2223 Chapters
Medium 9781789240733

10 Methods of Improving Managerial Ability

Nuthall, P.L. CABI PDF


Methods of Improving

Managerial Ability


The main reason for studying managerial ability is to consider ways of ­improving the farmer’s managerial skill, though an understanding can also be useful when considering the impact of agricultural policy initiatives. The purpose of this chapter is, therefore, to consider the techniques that will improve a manager’s skill no matter at what level they start.

As every manager currently exhibits a particular level of ability, a set of methods that can initiate improvement in all situations is required, and is highly desirable. Some farmers will improve more than others both due to their starting point and inherent ability. Each starts with a certain potential as defined by their genotype, and their early environment and experiences.

While the genotype is fixed, additional training of various kinds can change and improve the impact of their experiences. Fortunate farmers will have an appropriate genotype (intelligence, personality, etc.), and appropriate early experiences in the form of family life, education, challenging situations, encouragement and training courses. These all lead to skill, curiosity, confidence and self-esteem. Farmers without these advantages must work at compensating their situation with the support of all the facilities that are available.

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Medium 9781786392527

9 Cultural Diversity in a Local French Pilgrimage

Giacalone, F.; Griffin, K. CABI PDF


Cultural Diversity in a Local French


Guillaume Etienne*

Department of Sociology, Citeres Laboratory, University of Tours, Tours, France


Pilgrimages bring together people who are motivated by a range of factors, not only religious.

On the one hand, individuals may have multiple motives: celebrating, sociability and even politics can play an important role in the decision to take part in this type of event. On the other hand, one cannot speak of religion in the singular, as there may be a wide range of religious sympathies among the participants. Indeed, behind the

­apparent homogeneousness that the organizers seek to show, the pilgrims are not ‘timorously obedient and uniformly “under the belief ”’

(Claverie and Fedele, 2014, p. 488). In fact, the various reasons for participating in these events are not just the reflection of a belief (Catholic in our study), and this belief may relate to different objects or practices: ‘adherence does not necessarily depend on the certification of beliefs, but can depend on other motives (social or emotional motives, commitment to a form of knowledge, techniques of self-transformation) and highlights the indeterminacy of the objects to which the adherence relates, even within the same circle of beliefs and practices’ (Claverie and

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Medium 9781780648125

3 Women’s Travel Constraints in a Unique Context

Kozak, M; Kozak, N. CABI PDF


Women’s Travel Constraints in a Unique Context

Mojtaba (Moji) Shahvali,1* Reihaneh Shahvali2 and Deborah Kerstetter1


The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, USA;


Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran

3.1  Introduction

Most people’s financial resources are limited and they find it difficult to indulge in all they want to do in their free or ‘leisure’ time. Their accessibility to a place where they can get involved in leisure activities can also affect their participation in leisure significantly, as can the perception of their own skill in performing a particular leisure activity. Factors such as these that inhibit or prohibit participation or enjoyment of leisure are termed ‘leisure constraints’

(Jackson, 1991).

In 1991, Crawford, Jackson and Godbey introduced the hierarchical constraints model

(HCM), which has been the primary conceptual framework guiding studies of leisure constraints. They argue that leisure constraints exist at three levels: intrapersonal, interpersonal and structural. Intrapersonal leisure constraints include factors such as perceived self-skill, sense of entitlement and subjective evaluations of the appropriateness of a certain activity. For example, a female who finds cycling to be inappropriate in her home community or a boy who finds rock climbing with friends to be intimidating and out of reach would be examples of an intrapersonal leisure constraint. The second level, interpersonal constraints, are experienced

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Medium 9781780644202

33: Insect Life Cycle Modelling (ILCYM) Software – A Generic Platform for Developing Insect Phenology Models, Population Analysis and Risk Mapping



Insect Life Cycle Modelling (ilcym)

Software – a Generic Platform for

Developing Insect Phenology Models,

Population Analysis and Risk Mapping

H.E.Z. Tonnang,1* M. Sporleder,2 H. Juarez,2 P. Carhuapoma2 and J. Kroschel2


African Insect Science for Food and Health (ICIPE),

Nairobi, Kenya; 2International Potato Center (CIP), Lima, Peru


Insect Life Cycle Modelling (ilcym) software is an open-source computer-aided tool built on R and Java codes and linked to the uDig platform, which is a basic geographic information system (GIS). The software package consists of three modules: (i) the ‘model builder’; (ii) the ‘validation and simulations’; and

(iii) the ‘potential population distri­bution and risk mapping’ module. ilcym’s model builder contains a library of several empirical linear and non-linear models, including the derivations of biophysical models, which have been proposed to define critical temperature effects in insects’ development. Several statistical measures are incorporated in this module for estimation of parameters and comparison of models. The validation and simulations module demonstrates the application of the phenology models for estimating and simulating insect population abundance under constant and fluctuating temperatures. Outputs of the simulations are demographic parameters that include: (i) net reproduction rate; (ii) mean generation time; (iii) intrinsic rate of increase; (iv) finite rate of increase; and (v) the doubling time. Through these analyses, the biology and temperature requirements of insects are defined, and the effects of different diets or host plants in insects’ demographic are assessed. The ilcym-GIS component estimates three indices (the establishment risk index (EI), the generation index (GI) and the activity index (AI)) that guide in assessing the potential population distribution and abundance of a particular species. Several functionalities for vector (dbf to shape, raster to points, raster to polygons, extract by points) and raster analysis (merge, cut, mask, aggregate/­disaggregate, re-class, describe, raster calculator) are part of the ilcym-GIS component. Such features improve the manipulation of large datasets and help ilcym’s users in analysing and visualizing the risk assessment maps. The phenology model developed for the potato tuber moth Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) a worldwide pest of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is used to demonstrate resulting modelling outputs.

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Medium 9781780643540

9: Rootstock Development

Rafel Socias i Company; Gradziel, T.M. CABI PDF


Rootstock Development

María J. Rubio-Cabetas1, Antonio J. Felipe1 and Gregory L. Reighard2

Centro de Investigación y Tecnología Agroalimentaria de Aragón, Zaragoza,

Spain; 2Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina, USA


9.1 Introduction

Almond rootstock utilization differs between the two main almond-growing regions of the Mediterranean basin and California, with each region developing in a different direction, and the changes are much more notable in the Mediterranean basin due largely to the different almond-growing system of that region (Fig. 9.1).

In the Mediterranean basin, almond production has transitioned in recent decades from traditional cultural practices with marginal inputs, to new orchards aiming to obtain high yields, including the challenges of planting intensive and semi-intensive orchards. Almond had been grown in the past under endemic rainfall, and seedling almonds had been used for centuries as rootstocks because their roots were apparently more efficient in the extraction of water and nutrients from the soil. Initially, seedlings were produced with seeds of unselected plants, primarily from bitter almonds. Eventually, some cultivars were selected because they produced more homogeneous plants among the seedling populations (Felipe, 1989), or because they showed some root-knot nematode (RKN) resistance (Kochba and Spiegel-Roy, 1976).

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