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Medium 9781780644202

39: Maize–Orange-fleshed Sweetpotato Intercropping: Potential for Use to Enhance Food Security and Scaling-up the Nutrition Effort in Malawi

Low, J. CABI PDF

39 

Maize–Orange-fleshed Sweetpotato

Intercropping: Potential for Use to

Enhance Food Security and Scaling-up the Nutrition Effort in Malawi

P.E. Abidin,1* F. Chipungu,2 T. Nyekanyeka,1 T. Chilanga,2 O. Mwenye,2

J. Kazembe,1 B. Botha3 and E.E. Carey1

1

International Potato Center (CIP)-Malawi, Lilongwe, Malawi;

2

Department of Agricultural Research Services (DARS),

Blantyre, Malawi; 3Irish Aid, Lilongwe, Malawi

Abstract

Maize is the staple food in Malawi where it is mainly cultivated by smallholder farmers under rainfed conditions. Due to increasing climatic uncertainty and declining soil fertility, crop failures often result in shortages affecting up to 1.6 million people every year. An estimated 47% of the children in Malawi suffer from stunted growth because of under-nutrition, and are vulnerable to illnesses and learning difficulties.

Crop diversification is at the core of Malawi’s agriculture policy. The Rooting out Hunger in Malawi with

Nutritious Orange-fleshed Sweetpotato (OFSP) project, funded by Irish Aid, has been working with partners since 2009 in Malawi to popularize this type of sweetpotato. The potential of the OFSP cultivar

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Medium 9781780644394

27 Technologic Support for Antimicrobial Stewardship

LaPlante. K. CABI PDF

27

Technologic Support for

Antimicrobial Stewardship

Renée-Claude Mercier1* and Carla Walraven2

1

University of New Mexico College of Pharmacy, Albuquerque, New Mexico, US;

University of New Mexico Hospitals Department of Pharmacy Services,

Albuquerque, New Mexico, US

2

Introduction

Over the last 25 years, advances in technology have significantly changed practice within the healthcare setting. From literature searching, e-mail communication, electronic medical records, clinical decision support systems to mobile devices, every component has helped to enhance access to data, and communication with the patient and amongst providers. Technological advances have been of great benefit for most specialties within the hospital, including the antimicrobial stewardship team.

Important aspects of stewardship involve medical chart reviewing and documentation, literature searching, education and communication with healthcare professionals. Technologies that have contributed to facilitating the work of the stewardship team are the focus of this chapter.

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Medium 9781780643236

17 Bioactive Natural Products for Managing Peronosporomycete Phytopathogens

Ganesan, S. CABI PDF

17

Bioactive Natural Products for Managing Peronosporomycete

Phytopathogens

M. Tofazzal Islam,1 M. Motaher Hossain2 and

M. Mahfuzur Rahman3*

1Department

of Biotechnology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural

University, Gazipur, Bangladesh; 2Department of Plant Pathology, Bangabandhu

Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University, Gazipur, Bangladesh;

3WVU Extension Service, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia, USA

17.1 Introduction

Intensive agriculture is heavily dependent on synthetic pesticides for pest management. This high pesticide use in agriculture causes environmental pollution and is a serious threat to the lives of non-target organisms including humans.

The deleterious effects of pesticides on various terrestrial and aquatic organisms have been documented in many reports (Dayan et al., 1999).

On the other hand, diverse classes of natural products discovered from plants and environmental microorganisms have been found to inhibit growth and reproduction of plant pests.

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Medium 9781780648378

12: Morphology, Cropping Physiology and Canopy Training

Quero-Garcia, J., Iezzoni, A.,Pulawska, J., Lang.,G CABI PDF

12 Morphology, Cropping Physiology and Canopy Training

Marlene Ayala1* and Gregory A. Lang2

Pontificia Universidad Católica, Santiago, Chile; 2Michigan State University,

East Lansing, Michigan, USA

1

12.1 Introduction

The most significant development in cherry production during the past 20 years is the commercial availability of precocious, highly productive rootstocks that impart a range of levels of vigour control. These have impacted reproductive morphology in terms of temporal and positional development of flower buds (Maguylo et al., 2004), as well as canopy physiology in terms of altering source–sink relations and root–shoot physiology with respect to acquisition of water and nutrients. For example, Olmstead et al.

(2004, 2006) found that vessel diameter in the graft union of dwarfing rootstocks tended to be smaller than in more vigorous rootstocks. This suggests that water transport capacity might be limiting on a diurnal basis and therefore trees on dwarfing rootstocks may be subjected to transient daily water stress with potentially reduced photosynthesis and nutrient uptake, thereby reducing growth, as has been reported in peach (Basile et  al., 2003; Tombesi et  al., 2010). Indeed,

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Medium 9781780646138

35: Moving Slowly Towards the Light: A Review of Efforts to Create a Global System for PGRFA Over the Last Half-century

Maxted, N. CABI PDF

35 

Moving Slowly Towards the Light:

A Review of Efforts to Create a Global

System for PGRFA Over the Last

Half-century

M. Halewood*

Bioversity International, Rome, Italy

35.1  Introduction

For 50 years, under the auspices of the United

Nations (UN), the international community has been working to develop a globally coordinated system to conserve, make available and sustainably use plant genetic resources for food and agriculture (PGRFA). As part of that effort, countries have worked together successfully to develop a range of policy instruments and programmes that are part of the system. But challenges

­remain – some rooted in tensions still unresolved after half a century. These challenges need to be addressed before all of the requisite elements of a functional, efficient and equitable global system are in place.

It is beyond the scope of this chapter to analyse all the programmes, policies and practices developed so far as part of the evolving global system of PGRFA conservation and use.

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