2084 Chapters
Medium 9781780645117

4: Principles of Resource Capture and Use of Light and Water

Ong, C. CABI PDF

4 

1

Principles of Resource Capture and Use of Light and Water

The late C.R. Black, D. Randhawa1 and C.K. Ong2*

School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, Loughborough, UK;

2

University of Nottingham, Malaysia Campus, Selangor, Malaysia

Introduction

The most serious challenge to plant physiologists involved in intercropping and agroforestry research is how to translate retrospective understanding into actual productivity increases.

(Fukai and Trenbath, 1993)

This statement remains true today, as it is vital to combine complementary rather than competitive species to optimize resource capture, productivity and sustainability in mixed agroecosystems, irrespective of whether these are intercrops or agroforestry systems. It is also true that:

Plants rely on their roots to acquire the water and mineral nutrients necessary for their survival in nature, and their yield and nutritional quality in agriculture, … particularly in overcoming the constraints to crop production imposed by hostile environments or infertile soils.

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Medium 9781780646770

7 Theoretical Perspectives on World Heritage Management: Stewardship and Stakeholders

Alvarez, M.D.; Go, F.M.; Yuksel, A. CABI PDF

7 

Theoretical Perspectives on World

Heritage Management: Stewardship and

Stakeholders

Sean Lochrie*

Heriot-Watt University, Dubai, United Arab Emirates

7.1  Introduction

Studies regarding the management of World

Heritage Sites (WHSs) have established the

­importance of the overarching features of conservation and the need for effective managerial approaches for the protection of historical assets

(Nicholas et al., 2009). A collective approach to site management is also encouraged by

UNESCO (2013: 3) who states that:

States Parties to the Convention are

­encouraged to ensure the participation of a wide variety of stakeholders, including site managers, local and regional governments, local communities, non-governmental organizations and other interested parties and partners in the identification, nomination and protection of World Heritage properties.

However, a collective approach to administering heritage sites is challenging, especially if there are numerous organizations and multiple owners involved within the managerial process. Furthermore, this challenge is intensified if the place in question also contains diverse interests that have little knowledge

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Medium 9781780646138

19: Developing a National Crop Wild Relative In Situ Conservation Strategy for Lithuania: Creation of a National CWR Inventory and its Prioritization

Maxted, N.; Dulloo, M.E.; Ford-Lloyd, B.V. CABI PDF

19 

Developing a National Crop Wild

Relative In Situ Conservation Strategy for

Lithuania: Creation of a National CWR

Inventory and its Prioritization

J. Labokas,1* B. Karpavicˇiene˙,1 V. Rašomavicˇius1 and B. Gelvonauskis2

1

Institute of Botany, Nature Research Centre, Vilnius, Lithuania;

2

Plant Gene Bank, Ke˙dainiu˛ r., Lithuania

19.1  Introduction

In situ conservation, defined as ‘the conservation of ecosystems and natural habitats and the maintenance and recovery of viable populations of species in their natural surroundings ... where they have developed their distinctive properties’

(CBD, 1992), has received increasing attention from national governments (FAO, 2010) in view of the fact that it represents a dynamic conservation method that allows the maintenance of evolutionary processes. However, the most widespread means of conserving plant genetic resources has been through population sampling, seed collection and ex situ storage in seed banks.

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Medium 9781786392459

2 Whale Entanglement – a 21st-century Challenge in the Ocean

Butterworth, A. CABI PDF

2

Whale Entanglement – a

21st-century Challenge in the Ocean

Sarah Dolman, Regina Asmutis-Silvia and Conor Ryan

2.1 Introduction

Entanglement in fishing gear is the most significant threat to wild cetacean welfare (IWC, 2016) and entanglement in active fishing gear is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in baleen whales.

Although there are currently no quantitative assessment methods, and so comparison of the scale from region to region, existing data indicate that entanglements are occurring throughout the geographic range of several species, encompassing breeding, feeding and migratory routes. Therefore, large whale entanglement is a global concern (IWC,

2010). In most areas, entanglement is not an intentional practice and many fishermen are involved in strategies to reduce the accidental capture of whales.

More than 1700 large whale entanglements have been reported globally since 1979 (IWC, 2010) although it is recognized that entanglement reporting is grossly underestimated, with, according to at least one study, fewer than 10% of active entanglement cases being reported (Robbins et  al., 2009).

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Medium 9781780641478

3: Real-time PCR

Boonham, N.; Tomlinson, J.; Mumford, R. CABI PDF

3

Real-time PCR

Maja Ravnikar, Nataša Mehle,

­Kristina ­Gruden and Tanja Dreo*

National Institute of Biology, Ljubljana,

Slovenia

3.1  Introduction

Real-time PCR has become the PCR method of choice for diagnostic applications for a number of reasons. It is generally more sensitive than conventional PCR and can be better controlled, and these are important factors for diagnostic applications. Realtime PCR is also more robust than conventional PCR owing to a number of factors, including the amplification of small fragment sizes, the implementation of fluorescent detection, which enables the detection of smaller amounts of amplified products, and improved tolerance to inhibiting compounds that are co-purified with the DNA when compared with end-point PCR methods. Further, being a closed tube system helps to prevent post-PCR contamination and resulting false positive results. Finally, because gel electrophoresis is not required, the method can be easily automated, making it suitable for fast, high-throughput testing applications.

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