1086 Slices
Medium 9781780643540

3: Production and Growing Regions

Rafel Socias i Company CABI PDF



Production and Growing Regions

Thomas M. Gradziel1, Robert Curtis2 and Rafel Socias i Company3,*

University of California, Davis, California, USA; 2Almond Board of California,

Modesto, California, USA; 3Centro de Investigación y Tecnología

Agroalimentaria de Aragón, Zaragoza, Spain

3.1 Introduction

Almond is the most important tree nut crop in terms of commercial production. An adaptation to harsh climates combined with an ability to develop a deep and extensive root system has allowed almond to exploit a wide range of ecological niches. Almond is well adapted to mild winter and dry, hot summer conditions due to its low chilling requirement for early bloom, rapid early shoot growth and high tolerance to summer heat and drought. It is the earliest temperate tree crop to bloom, which limits production to areas relatively free from spring frosts, since late winter and early spring frosts can damage and even completely destroy the crop. Because almond is naturally self-incompatible, it often requires cross-pollination, which further acts to promote genetic variability and adaptability to diverse environments (Socias i Company and Felipe, 1992).

See All Chapters
Medium 9781780646138

2: Pre-domesticating Wild Relatives as New Sources of Novel Genetic Diversity

Maxted, N. CABI PDF


Pre-domesticating Wild Relatives as New Sources of Novel

Genetic Diversity

D. Falk*

Department of Plant Agriculture, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada

2.1  Introduction

Wild relatives of many domesticated crop species have been used mainly as a source of specific genes for increased disease resistance. It is often difficult to exploit these genepools efficiently because they lack a number of essential traits necessary for cultivation and management using modern agricultural technology. Many of these traits were developed in our modern crops as part of the process of domestication. These traits are usually associated with seed dispersal, seed size, seed coats and seed dormancy, which are essential to survival in the wild but undesirable in domesticated crops. By incorporating these

‘domestic’ traits into the wild species, they may be managed using standard farming methods. It would then be easier to select desirable gene combinations within these diverse and variable populations, and introgress these selected traits more effectively into modern, elite germplasm and cultivars. Cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare) and its wild progenitor, Hordeum spontaneum, are used as a model to employ the proposed methodology and illustrate the increased efficiency and effectiveness of this approach to taming wild relative germplasm. By ‘pre-domesticating’ a series of diverse populations of H. spontaneum and conducting breeding and selection within these

See All Chapters
Medium 9781780646534

19: Promoting Access to Healthcare Through Biosimilars: Addressing Intellectual Property Rights and Regulatory Barriers

Singh, H.B. CABI PDF


Promoting Access to Healthcare

Through Biosimilars: Addressing

Intellectual Property Rights and

Regulatory Barriers

Kanikaram Satyanarayana1,2* and Sadhana



Intellectual Property Rights Unit, Indian Council of Medical Research,

Ansari Nagar, New Delhi; 2Biosafety Unit, Department of Biotechnology,

New Delhi

19.1  Introduction

Biopharmaceutical drugs have become an important and integral part of modern healthcare system all over the world. Biological product is itself defined by the US Food and Drug Administration

(US FDA, 2015) as: a wide range of products including vaccines, blood and blood components, allergenics, somatic cells, gene therapy, tissues, and proteins. Unlike most traditional, small-molecule prescription drugs that are made through chemical processes, biological products are generally made from human and/or animal materials. Biological products are usually larger than and have a more complex structure than smallmolecule prescription drugs. Such products may be manufactured through biotechnology, derived from natural sources, or, in some cases, produced synthetically

See All Chapters
Medium 9781780641409

7: How to Avoid Forest Degradationor Upgrade Degraded Forest Ecosystems: A Classic World Forestry Problem

Bruenig, E.F. CABI PDF


How to Avoid Forest Degradation or Upgrade Degraded Forest Ecosystems:

A Classic World Forestry Problem

7.1  When Did the Problems Evolve and

What Attempts were Made at Mitigation?

Degrading forests has been one of the activities of man almost since he left the tropical rainforest (TRF) and humid tropical deciduous forest (TDF) for open woodlands and savannahs. As soon as man mastered the technology and there were enough people, degraded forests and bare hills were created to an extent that they caused manifold political, social, economic and environmental problems to the tribe, nation or region. This is part of human history and nothing new. It is not what is often (politically correctly) claimed: a typically modern-era colonial– post-colonial phenomenon of the tropics.

But it certainly has been aggravated in the tropics by the political conditions which developed after decolonisation. In addition, profit-maximising neocolonial exploiters and land speculators were the new phenomena, particularly global in the postmodern era. Forest resource degradation by over-logging for illegal or semi-legal export timber in the meantime has spread to warm-temperate forests in the Pacific Rim, north and south.

See All Chapters
Medium 9781780648378

10: Site Preparation and Orchard Infrastructure

Quero-Garcia, J., Iezzoni, A.,Pulawska, J., Lang.,G CABI PDF


Site Preparation and Orchard


K.S. Koumanov1* and L.E. Long2

Fruitgrowing Institute, Agricultural Academy, Plovdiv, Bulgaria;


Oregon State University Extension, The Dalles, Oregon, USA


10.1 Introduction

Both establishment and management of a cherry orchard require significant investments, much of which will occur before planting the first tree. Proper planning and preparation are critical to success. Orchards should be productive for 20 years or more; therefore, initial poor decisions can have long-term negative effects on profit potential. There is a wide spectrum of issues that have to be analysed carefully to make good preplant decisions, such as site selection and preparation, pollenizers and pollinators, tree support, drainage and irrigation, soil mineral fertility and organic matter, and weed management.

10.2  Site Selection

One of the most important decisions an orchardist makes is site selection. Soil and water quality, potential for winter damage and spring frost, pressure for disease infection and rain cracking are all determined by orchard location. A poorly chosen site may reduce production or fruit quality, or increase the cost of disease control.

See All Chapters

See All Slices