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4: Developing Food Tourism through Collaborative Efforts within the Heritage Tourism Destination of Foça, Izmir

Alvarez, M.D. CABI PDF


Developing Food Tourism through

Collaborative Efforts within the Heritage

Tourism Destination of Foça, Izmir

Burcin Hatipoglu,* Volkan Aktan, Demir Duzel,

Eda Kocabas and Busra Sen

Bog˘aziçi University Turkey

4.1  Introduction

The tourism environment includes many stakeholders that have varying commitments to tourism (Getz and Jamal, 1994; Jamal and

Getz, 1995; Bramwell and Lane, 2000). It is described as ‘complex and dynamic with linkages and interdependencies, multiple stakeholders often with diverse and divergent views and values and lack of control by any one group or indiviual’ (Jamal and Stronza, 2009:

185). Tourism development becomes even more complex when the destination is part of a protected area (Hjalager, 2013). Overuse of protected areas by the visitors and the inhabitants can risk the conservation efforts made for the biodiversity and cultural assets (Jamal and

Stronza, 2009). In these areas, the use of the sustainable tourism approach can help planners in overcoming certain development issues. Participation of the residents, collaboration among stakeholders and informed decision making at the local level are suggested to be crucial for designing effective tourism plans. However, tourism planners can face specific challenges in establishing these collaborations, which can hinder the processes.

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Medium 9781780641409

2: Rainforest Use: Necessity, Wisdom, Greed, Folly

Bruenig, E.F. CABI PDF


Rainforest Use: Necessity,

Wisdom, Greed, Folly

2.1  Original Inhabitants and Secondary

Refugees: Forest-dwellers and the


Life on earth has been, since its origin in the

Archaeozoic period of the Praecambrium, essentially expansive and acquisitive. Life multiplies and reaches out towards the limits of the carrying capacity of habitats. Local to global scarcities of resources are the inevitable consequence. Scarcity provokes competition, forces evolution and drives conquest of new habitats. Natural “genetic biotechnology” increases the efficiency to acquire and assimilate foreign substance to one’s own.

Human biological and social evolution are no exception to this natural rule (Markl, 1986, p. 19), except for the challenges, opportunities and dangerous temptations of the three special gifts of language, abstract thinking and free will (see Chapter 1). The early abode of the precursors of the human species most probably was the aseasonal to weakly seasonal tropical (rain) forest. An indication is the association of the fossils of early Pliocene hominids at Aramis, Ethiopia, with faunal and floral fossils of a closed forest, suggesting that some kind of rainforest was the habitat of the hominids 4 million years ago, in which they lived and died (Woldegabriel et  al., 1994). The rainforest canopy provides the only type of habitat on earth in

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3 Roles of Adventure Guides in Balancing Perceptions of Risk and Safety



Roles of Adventure Guides in

Balancing Perceptions of Risk and


Arild Røkenes*,1 and Line Mathisen2


The Arctic University of Norway, Alta, Norway; 2Northern

Research Institute, Alta, Norway


Risk is usually associated with dangerous situations. However, for adventure tourists, the desire for risk is connected to the experiential values that these tourists associate with performing an activity, such as thrill, enjoyment and excitement

(Cater, 2006; Buckley, 2012; Mackenzie and

Kerr, 2012; Piekarz et al., 2015). In particular, desirable risk is a subjective evaluation based on previous and ongoing experiences; thus, the manner in which guides interact with tourists influences possibilities for co-creation of experiences, as well as tourists’ perceptions of risk.

Despite the influence the perceived risk of tourists can have on the value created when performing an adventure activity (­Mackenzie and

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10: Forensic Toxicology

Bailey, D. CABI PDF

10  Forensic Toxicology

Ernest Rogers*

American Board of Forensic Medicine, American College of Forensic

Examiners Institute, Springfield, Missouri, USA

10.1 Introduction�

10.2  Forensic Toxicology Scope of Practice�

10.3  Sample Collection�

10.4  Animal Athletes and Performance-enhancing Drugs�

10.5  Selection of a Forensic Laboratory�

10.6  Methods of Toxicological Analyses�

10.7  Principles of Toxicokinetics�

10.8 Conclusions�

10.1  Introduction

The practice of forensic toxicology differs from that of clinical toxicology. The difference resides in the fact that suspicion and confirmation of intoxication must be supported by analytical assessment and not necessarily the response to treatment. The analytical investigation starts and ends with:

1. the heightened suspicion of intoxication based on clinical or post-mortem signs.

2. the appropriate identification of the toxin or class of the intoxicating agent.

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Medium 9781780643663

13 Linking Climate Change Discourse with Climate Change Policy in the Mekong: The Case of Lao PDR

Hoanh, C.T. CABI PDF


Linking Climate Change

Discourse with Climate Change

Policy in the Mekong: The Case of Lao PDR

Jana Prosinger,1 Diana Suhardiman2* and Mark


1School of Oriental and African Studies, London; 2International

Water Management Institute, South-east Asia Regional Office,

Vientiane, Lao PDR; 3Georgetown’s School of Foreign Service,

Georgetown University, Washington, DC


Current discourse on climate change highlights the issue of uncertainty, risks and the importance of systems’ resilience as a means to cope with impacts of climate change and climate variability. This chapter links the dominant approach of uncertainty as presented in the climate change discourse with policy discussions on climate adaptation strategies in the Lower Mekong Basin. Taking Lao PDR as our case study, we discuss how the idea of uncertainty can be perceived and interpreted differently by policy actors. While these different perceptions and interpretations might lead to multiple problem framings, they also reflect structural impediments and institutional barriers in the overall formulation process of climate change policy and adaptation strategies. The main message of the chapter is that understanding of these different notions of uncertainty is crucial to increase the actual significance of climate change policy. Policy and governance responses to climate change need to be formulated based on a more nuanced, sophisticated understanding of how various policy actors and stakeholders perceive and experience uncertainty.

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