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Part I: Sustainable Island Tourism

Modica, P. CABI PDF

Part I

Sustainable Island Tourism

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1

Sustainability and Tourism

Development in Island Territories

PATRIZIA MODICA1* AND MUZAFFER UYSAL2

1

University of Cagliari, Sardinia, Italy; 2University of Massachusetts, Amherst, USA

1.1

Introduction

This chapter analyses the concept of sustainability and island development, related problems and constraints in tension between heritage and landscape conservation and economic development. What type of tourism in island destinations is more suitable? Either mass or elite tourism, both need a solid base of sustainable principles and management practices. Islands are very peculiar, due to several circumstances, e.g. cultural and political. Moreover, the condition of isolation makes these destinations unique places in the world, with regard to the natural environment and related ecosystem, which deserves attention to guarantee a balance between the need for both conservation and development. Specifically, tourism development has been considered a viable green economic growth for decades, since the WBGU (1996) declared mass tourism as one of our planet’s seven syndromes. The unique and fragile equilibrium in the natural, social, cultural and economic domains that characterizes island destinations devoted or developing tourism activities, constitutes the reason to undertake the current study.

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3 Advances in Lime Breeding and Genetics

Khan, M.M. CABI PDF

3 

Advances in Lime Breeding and Genetics

Muhammad Amjad Ali1* and Muhammad Azher Nawaz2,3

Department of Plant Pathology and Centre of Agricultural Biochemistry and Biotechnology (CABB), University of Agriculture, Faisalabad,

Pakistan; 2Department of Horticulture, University College of Agriculture,

University of Sargodha, Sargodha, Pakistan; 3College of Horticulture and Forestry

Sciences, Huazhong Agricultural University/Key Laboratory of Horticultural Plant

Biology, Ministry of Education, Wuhan, China

1

Introduction

The genus Citrus belongs to the family Rutaceae with great diversity in its species and hybrids, which are largely different from each other on the basis of variations in shape, size and colour of fruit and leaves, and canopy size and plant structure. The lime appears to be highly diverse due to polyploidization in several cultivars. All lime accessions are highly heterozygous, with interspecific admixture of two, three or sometimes four ancestral ‘taxa’ genomes (Curk et al.,

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2: Transformation of Indian Agriculture Following Economic Liberalization

Brouwer, F. CABI PDF

2 

Transformation of Indian Agriculture

Following Economic Liberalization

Kavery Ganguly1* and Vijay Laxmi Pandey2

Confederation of Indian Industry (CII), New Delhi; 2Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Mumbai, India

1

Indian Economic and Agricultural

Performance

Agriculture is critical for India, not just from the growth objective, given that it supports a huge agriculture-dependent industry, but because of its pivotal role in ensuring food security of the masses through its larger livelihood opportunities. Hence, it is a tough balancing act for the government and policy makers to design a high growth path for agriculture without neglecting the food security concerns. Since the 1950s, i.e. the post-­

Independence era, the socio-economic scenario has changed favourably in India, with higher economic growth, savings and investment patterns, rising foreign exchange reserves, increasing food production, rising income and reducing poverty levels.1 This is not to deny that there have been rough patches that need strategic intervention and efforts are underway to address and contain the rising adversities. Despite higher economic growth, issues related to malnutrition, declining yet high poverty rates, rising subsidies and inadequate incentives for investments continue to be the key challenges.

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5 Implementing the Principles of Conservation Agriculture in Malawi: Crop Yields and Factors Affecting Adoption

Kassam, A.H. CABI PDF

5

Implementing the Principles of Conservation Agriculture in

Malawi: Crop Yields and Factors

Affecting Adoption

W. Trent Bunderson,1* Zwide D. Jere,1 Christian

Thierfelder,2 Mphatso Gama,3 Blessings M. Mwale,1 Spencer

W.D. Ng’oma,1 Richard M. Museka,1 John M. Paul,1

Brand Mbale,1 Obedi Mkandawire1 and Phillip Tembo1

Total LandCare, Lilongwe, Malawi; 2CIMMYT, International Maize and Wheat

Improvement Center, Zimbabwe; 3Machinga Agricultural Development

Division, Malawi

1

5.1  Introduction

Malawi faces complex social, economic and environmental problems that threaten a steepening dependency on foreign aid. The critical issues have been well documented (UNICEF, 1993; Bunderson and Hayes, 1995; World

Bank, 1995; Bunderson et al., 2002; Ellis et al., 2003; GoM, 2007a,b; UNDP, 2007;

Denning et al., 2009; Thierfelder and Wall, 2011; Thierfelder et al., 2013a; Wall et al., 2013). The heart of the crisis is the nation’s high and growing population, which is placing increased pressure on agricultural land, the country’s most important natural resource. One result is that land holdings are shrinking and becoming more fragmented. Marginal areas have been brought under cultivation and fallowing has been replaced by continuous cropping under the destructive and labour-intensive tillage practice of ridging. Recurrent drought, reduced export earnings and declining terms of trade have magnified these problems.

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16: Sweet Potato Virus Disease

Tennant, P.; Fermin, G. CABI PDF

16

Sweet Potato Virus Disease

Augustine Gubba* and Benice J. Sivparsad

Department of Plant Pathology, School of Agricultural, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal,

Pietermaritzburg, South Africa

16.1  Introduction

Sweet potato is ranked as the seventh most important food crop in the world (Woolfe,

1992; FAOSTAT, 2012). Among the major starch staples, it has the largest rates of biomass and nutrient production per unit area per unit time (Woolfe, 1992). Because of its good performance under adverse farming conditions and high carbohydrate and vitamin content, sweet potato has been identified as an ideal starch staple in subsistence economies (Mukasa et al., 2003; Wambugu, 2003;

Naylor et al., 2004; Loebenstein et al., 2009).

Virus infection is the main limiting factor in sweet potato production worldwide

(Allemann et al., 2004). Moreover, viral diseases rank second after sweet potato weevils as restraining biotic factors and can cause considerable yield reduction of up to

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