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Olfactory Enrichment in Dogs: Possible New Applications

Denenberg, S. CABI PDF

Olfactory Enrichment in Dogs:

Possible New Applications

Stefania Uccheddu1*, Stijn Schoelynk2, Adinda Sannen2,

Hilde Vervaecke2, Heidi Arnouts2, Jara Gutiérrez

Rufo3, Chiara Mariti3, Angelo Gazzano3 and Anouck


Vet Ethology, Overijse, Belgium; 2Ethology & Animal Welfare,

Agro- & Biotechnology, ODISEE University College, Sint-Niklaas, Belgium;


EtoVet, Dip. Scienze Veterinarie, Università di Pisa, Pisa, Italy


Funding: This study was funded by the American Holistic Veterinary Medical Foundation.

Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Keywords: behaviour, essential oils, olfactory enrichment, shelter dogs, welfare


Environmental enrichment improves the overall well-being of animals living in captivity. In stressful conditions, enrichment may increase the animal’s ability to cope, thereby improving its welfare. Several enrichment programmes have been developed in shelters to meet animal needs. Although current literature shows the effectiveness of olfactory enrichment in welfare improvement in dogs, cats and horses (Wells, 2004, 2009; Graham et al., 2005; Ellis, 2009; Ellis and Wells,

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9 Climate Change and its Effect on Urban Mosquitoes in South America

Dhang, P. CABI PDF


Climate Change and its Effect on Urban Mosquitoes in South


Tamara Nunes de Lima-Camara1* and Nildimar Alves



de Entomologia em Saúde Pública/Culicídeos,

Departamento de Epidemiologia, Faculdade de Saúde Pública da

USP, São Paulo, Brazil; 2Laboratório de Mosquitos Transmissores de Hematozoários, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Fundação Oswaldo

Cruz, Manguinhos, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 3Núcleo Operacional

Sentinela de Mosquitos Vetores-NOSMOVE/FIOCRUZ,

Manguinhos, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

9.1  Introduction

9.1.1  Urban mosquitoes in South America

South America is an extensive continent with

13 countries and three dependencies that exhibits diverse patterns of weather and climate, including tropical, subtropical and extratropical features (Garreaud et al., 2009).

Because of this heterogeneity in weather and in other abiotic conditions, as well as a complex geological history, South America is well known for its biodiversity and regions with numerous endemic species (Sigrist and

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17 Case Study Sri Lanka: Climate Change Challenges for the Sri Lankan Tourism Industry

Jones, A.; Phillips, M. CABI PDF


Case Study Sri Lanka: Climate Change

Challenges for the Sri Lankan Tourism Industry


J. Buultjens,1* I. Ratnayake2 and W.K. Athula Gnanapala2

Southern Cross University, Australia; 2Sabaragamuwa University, Sri Lanka


Sri Lanka, a small island located in the Indian Ocean at the southern tip of India, has a coastline that stretches for 1600 km. The country is highly vulnerable to climate change (Sri Lanka Ministry of Environment

(MOE), 2011) and the accompanying types of natural disasters such as floods, landslides, droughts, coastal erosion and sea surges

(EML, 2012). In addition to the natural disasters, the predicted sea-level rise of 0.5 m over the next two decades will also have severe consequences for the country’s coastal areas and the 25% of the population that reside in them (Ahmed and Suphachalasai,

2014). The consequences from sea-level rise include increased destruction of mangroves and coral reefs, a decline of ecosystems and marine habitats and damage to shelter, infrastructure and human safety. Areas adjacent to coastal regions will also experience gradual but intense salinization of inland freshwater sources (EML, 2012). Negative impacts on the coastal zone will have substantial effects on the country’s economy since the zone accounts for approximately

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7 Adaptation Strategies to Address the Climate Change Impacts in Three Major River Basins in India

Hoanh, C.T. CABI PDF


Adaptation Strategies to Address the Climate Change Impacts in

Three Major River Basins in India

Krishna Reddy Kakumanu,1 Kuppannan

Palanisami,1* Pramod Kumar Aggarwal,1

Coimbatore Ramarao Ranganathan2 and Udaya

Sekhar Nagothu3


Water Management Institute, Hyderabad, India;

Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, India; 3Norwegian

Institute for Agricultural and Environmental Research-Biforsk, Ås,




The agriculture sector is highly vulnerable to climate change in many parts of the world. There is an increasing concern among farmers, researchers and policy makers about the potential impacts of climate change on food security and livelihoods. Researchers are using several climate change models to make an assessment of the impacts and identify adaptation strategies. The present chapter reviews the current state of understanding of the climate change impacts on irrigation water in South Asia and specifically on the crop yield and relevant adaptation measures in three major river basins (Godavari, Krishna and Cauvery) in India. Optimization model was used to evaluate the different adaptation practices and their potential to maximize rice production and income, and minimize water use for the mid- and end-century climate-change scenarios. Adaptation practices such as systems of rice intensification, machine transplantation, alternate wetting and drying (AWD) and direct seeding could reduce the water and labour use by 10–15% and stabilize rice production in the long term. The study suggests the need for technology upscaling, which should be backed up with well-planned capacity-building programmes for the farmers.

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3: Modelling Radiation Interception and Water Balance in Agroforestry Systems



Modelling Radiation Interception and

Water Balance in Agroforestry Systems

S.B. Ghezehei,1* J.G. Annandale2 and C.S. Everson2


North Carolina State University, Raleigh, USA;


University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa


Radiation and water balance

To ensure sustainability of agroforestry

­systems, an understanding of the factors involved and their interactions in terms of system functioning is essential (Berlyn and Cho,

2000; Ong et al., 2000). This knowledge facilitates system planning and design, leading to more efficient management, improved selection of compatible plant mixtures (Ashton and Ducey, 1999) and identification of conditions that are more profitable under agroforestry than sole crops. Trees and crops compete for growth resources (Nair, 1993; Droppelmann et al., 2000; Ong et al., 2000, 2002, 2014), dictated by their resource requirements and availability of resources (van Noordwijk and

Purnomosidhi, 1995). Tree–crop resource requirements and interactions are influenced by pruning of the tree canopy (Droppelmann et al., 2000) and root pruning to reduce competition (Schroth, 1995; Ong et al., 2000,

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