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30: Microbial Lipases: Emerging Biocatalysts

Gupta, V.K.; Sharma, G.D.; Tuohy, M.G. CABI PDF


Microbial Lipases: Emerging


Kanika Sharma,1* Naveen Sharma2 and Madhu Rathore3

Department of Botany and Department of Biotechnology, Mohanlal

Sukhadia University, Udaipur, India; 2Department of Health Research,

Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, New Delhi, India; 3Department of

Botany, Mohanlal Sukhadia University, Udaipur, India



Microbial lipases (EC are an important group of biotechnologically valuable enzymes. They are enantioselective, chemoselective and stereoselective in nature, which makes them an important tool in various medical and industrial fields. Lipases also have unique characteristics as they act at the oil/water interface. Microbial lipases can be distinguished from each other in structure, substrate specificity and the biochemical environment in which they are secreted, and therefore can be classified under different categories. Due to their commercial importance and ecological as well as economical significance, the market value of these enzymes is continuously growing and new or improved enzymes will be a key element in the emerging realm of biotechnology. The current need is isolation of novel microbial lipases from various sources and their characterization for development of safer and cheaper formulations for industrial and medical prospects. Maximum utilization of such lipases will be possible only by detailed study of their isolation, production, ­molecular structure and kinetics. In addition to this, physical and chemical factors and sources that affect lipase production and activity also have to be considered.

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13 Alphaviruses in Salmonids

Woo, P.T.K.; Cipriano, R.C. CABI PDF


Alphaviruses in Salmonids

Marius Karlsen1* and Renate Johansen2


PHARMAQ AS, Oslo, Norway; 2PHARMAQ Analytiq, Bergen, Norway

13.1  Introduction

Alphavirus is a genus of RNA viruses belonging to the family Togaviridae. Most known alphaviruses are mosquito borne and cause diseases in terrestrial hosts such as birds, rodents and larger mammals, including humans (Strauss and Strauss, 1994).

Infections may lead to diverse symptoms, such as rashes, gastrointestinal problems, arthritis/muscular inflammation and encephalitis (Kuhn, 2007; Steele and Twenhafel, 2010). Salmon pancreas disease virus, which is commonly named Salmonid alphavirus and abbreviated SAV (Weston et  al., 2002), is the only known alphavirus that has fish as a natural host (Powers et al., 2001). SAV is distantly related to other members of the genus, but it still causes pathology that may resemble some of that seen in mammals (McLoughlin and Graham, 2007; Biacchesi et al., 2016). The first isolation of SAV in cell culture was reported in 1995 from marine farmed

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16: Biodiversity, Bioindicators and Biogeography of Freshwater Algae

Ansari, A.; Gill, S.S.; Abbas, Z.K. CABI PDF


Biodiversity, Bioindicators and

Biogeography of Freshwater Algae

Martin T. Dokulil*

EX Research Institute Mondsee, Mondsee, Austria


Biodiversity and the problems associated with it are outlined and then the focus turns to continental waters. Levels and factors affecting biodiversity are described and listed. Measures of diversity focus on species richness and the Shannon index using abundances and biovolumes. Spatial scales of measuring and monitoring of biodiversity are listed and explained.

Diversity of algae is then discussed in detail, including phytoplankton and algae on substrates, and a discussion of the paradox of the plankton and the ‘everything is everywhere’ hypothesis. The biogeographic distributions of algal groups are mentioned, with a particular focus on endemism, followed by a brief consideration of trophic interactions. Biodiversity of algae is described and evaluated from five case studies using long-term data on phytoplankton from three lakes, a length profile of plankton from the River Danube and epilithic algae from an artificial system. The results and findings are critically discussed with respect to advantages and drawbacks in using single indices. The use of algae and their diversity as biological indicators (biomarkers) in environmental assessments is finally outlined, followed by concluding remarks.

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7 Scoring Response to Ganoderma

Rahmaningsih, M.; Virdiana, I.; Bahri, S. CABI PDF

Scoring Response to Ganoderma



To assess the variation in Ganoderma resistance, two different observations are conducted in the nursery. The scoring system of Ganoderma nursery screening consists of external and internal observations. External observations are conducted every 2 weeks (or possibly monthly), while the internal symptoms are observed at the end of each experiment. The appearance of

Ganoderma mycelium, sporophore and foliar symptoms in seedlings both alive and dead is counted as being infected by external observation. The seedlings are considered infected if, by internal observation, there are damaged tissues inside the bole and/or trunk.

7.1  External Observations

External observations follow the method described by Breton et al. (2006) and Idris et al. (2006). Foliar discoloration, indicating the appearance of fungus symptoms, is counted as an infection. Fungus symptoms can also appear as mycelium and/or basidiocarp (fruiting body). Standardization of symptom scoring is important in an effort to develop high-volume screening.

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36 Importance of Interdisciplinary Collaboration in Antimicrobial Stewardship: Immersion of Future Healthcare Professionals

LaPlante. K.; Cunha, C.; Morrill, H. CABI PDF


Importance of Interdisciplinary

Collaboration in Antimicrobial

Stewardship: Immersion of Future

Healthcare Professionals

Jacob Morton1* and Kerry L. LaPlante1,2,3


Providence VA (Veterans Affairs) Medical Center, Rhode Island, US; 2Brown

University, Providence, Rhode Island, US; 3University of Rhode Island College of Pharmacy, Kingston, Rhode Island, US


To effectively facilitate patient care and the optimization of antimicrobial regimens, stewardship efforts are essential. According to the Infectious

Diseases Society of America (IDSA) and the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA), the entire concept of antimicrobial stewardship is founded upon interdisciplinary collaboration

(Dellit et al., 2007). Interdisciplinary collaboration, also referred to as interprofessional collaboration, is defined as “Occasions when two or more professions learn with, from and about each other to improve collaboration and the quality of care”

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