201 Chapters
Medium 9781574415162

6. Inter-American and Intercultural Education

Gilbert Gonzalez UNT Press ePub

Chapter 6

The problem of inequality in educational resources and achievement has long been a source of conflict between the Mexican community and the Anglo-dominated educational system. Analysts on all sides have generally interpreted the problem as stemming from either local, regional, or national contexts. No one has, however, offered an analysis incorporating two critical conditions affecting educational policy beginning in 1940. The first condition originated as an impact of the international context, a context defined by the struggle for world power by the United States; the second emerged as the increasingly apparent potential for independent political action held by minorities,1 especially blacks and Mexicans. I argue that in the minds of domestic and foreign policy officials these two conditions interconnected and beginning in 1940, government officials formulated federal domestic policy affecting minorities in relation to wartime and, later, cold war objectives. This federal activity represented indeed a new political relationship destined to affect the political behavior of the Mexican people, and this relationship became clearly established in formal and informal educational policy affecting the Mexican community.

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Medium 9781574416411

Chapter 17: Chicano Heroes

Richard J. Gonzales (author) UNT Press PDF

Chapter 17

Chicano Heroes

In the summer of 2011, the Texas Board of Education wrangled about the inclusion of Thurgood Marshall and César Chávez in the school history books. Conservative members resisted their inclusion, stating that their contributions didn’t rise to the level of Thomas Jefferson and other traditional American heroes. Public pressure and moderate and liberal school board members prevailed in the final decision to include these heroic, historical figures. Chicano students need to learn about outstanding Mexican Americans who struggled mightily to overcome personal and social barriers to reach the peak of their chosen fields. All students may then understand that great Americans come in all colors.

On the cool morning of March 17, 1966, César Chávez, cane in hand, told about seventy farm workers waiting for him, “Nos vamos.” The words

“We go” launched the most pivotal march in the struggle of La Causa,

The Cause. Farm workers took turns carrying the banner of the Virgen de Guadalupe along the 350-mile Easter march from Delano, California, to Sacramento — the state capital.

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Medium 9781574416411

Chapter 11: Chicano Political Power

Richard J. Gonzales (author) UNT Press PDF

Chapter 11

Chicano Political Power

If su voto es su voz—your vote is your voice—then Chicanos are uncharacteristically quiet. Chicanos bellow gritos at Mexican rancheras, cheer at

Mexican Independence Day parades, and scream on the battlefield, but they whisper at the voting booths. Instead, Chicanos should be roaring their selection as a people on the first Tuesday of November.

Voting is like choral singing: The American democratic opera sounds flat when a large part of the chorus is not projecting its electoral voice.

The US Census Bureau reported that 9.7 million Chicanos voted in the

2008 election, compared with 16.1 million blacks and 100 million Anglos.

Forty-nine percent of eligible Chicanos voted, compared with 65 percent of all eligible non-Hispanic Americans.2

A key indicator of voting participation is voter registration. The Census

Bureau found that in the 2008 elections, 59 percent of Chicano citizens were registered to vote, compared with 69 percent of black and 73 percent of Anglo citizens. Of those Chicanos registered to vote in 2008, 84 percent did.3 To increase Chicano voter participation, the number of registered

Chicano voters needs to grow.

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Medium 9781574416152

11. After the War

Tom Killebrew UNT Press ePub

Chapter 11

When No. 3 BFTS closed at the end of the war, Spartan School of Aeronautics put together a small looseleaf booklet. This informal publication contained responses from each employee in the school’s various departments to a short questionnaire. Flight instructors listed personal information such as permanent addresses, a summary of experience, ratings held, and total flight hours. Designed as a means for these now former employees to stay in touch, one question stands out. Among the flight instructors, all of whom had anywhere between 2,500 and 6,000 hours of flying time, in the space for “Future Plans” some had jobs, a few were returning to previous jobs, but the most prevalent answer was “Indefinite.”

Following the end of the war, the former students of the British Flying Training Schools and the RAF officers and enlisted men who had served there, along with the schools’ civilian employees, dispersed literally around the world. Most of the British students returned to various civilian occupations, married, and raised families; some remained in the Royal Air Force, while some returned to Canada or the United States to live. Many of the former students and staff who remained in the RAF rose to high rank during the cold war. The schools’ former civilian employees usually entered various commercial or aviation fields.

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Medium 9781574415933

Fools and Folly in Erasmus and Porter

Edited by Thomas Austenfeld UNT Press ePub

Fools and Folly in Erasmus and Porter

Jewel Spears Brooker

In the articulation of her literary ancestry, Katherine Anne Porter created a place of honor for Erasmus, and in her personal canon, she made room at the top for The Praise of Folly. She told her nephew that she had been formed by Erasmus "from her tenth year" (Letters 415). In 1932, she was reading him in Basel, and on June 19, 1941, she signed a contract with Doubleday to write his biography. After the publication of Ship of Fools, she reiterated her admiration, hinting that her representation of folly was inspired by his. Porter was drawn to Erasmus in large part because of his moral imagination. Both were keen observers of human nature and both considered folly to be endemic in the human condition. But they present strikingly different concepts of folly. For Erasmus, folly is foolishness, and although it is the butt of his satire, he generally finds it amusing. For Porter, on the other hand, folly is innate wickedness. When writing of ordinary human life in The Praise of Folly, he is tolerant and urbane; in contrast, in Ship of Fools, she is harsh and scornful. Unlike Porter, Erasmus actually likes his fools, and far more than she, he identifies with them in their folly.

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