, account for five hundred thousand rafting passengers each year. This and the growing number of private trips form a big slice of adventure tourism today.1

In the Grand Canyon, where trips are limited by the NPS, gross sales by licensed outfitters amounted to $21.8 million, compared to $86.3 million for land-based concessions.2 “These days it’s not unusual for 10,000 river-rafting, mountain-biking visitors from all over the U.S. to congregate in Moab [Utah] on a weekend.”3 Georgie had made a significant contribution to this new and exciting type of travel.

In 1991 the Park Service invoked a new regulation prohibiting boatmen and crew members from drinking alcoholic beverages of any kind while transporting passengers on the river. They also decreed that consumption of alcohol upon establishment of a camp must be moderated to the extent that “boatmen could satisfactorily perform their camp duties and provide proper direction and service to the clients in camp.”

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2 On the Reservation

Bruce L. Smith Utah State University Press ePub

Wind River Indian Reservation is one of those places most people have only visited at 65 miles per hour. In 1978, it was home to 5,700 Shoshone and Arapaho Indians in a scattering of rural settlements and ranchlands. It remains sparsely populated today. The reservation is better known for where its roads lead than for its own attractions. From the east, it provides a gateway to Jackson Hole, Grand Teton National Park, and the south entrance of Yellowstone National Park. Lander, a welcoming town of 10,000 near the reservation’s southern boundary, is home to the National Outdoor Leadership School, where thousands of students have learned mountaineering and survival skills. South beyond Lander stretches the Red Desert, rich in pioneer history and traversed by the Oregon Trail. To the east lie the towns of Thermopolis and Riverton. Thermopolis is home to the world’s largest mineral hot springs, once a place of healing and restoration for Plains Indian tribes. Built on lands ceded from the reservation in 1906, Riverton’s 9,000 inhabitants make it the largest town within the boundaries of WRIR by far.

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1 PREHISTORY: From Clovis Hunters to Corn Farmers

James M. Aton Utah State University Press ePub

Humans have hunted and herded animals, gathered and cultivated plants, and generally made a living in the San Juan River area for at least the last twelve thousand years. Although always a marginal area, the river valley’s population reached a high point during the Anasazi occupation between 1500 B.C. and A.D. 1300.1 During this prehistoric period, the San Juan landscape was certainly no untouched Eden. To be sure, since Euro-Americans entered the San Juan country and applied the technology of the Industrial Revolution, they have changed the landscape more dramatically than both prehistoric and historic Indians. Yet, before one accounts for that massive environmental change, it is crucial to understand the roughly twelve thousand years preceding it.

Although pre-Columbian Indians in the San Juan basin manipulated their environment, the influence of climatic variation cannot be ignored. During the prehistoric period, the San Juan changed from an Ice-Age climate with cooler temperatures and much more precipitation to the drier, warmer weather it now experiences. The first recognized and established entrants into the San Juan, the Clovis hunters, and their successors, the Folsom hunters, lived during the five-hundred-to-thousand-year transition from the cool, wet Pleistocene to the warm, drier Holocene. Moreover, all the prehistoric groups that archaeologists distinguish—Clovis, Folsom, Plano, Archaic, and Anasazi—had to cope with climatic changes during their tenure on the San Juan. They all made land-use decisions based on the environmental deck nature dealt them, on the skills and tools they had to play the game, and on the imaginative and cultural ideas they brought to the table. Often they hedged their bets wisely, but other times they overplayed their hands. None of these groups lived in perfect harmony with the San Juan landscape, although the Archaic lifeway persisted longer than any other.

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Chapter 6 - New Directions for University Writing Instruction

Anne Beaufort Utah State University Press ePub

As I begin this final chapter, I wish first to honor the acts of courage and integrity of all of Tim’s teachers to teach him well, as well as Tim’s own dedication to learning and to making a meaningful contribution to society. I am privileged that these individuals have allowed me to get to know them and to try, through this research, to provide suggestions for how we all might teach writing better. And to all who read this for the sake of this same enterprise of teaching well and learning well, I say, we are in this inquiry together. Knowing readers will make their own connections and draw their own conclusions from this work, I offer final thoughts only as catalyst for furthering the inquiry we are in together.

It seems to me that three things need to be noted at the end of this case study.

First: a developmental model for understanding writers’ growth, for designing curriculum and assessment measures and for training teachers (whether writing teachers or teachers in other disciplines) and tutors needs to encompass the five knowledge and skill domains used here to frame the analysis of a writer’s growth. To focus on one or several aspects of writing expertise to the exclusion of the others represents less than a full view of the developmental process for gaining writing expertise. This theoretical lens can be useful not only in designing curriculum and understanding what the causes are for individual students’ writing problems, but also in designing tools for assessing writing development.

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On the Plains July 28–November 30, 1856

Sandra Ailey Petree Utah State University Press ePub

[H]ere I well return to my Journey across the plains Many hard and severe trials we past through at ^the^ first part of our journey1 we seemed to endure the days travel pretty well for the first hundred Miles then My poor dear fathers health began ^to^ fail him and before we got to Florance2 he became very weak and sick his legs and feet began to swell some days he was not able to pull the cart and when we arrivd at Florance we put up the tent made the bed and he went to bed we did not think he could ^live^ . Franklin Richards came into the tent to see him My father said he wished to be administerd too and brother Richards and three other breathren adminesterd to him and blessed him and told him that he should get better and continue his journey and get to Salt Lake city this seemed to give him new strength and currage3

[W]e rested there for afew hours untill three oclock in the afternoon then we Started on our Journey again to camp at Cuttlers park4 seven miles from Florance My dear father got up and came to the car to commence to pull ^with me^ I said father you are not able to pull the car to [below the line: day] he said yes I am My dear I am better the breathren blessed Me and said I should get well and go to the Valley and I have faith that I shall oh he said if I can only live long enough to get there and see My dear daughter Ann again she shall never go so far away from me again My sister ann left England one Year before we left she came the journey alone with her little boy5 she was so anxious to come to the valley that she had currage to leave home and came without any of our own family with her and My dear father fealt to greive about her so much and when he was so sick at Florance she Seemed to be his greats trouble that he would never see his dear girl Ann again but after the breatheren administerd to him he fealt better and we started on our journey to Cuttlers Park to camp for the night6

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