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1. Reading

Richard Gonzales UNT Press ePub
Medium 9781574416114

9. First to Purgatory, Then to India

James Carson UNT Press ePub

Chapter 9

Reassigned as lieutenant colonel of the 23rd Infantry Regiment, effective June 26, 1882,1 Lazelle remained at West Point until August 4. After spending time on leave, including the visit with the Barrows family in Canada, the family traveled to Fort Craig in December. Lazelle assumed command of the post on December 18. They remained there for just over a year.

At Fort Craig, Lazelle was officially on “detached duty,” as the headquarters of the regiment was located at Fort Union, northeast of Santa Fe. The post had a complement of some 13 officers and 145 enlisted men, with one company of the 23rd Infantry and two troops (companies) of the 4th Cavalry.

Established in 1854, the fort was located 35 miles south of the present town of Socorro, about halfway between Santa Fe and El Paso. At the time, it was one of the most desolate of eight forts along the main north-south road in the Rio Grande Valley, part of a 1,200-mile-long Spanish colonial trail—the El Camino Real—from Mexico City to Santa Fe.2

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Chapter 2: The Americanization of the Mexican Family

Gilbert Gonzalez UNT Press PDF


Chicano Education & Segregation

industrial work sites, day classes for mothers, and naturalization classes.

Indeed, this was a comprehensive program designed to completely eliminate Mexican culture in the United States.

Although a significant chapter in the educational history of the

Chicano community,2 historians, hitherto, have overlooked the Americanization of the family. The insightful and important study by historian

Richard Griswold del Castillo, for example, does not delve into the role of the public educational system in the evolution of the Mexican family,3 and while Ricardo Romo’s excellent history of eastern Los Angeles briefly discusses Americanization in the segregated schools, it does not recognize its impact on women.4 Maxine Seller’s essay on the education of immigrant women recognizes the Americanization emphasis of schooling and includes a discussion of Mexican women,5 but, like Romo’s account, does not link the two. The Americanization of Mexican children went beyond, however, the teaching of reading, writing, and arithmetic or allegiance to the country and its institutions. It involved separating children from home and family in such a way that they would come to desire a home and family of a different kind. Educators perceived the

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Chapter 11: The Race Is Not Always to the Swift

Richard F. Selcer UNT Press PDF


A History of Fort Worth in Black & White

and the city’s richest African American. He operated a string of nursing homes and was the president of an insurance company and a funeral home. He owned a big house in a nice, integrated neighborhood and did not have to look up to any man. He was the new Bill McDonald.1

Some things, however, had not changed. J.W. Webber and Bill

McDonald were exceptional. Both had achieved the American Dream, yet as a black minister pointed out in 1967,

Ninety-nine percent of all Negroes are [still] employed by whites.

Ninety-eight percent of all the home mortgages are [still] held by whites. Whites hold ninety-nine percent of all the car notes. 2

In other words, whites still held the keys to the kingdom. Booker

T. Washington might have seen an object lesson in those numbers; he always said only when the black man achieved economic equality could he hope to achieve full equality with the white man, but for most African

Americans it was the same old same old.

Music Hath Power

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10. April 1967

James G. Van Straten UNT Press ePub

Chapter 10

On 1 April, I sent a letter to my wife that I knew would not arrive until well after the date of full impact. It read as follows:

1 April 1967

Dear Pat,

I am so disgusted that I’m not even certain I can concentrate on writing this letter. I’m angry and frustrated. I’ve never understood the personnel policies of the army and now I’m even more confused. I would have thought that just after completing a combat tour and a year of family separation that I’d be given better treatment when it came to my next assignment. Pat, please get the family prepared to move yet again. We’ve been married almost 12-years and this will be the eleventh house that you’ve had to make into a home. I know that’s asking a bit much, but I have no recourse. I hate having to tell you this, but we’ll not be reassigned to Fort Sam Houston, as promised. Instead we’ll be going to, of all places, Fort Barkley. If I had to select the ten worst army posts in the United States to which to be assigned, Barkley would be at the very top of the list. But what are we to do? We’ve invested almost eleven years in an army career, and it would be foolhardy, economically speaking, to bail out now. I think I’m going to sit down and type a letter to the chief of the Medical Service Corps, Brigadier General Bill Hamrick, and vent my spleen. I just can’t see subjecting you and the children to the horrors of that post. I’m told that cockroaches, scorpions and rattlesnakes rule the post, intimidating all children and most of the wives. What did we do to deserve this?

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