2223 Chapters
Medium 9781780644738

7: Non-destructive Techniques

Kumar, S. CABI PDF


Non-destructive Techniques

7.1  Introduction

Rapid analytical techniques have been developed as alternatives to the traditional methods of analysis. The application of quick, solvent-free and on-field analytical techniques present an enormous advantage over the conventional wet chemistry approaches (Pedro and Ferreira, 2005). In particular, fast, reliable and non-destructive analysis with minimal sample preparation is required for the quantification of valuable components in screening a large number of samples. These techniques are also finding application in online, semi-continuous monitoring of composition, as sample preparation is minimal in these non-destructive techniques.

Furthermore, conventional chemical analysis such as high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) or gas chromatography (GC) may take several hours to generate results, which may delay the validation of quality control. Therefore, analytical techniques generating rapid analytical results as compared to conventional methods are required.

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Medium 9781780647326

5 Gardens in the City: Community, Politics and Place in San Diego, California

WinklerPrins, A.M.G.A. CABI PDF


Gardens in the City: Community,

Politics and Place in San Diego, California

Fernando J. Bosco* and Pascale Joassart-Marcelli

San Diego State University, San Diego, California, USA

5.1  Introduction

In the Global North alternative food practices have become increasingly common as a response to growing dissatisfaction with the industrial and corporate food system. In particular, in the US, scholars and activists have called for a relocalization of food systems, including urban agriculture and community gardening, as a way to foster health, justice and sustainability. Scholars describe these food practices as forms of resistance against the capitalist pressures that strain the food system (Kloppenburg et al., 2000; Hendrickson and Heffernan, 2002;

Norberg-Hodge et al., 2002; Heynen, 2009).

Similarly, the sites where these activities take place, especially community gardens, have also been conceptualized as ‘spaces of resistance’ or

‘counter-spaces’, to the extent that they represent a collective spatial strategy to redistribute value away from the global corporate food system into disenfranchised communities (Schmelzkopf, 2002; Staeheli et al., 2002; Eizenberg,

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Medium 9781780643540

16: Almond Pests

Rafel Socias i Company; Gradziel, T.M. CABI PDF


Almond Pests

Frank G. Zalom1,*, Eva Núñez2 and Roger A. Baldwin1

University of California, Davis, California, USA; 2Centro de Investigación y

Tecnología Agroalimentaria de Aragón, Zaragoza, Spain


16.1 Introduction

The aim of this chapter is to provide an overview of current knowledge on major pests affecting almond which is intended to be applicable worldwide. The chapter includes two main groups of pests: arthropods and vertebrates. The information presented is based on published sources as well as the authors’ experience. It is divided into two sections relating to differences between the two groups of pests. The first section addresses arthropod species, including insects and mites, and is authored by F. Zalom, with the support of E. Núñez, who address European pests. The

­second section, addressing vertebrate pests, is authored by R. Baldwin.

16.2  Arthropod Pests and Their

Management in Almond Orchards

16.2.1 Introduction

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Medium 9781780642703

1 Introduction




The study of naturally occurring toxins found in plants, animals and microorganisms in the field of toxicology is termed as toxinology.

These natural toxins range from simple to complex molecules and are lethal. Many have been studied for years but have yet to be thoroughly described. There are many plant species that produce toxic compounds for their own defence. Hundreds of microorganisms produce toxins that cause toxicity in other living organisms. There are hundreds of toxins produced by marine flora and fauna.

Overall, with the introduction of modern scientific methods of research, our knowledge of insecticidal plants, microorganisms and marine flora and fauna has expanded vastly.

Such compounds were documented in our earlier volume Insecticides of Natural Origin

(Dev and Koul, 1997), but since then there has been an enormous addition to our knowledge of this subject. Therefore, in this book

I describe the natural toxins that are purely toxic to insects, i.e. excluding feeding deterrents discussed in another volume (Koul,

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Medium 9781780646169

8 The Effect of Traditional Land Management Methods on Sustainable Crop Yield in Betem, Biase Local Government Area of Cross River State, Nigeria

James, V. CABI PDF


The Effect of Traditional Land

Management Methods on Sustainable Crop

Yield in Betem, Biase Local Government

Area of Cross River State, Nigeria

Eze Bassey Eze1 and Oruk Egbai

University of Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria


The most essential nutrient elements required for increased food production are soil dependent, implying that they are obtained from soil to promote plant growth and sustainable agriculture. The availability of soil nutrients in the required amount is an important prerequisite for the attainment of sufficiency in food production

(Spaargaran, 1994; Egbai et  al., 2001; Fagbola and Ogungba, 2007). The important soil nutrient constraints have been identified to include excessive removal of vegetation, poor agricultural practices and topography (Park, 1992; Anyanwa et al., 2001; Egbai, 2011).

In an agroecological environment where soil nutrients are noticeably deficient, improvement of soil with the required nutrients is critically important. According to Corwin et  al.

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