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Chapter 6: Jim Crow Rules!

Richard F. Selcer UNT Press PDF


A History of Fort Worth in Black & White

Building “Social Capital,” Part 2

It was in unity that African Americans found the strength to resist racial oppression. The process of socialization (building “social capital”) that had begun toward the end of the nineteenth century gained momentum in the twentieth century. (See Chap. 3) In 1900, J.W. McKinney, Grand Master of the Texas branch of Prince Hall Masons, speaking to a convention of black Masons at Galveston, deplored the lack of racial unity: “Never was there greater want of unity of action among men,” he said, “than there is among our race today.” That message must have resonated outside the meeting hall because things began to change rapidly in the years that followed. A flurry of organizations appeared in the black community that mirrored the white community.1

Whites had always had their fraternal groups, social clubs, and the like; it was only natural for African Americans to want the same thing.

Fraternal orders such as the Masons ranked only slightly behind the church as centers of community life and mutual aid societies. The Rev.

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9. First to Purgatory, Then to India

James Carson UNT Press ePub

Chapter 9

Reassigned as lieutenant colonel of the 23rd Infantry Regiment, effective June 26, 1882,1 Lazelle remained at West Point until August 4. After spending time on leave, including the visit with the Barrows family in Canada, the family traveled to Fort Craig in December. Lazelle assumed command of the post on December 18. They remained there for just over a year.

At Fort Craig, Lazelle was officially on “detached duty,” as the headquarters of the regiment was located at Fort Union, northeast of Santa Fe. The post had a complement of some 13 officers and 145 enlisted men, with one company of the 23rd Infantry and two troops (companies) of the 4th Cavalry.

Established in 1854, the fort was located 35 miles south of the present town of Socorro, about halfway between Santa Fe and El Paso. At the time, it was one of the most desolate of eight forts along the main north-south road in the Rio Grande Valley, part of a 1,200-mile-long Spanish colonial trail—the El Camino Real—from Mexico City to Santa Fe.2

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Chapter 3: Royal Air Force Delegation

Tom Killebrew UNT Press PDF

Chapter 3

Royal Air Force Delegation

Air Ministry officials realized that the sheer magnitude of the proposed training schemes in the United States would require considerable coordination and liaison between British and American military commands, as well as a close working relationship with the individual civilian school operators. Besides the obvious need for training supervision, accounting personnel would need to be involved due to the financial aspects of the new training programs and the complexities associated with payments to the civilian schools. Detailed records would be necessary to account for Crown funds as opposed to lend-lease expenditures. Many decisions would require approval by the British Treasury. Consideration had to be given to the maintenance of personnel records and the issuance of the necessary movement orders for the British students training in the

United States, as well as the RAF officers assigned to the various schools.

The work load required by these tasks far surpassed the capacity of the limited staff of the air attache at the British Embassy and the tasks were not compatible with the British Purchasing Commission or

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13. Reflections

James G. Van Straten UNT Press ePub

Chapter 13

Upon leaving Vietnam I never imagined that the war would grind on for another seven long and tragic years. I thought there would be a negotiated settlement far sooner than 1975. The longer the war went on the more apprehensive I became. I feared for my former South Vietnamese military colleagues and civilian friends and acquaintances should the North Vietnamese prevail.

As a result of many discussions with ARVN officers and civilian government officials, I knew that many in South Vietnam, especially those in positions of influence and power, feared retribution should Ho Chi Minh and his generals prevail. They felt that once it became known to the captors that they had actively opposed the North they would be punished. This was especially true of those who had befriended the Americans. Later events proved that their fears were justified.

Saigon fell to the Communists on 30 April 1975. I watched with great trepidation, from the sanctuary of the United States, a world away, as the tragic events in Vietnam started to unfold.

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Chapter 1: Reading

Richard J. Gonzales (author) UNT Press PDF

Chapter 1


My affinity for books started in my early schooling in Chicago. I helped the nuns of St. Charles Borromeo Elementary School to unbox new shipments of library books, catalog, and shelve them. The smooth feel and fresh smell of new books in hand was enjoyable. I suspected that it pleased the nuns as well, because they spoke to me about how important it was to take care of books and, more importantly, to read them.

Elementary school was challenging; my nun teachers and librarians must have known that for boys and girls from the Chicago inner-city, where many lived in tenement homes and both parents earned just enough to put food on their table most days of the week, an education was our freedom pass from poverty.

Pursed-lipped sisters were tough in order to harden us for the rigors of overcoming language barriers and violence (street gangs were rampant).

They instilled a hardy faith in books. Bless these demanding nuns who worked with thousands of inner-city children, preaching and teaching this message of freedom and faith. They were educational missionaries working to give children a belief in their skills to search and learn.

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