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1: Agri-entrepreneurs and Their Characteristics



Agri-entrepreneurs and Their


Pauline Sullivan*

Tennessee State University, Nashville, Tennessee

1.1  Introduction

There are over three billion people working worldwide (World Bank, 2012). Of the three billion people with jobs, farming and household micro-­businesses provide about 1.5 billion employment opportunities globally with 50% of employment in developing countries. Jobs are especially important for increasing numbers of underemployed youth in developing countries where there will not be enough jobs to employ the increasing number of unemployed. In these countries the largest group of those people is youth aged 15–24 (40%) (Kapsos,

2013). A disproportionate number of those people are young people, who will compete for ever fewer jobs in the future, as job creation lags population growth (Jones, 2015). Available jobs will require education and skills that poor people do not have. The few jobs accessible to people without an education or relevant skills do not provide livable wages. Entrepreneurship is a viable strategy for upward mobility, as a 1% increase in entrepreneurial activities decreases the poverty rate by 2% (Singh, 2014).

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17 Experiences of Marine Adventurers in the Canadian Arctic



Experiences of Marine Adventurers in the Canadian Arctic

Margaret E. Johnston,* Elsa De Souza and

R. Harvey Lemelin

School of Outdoor Recreation, Parks and Tourism, Lakehead

University, Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada


Marine tourism in the Canadian Arctic is changing in important ways, partly because of changing environmental conditions. Summer

­ ice coverage has declined considerably, resulting in greater accessibility for ships, but tourism vessels have been the greatest beneficiaries

(­Pizzolato et al., 2014). With improved physical access, global attention on climate change in the Arctic has enhanced motivational access through increased awareness of the region as a destination. With marine tourism growing, so too has the interest of governing agencies and other stakeholders trying to exploit new opportunities and more effectively managing the costs of tourism-related change. Marine tourism development in the Canadian Arctic has developed slowly, focusing on land-based activities and air accessibility due to distances and lack of roads. It has been limited because the extent of ice has prevented vessels without ice-reinforced hulls from travelling very far. The voyage of the expedition cruise ship M/S Lindblad Explorer in

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Medium 9781845939946

16: The Family Eriophyidae Nalepa

Vacante, V. CABI PDF


Morphological Characteristics, Systematics and Bio-ecology

The Eriophyidae are very small, worm-like or fusiform mites, approximately 200 μm long. The eriophyid body consists of the gnathosoma, the prodorsum and an extended and annular opisthosoma (Fig. 16.1). The prodorsal shield lacks anterior setae (vi or ve) and the scapular setae (sc) may be present or absent (Fig. 16.2). The gnathosoma is usually prognathous and directed anteriorly; it has two stumpy palpi, the infracapitulum and the chelicerae. The palpi are parallel to the infracapitulum, and each consists of a base and three segments. The mouth is surrounded by a series of stylets derived from the digits of the chelicerae, the oral stylet or the labrum, and the infracapitulum or rostrum, which has a ‘U’-shaped cross section. The walls of the infracapitulum form a membranous sheath in front and externally have edges that overlap dorsally, concealing from seven to nine stylets (Fig. 16.3). The stylets include one pair of cheliceral shafts divided towards the apex into a dorsal digitus fixus and a ventral digitus mobilis that are separated from the labrum, and one pair of auxiliary stylets, also known as the inner infracapitular stylets. The basal segments of the chelicerae are close to one other and to the motivator, which provides a basal support for the chelicerae (Nuzzaci and Alberti, 1996).

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5 Gardens in the City: Community, Politics and Place in San Diego, California

WinklerPrins, A.M.G.A. CABI PDF


Gardens in the City: Community,

Politics and Place in San Diego, California

Fernando J. Bosco* and Pascale Joassart-Marcelli

San Diego State University, San Diego, California, USA

5.1  Introduction

In the Global North alternative food practices have become increasingly common as a response to growing dissatisfaction with the industrial and corporate food system. In particular, in the US, scholars and activists have called for a relocalization of food systems, including urban agriculture and community gardening, as a way to foster health, justice and sustainability. Scholars describe these food practices as forms of resistance against the capitalist pressures that strain the food system (Kloppenburg et al., 2000; Hendrickson and Heffernan, 2002;

Norberg-Hodge et al., 2002; Heynen, 2009).

Similarly, the sites where these activities take place, especially community gardens, have also been conceptualized as ‘spaces of resistance’ or

‘counter-spaces’, to the extent that they represent a collective spatial strategy to redistribute value away from the global corporate food system into disenfranchised communities (Schmelzkopf, 2002; Staeheli et al., 2002; Eizenberg,

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Medium 9781780644011

11: Assessing the Effectiveness of Maize and Wheat Improvement from the Perspectives of Varietal Output and Adoption in East and Southern Africa

Walker, T.S. CABI PDF


Assessing the Effectiveness of Maize and Wheat Improvement from the

Perspectives of Varietal Output and

Adoption in East and Southern Africa


H. De Groote,1* Z. Gitonga,1 S. Mugo1 and T.S. Walker2

International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), Nairobi, Kenya;


Independent Researcher, Fletcher, North Carolina, USA


Throughout much of East and Southern Africa

(ESA), maize is the staple food crop. Excluding

South Africa, domestic wheat production in ESA only looms large in Ethiopia where wheat has been cultivated since ancient times. Ethiopia is a secondary centre of origin for bread wheat and is the centre of diversity for durum wheat, which is used to make pasta.

In the 20th century, maize and wheat improvement have followed markedly different paths in their quest for varietal change. Building on Norman Borlaug’s research at the Rockefeller

Foundation, the Centro International de Mejoramiento de Maiz y Trigo (CIMMYT), since its establishment in 1968, adopted a centralized breeding approach to wheat improvement (Lynam,

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