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2. Groups

Martha Sims Utah State University Press ePub

If folklore is a way of learning and a way of communicating, then there must be a group of people who need to communicate something to each other. Defining a folk group by how and what it communicates allows us to look at groups formed and maintained by informal means—those not constructed formally as groups by founders with particular rules and guidelines, but held together by the practices and expressions of their members. This is one of the tenets of folklore scholarship: that informal or unofficial shared knowledge is a defining feature of a folk group.

The concept of folk group has evolved radically over time. The early assumptions that folk groups were somehow different from the rest of us and were primarily rural, uneducated, or primitive yielded to the understanding that all of us share folklore every day. Folklorists established that we all belong to folk groups and that groups also exist in urban, contemporary settings (see, for instance, Dundes 1980). Today, digital technology provides extended opportunities for groups to form and communicate in new ways. A great deal of folklore research in recent years has focused on how online communities form and communicate and how they share traditions. This research has opened up new understanding of what groups are and what constitutes informal shared knowledge—folklore itself. Most importantly, the ability of people to come together online as groups and the complexity of online interactions demonstrate the dynamic process of sharing and creating folklore.

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Back in the Valley July 21, 1866 –1872

Sandra Ailey Petree Utah State University Press ePub

My husband wrote to my brother or ^unknoon to me^ Mother previous to his death requesting her to send My two Brothers in law to come out to meet us in Echo Canyon and accordingly Br Paul and George Harris1 my brother in law came into camp one evening enquiring for Mrs Rozsa I can say we was very pleased to meet each other after an absence of five Years . in one way it was apleasant meeting . but on learning that my dear husband had died on the journey and his body buried and left on the plains hundreds of Miles back . this caused Sorrow and the meeting of them Seemed to renew my greif and Sorrow anew I thought oh if he was only here to Meet his brothers in law how Much he would have enjoyed the meeting for ever since we ^all^ parted in pleasant grove five years ago . he had lived in antisepation of meeting them all again . after the war was over and we had made enough Money to buy agood outfitt for the journey back home he ofton would Say to me what ahappy time that will be when we get back home to your Mother again with our three boys she will be pleased wi with the little fellows . Your Mother will have to be My Mother as I have no Mother in this countrey I never expect to meet my own dear Mother again in this life2 and I will have to lay claim to Yours Patience and I will take care of her as long as she livs : and drive her out every day with you and the children and we will have a good time together he said I am So thankfull to God that I am afree Man now I have got through a soldiers life and am my own boss very ofton when he would talk in this way I would say oh Rozsa dont make up your Mind too . to much happyness or you may be dissapointed . and surely he was dissapointed me can appoint but God can dissapoint in his own wise time . when we left ^fort^ Leavenworth on the eighteenth of April [1866] little did we think that on the 25th of May that he would be buried and I would have to leave him and travel alone with my three dear little boys . I endured many trials on the journey after his death3 but thank God he gave me strength day by day overcame my greef and the great trial I had to pass through in looesing My dear companion .

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CHAPTER VI.

Fanny Stenhouse Utah State University Press ePub

We return to England—How Polygamy was taught there—The Girls happy—The Wives miserable—General Effects of the Doctrine—A Runaway Wife—How she acted in Haste and repented at Leisure—A Mother leaves her Babes—A Lady is “counselled” to emigrate without her Husband—Follies of certain Elders—Polygamic “Poetry!”

WE returned to England in November, 1854, with the intention of leaving for Utah in the following spring. Until the period of emigration arrived, we went to reside in the house of the President of the London Conference,1 and it was at that time that I first began seriously to doubt the truth of Mormonism. I gradually became convinced, though I could scarcely explain how, that there was something wrong, something that I did not understand, underlying the whole system. I began to realize that there was more of frail humanity about it than of the pure and holy religion that I had believed it to be; for the reader must remember that, however much I was opposed to Polygamy, it never once entered my thoughts to question that it was a pure and religious principle.

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Chapter 7. Mitigation on the Bear: Repairing a Century of Misuse

Craig Denton Utah State University Press ePub

PacifiCorp’s restoration of wetlands around Cutler has provided new habitat for pheasants and better opportunities for pheasant hunters to access the islands in the reservoir.

Sometimes it’s hard to believe there has been any mitigation of damage caused by human activity on the Bear River. Nevertheless, concerned citizens from the environmental community, government, and the private sector are working on improving water quality and habitat. It’s just that, measured against a century of thoughtless degradation, this tender awakening of public responsibility is in its infancy. Nancy Mesner, Assistant Professor in the Department of Aquatic, Watershed and Earth Resources and Utah State University’s water quality extension specialist, points out that there are only twenty years of data measurement.

“Cases are being made now that we are seeing some waterquality improvement on some of the smaller subwatersheds,” Mesner says. “There are some other cases that could be made that we are seeing some degradation in the main stem of the river. What I see is kind of a cloud of data” with no clear trend. Nevertheless, Mesner feels that the 1996 Utah State Water Quality Management Plan, a guidance document for identifying and addressing problems of water pollution, was a step in the right direction. “I think we are paying more attention toward water quality,” Mesner continues. “I think we are putting more money into managing our rivers, and in the last few years, there’s been a lot more emphasis on doing a better job of monitoring the response to the river, where they’ve put a lot of money into restoration activities.”

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Chapter Seven. The Plant Palette

Susan E. Meyer Utah State University Press ePub

Littlecup penstemon

This chapter contains the specific information you will need to choose the plants that will populate your native landscape. The species we have included in the Plant Palette were chosen from hundreds of native candidate species based on several criteria. First, the plant had to be attractive, if not astonishingly beautiful. This, of course, is somewhat a matter of opinion, and the list adopted here is the result of working and reworking by several knowledgeable people with different tastes. Second, the plant had to be relatively quick and easy to grow in container culture in a nursery setting. We avoided certain favorites, like sego lily, that have proven slow and difficult to produce. Work continues on many of these hard-to-grow plants, and the time may come when they will be commercially available. For now, we concentrated on plants that are either already available or could be brought on line quickly if warranted by demand. And lastly, the plant had to be at least somewhat tolerant of the abuses that are frequently encountered in residential landscapes. Too much water, too much mulch, too much fertility, and too much competition from other plants are some common forms of abuse. Not all of the plants we included are entirely foolproof in this regard, but, by using the information provided for each plant, you should be able to create favorable conditions in your landscape for even the more finicky species. We narrowed down the list of plants covered in the Plant Palette to one hundred species that we consider to be the core species for creating regionally distinctive landscapes in the Intermountain West. Many more species could have been included, and it is perfectly fine to use species not included in this book in your native plant landscapes. Just get the information you need to meet plant cultural requirements (water, soil, light, and cold hardiness) and make sure that the plants you select really are native to the intermountain area. “Native” is a somewhat slippery concept, in that plants can be native to a very restricted area, a state, a region, a country, or a continent, and a few plants are naturally cosmopolitan (worldwide) in distribution. But just because a plant grows wild in a region does not mean that it is native to the region. Many species native to other places have been deliberately or accidentally introduced into the wild plant communities of our region. If you have any questions about whether a particular plant is native to the region, a good Internet resource is: plants.usda.gov.

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