2223 Chapters
Medium 9781780648545

17 Tunisia: Mass Tourism in Crisis?

Harrison, D.; Sharpley, R. CABI PDF


Tunisia: Mass Tourism in Crisis?


Heather Jeffrey1 and Sue Bleasdale2*

University of Bedfordshire Business School, Luton, UK;


Middlesex University, London, UK


Successive governments in post-colonial Tunisia have sought to develop mass tourism as an avenue for social and economic development.

Political instability and increasing media coverage have more recently led to a dramatic reduction in foreign tourist arrivals. Tunisia provides insights into the intersections of modernity, mass tourism, authoritarianism and terrorism, and in a world marred by terrorist attacks it becomes increasingly important to analyse the specific contexts from which these emerge. This chapter aims to address some of these issues by evaluating mass tourism development in

Tunisia, highlighting the social and economic advances Tunisia has achieved, before analysing the situation since the ‘Jasmine Revolution’ of 2011. In order to fully analyse mass tourism in Tunisia, we draw on our own experience, which includes over 30 years of research in

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21 Increasing Water-use Efficiency

Paroda, R.S. CABI PDF


Increasing Water-use Efficiency


The population in most of the tropical developing countries is increasing by leaps and bounds.

According to the FAO, over 800 million people currently lack adequate food, and by 2025 the food requirements of an additional 3 billion people will need to be met. Hidden hunger, such as protein and micro-nutrient deficiencies, is expected to become increasingly serious, particularly for women and children. Therefore, food and nutritional security continue to be a priority for the nations across the globe. India has made rapid strides in agriculture, achieving selfsufficiency in food requirement by recording a five-fold increase in production from the base line of 1950–51 through the Green Revolution.

Efforts have also resulted in achieving an increase of 11 times in horticulture production, six times in milk, 25 times in egg and nine times in production of fish, from the base line of 1950–51. The cultivated area has remained static at around 142 million ha for the last 40 years, but production has increased many-fold, not only of cereals but also of all other agricultural commodities. This has been possible due to proper policy support and scientific advancements in developing high-yielding cultivars and farmer-friendly production technologies as well as through the efforts of farmers. It is also a fact that India, with

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24 Towards Climate-smart Agriculture

Paroda, R.S. CABI PDF


Towards Climate-smart Agriculture

The Asia-Pacific region is agriculturally vibrant.

However, climate change is a major challenge as well as a threat to food security, sustainable livelihood and biodiversity. Weather variability influences agriculture in all its dimensions,

­adversely – biologically, physically and chemically, which are critical elements for production, productivity and profitability on farms (including livestock and fisheries). The predicted climate change by 2050 would further reduce agricultural production by 10–20%, while demand would increase by 70% (FAO, 2009; Nelson et al.,

2009). The existing scenario and models indicating increased frequency of droughts, floods and temperature-related events of climate change undoubtedly would have serious implications for future food availability as well as global nutritional, environmental and political security.

Climate change would intensify degradation processes of natural resources (central to meeting increased food demand), and changing land-use patterns, natural-resource degradation (especially land and water), urbanization and increasing pollution would affect the ecosystem of the region directly as well as indirectly. Moreover, the region’s agrarian landscape is predominantly one of smallholder farmers. At present, more than 650 million people, half the world’s poor

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9: The Effectiveness of Potato and Sweetpotato Improvement Programmes from the Perspectives of Varietal Output and Adoption in Sub-Saharan Africa

Walker, T.S. CABI PDF


The Effectiveness of Potato and

Sweetpotato Improvement Programmes from the Perspectives of Varietal Output and Adoption in Sub-Saharan Africa

R. Labarta*

CIAT (formerly of CIP), Colombia


The International Potato Center (CIP) was one of the second wave of International Agricultural Research Centers established in the early

1970s. Its founding was based on the potential to improve human welfare via changes in potato productivity from applied research in developing countries. Although potato is viewed as a crop of the north, a tipping point was reached at about

10 million hectares and 150 million tonnes in the early 2000s when potato area and production in developing countries exceeded those in developed countries (Walker et al., 2011). Sweetpotato was added to CIP’s mandate in 1988.

Until then, the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) was responsible for the genetic improvement of sweetpotato in the

Consultative Group on International Agricultural

Research (CGIAR).

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3: Trichoderma: Utilization for Agriculture Management and Biotechnology

Gupta, V.K.; Sharma, G.D.; Tuohy, M.G. CABI PDF


Trichoderma: Utilization for Agriculture

Management and Biotechnology

Pradeep Kumar,1* Madhu Kamle,2 Sarad Kumar

Mishra3 and Vijai Kumar Gupta4


Department of Biotechnology Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the

Negev, Israel; 2Department of Dryland Agriculture and Biotechnology,

Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Israel; 3Department of Biotechnology,

Deen Dayal Upadhyay Gorakhpur University, India; 4Department of

Biochemistry, National University of Ireland Galway, Ireland


Plant diseases are the primary cause of reducing both the quality and the quantity of crop yields. Numerous synthetic products have been used to control plant infections; however, overuse of such products has favoured the development of strains of pathogens that are resistant to fungicides. Unfortunately, the more exact the impact of a synthetic product on a pathogen, the more likely it is that the pathogen will develop resistance to it. In addition, the widespread use of fungicides produces undesirable effects on non-target organisms. Concerns about nature, human well-being and other related hazards resulting from the overuse of synthetic chemicals have led to considerable interest in developing eco-friendly methods of biocontrol against plant pathogens.

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