2223 Chapters
Medium 9781780644394

7 Colonization and Its Importance for the Emergence of Clinical Resistance

LaPlante. K.; Cunha, C.; Morrill, H. CABI PDF


Colonization and Its Importance for the Emergence of Clinical


Curtis J. Donskey*

Case Western Reserve University and Louis Stokes Cleveland Veterans Affairs

Medical Center, Cleveland, Ohio, US


Selective pressure exerted by antimicrobials plays a central role in the emergence and dissemination of antimicrobial-resistant pathogens. Systemic antimicrobials exert selective pressure not only on infecting microorganisms, but also on the normal microbiota of the host (e.g., the gastrointestinal tract, genitourinary tract, upper respiratory tract, and skin). Although a minority of those acquiring colonization with resistant pathogens develop infection, colonized individuals serve as a major reservoir for transmission. The intestinal tract is a particularly important source for the dissemination of resistant pathogens, including Enterococcus spp., Gram-negative bacilli,

Clostridium difficile, Candida spp., and Staphylococcus aureus (Vollaard and Clasener, 1994; Cole et  al.,

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Medium 9781780644998

17: Pest Management in Organic Field Vegetables in Temperate Areas

Vacante, V.; Kreiter, S. CABI PDF


Pest Management in Organic Field

Vegetables in Temperate Areas

Claudia Daniel,1* Rosemary Collier,2 Urs Niggli1 and Martin Koller1


Research Institute of Organic Agriculture, Forschungsinstitut für biologischen Landbau (FiBL), Frick, Switzerland; 2Warwick Crop Centre,

The University of Warwick, Warwick, UK


Preventative measures and the creation of resilient growing systems are key parts of pest management practice in organic field vegetable production (see also Chapter 1, this volume). Soil improvement, crop rotation, site selection, habitat management, variety choice, timing of planting and plant spacing are all considered before planting in order to avoid the most detrimental pest problems. Due to the huge variety of vegetable crops and their associated pest insects, specific tailored approaches are necessary.

The effects of cultural practices to reduce pest outbreaks, such as weed control, appropriate irrigation, suitable fertilization, the use of mulches, and adjusted harvest times have been investigated during the last few years. For some crops (e.g. cabbage and carrot; Finch and Collier, 2000), a holistic pest control strategy, which combines preventative and direct control measures, is available, whereas there are still huge knowledge gaps for other crops. For example, in lettuce production, pest management under organic conditions still relies heavily on direct pest control measures. However, direct control methods using bioinsecticides

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Medium 9781786394019

2: The Contribution of Bamboo to Human Beings Is Far More Than Is Imagined

Zhaohua, Z.; Wei, J. CABI PDF


The Contribution of Bamboo to Human

Beings Is Far More Than Is Imagined

2.1  Bamboo is One of the Easiest to be Sustainably Managed

(Self-renewable) Plants

2.1.1  Is bamboo a tree or a grass?

Bamboos are a special type of plant. They have a tenacity that trees cannot compare with and special properties that make them very easily sliced; both are strong in self-renewal. At the same time, bamboos have the characteristics that herbaceous plants do not possess, such as high hardness and elasticity; they can maintain exuberant growing capacity for many years. The international community classifies bamboo as a non-timber forest resource. China’s first monograph about bamboo was called The Bamboo

­Monograph (Zhu Pu, 《竹谱》). It was written by

Dai Kaizhi (戴凯之) during the Southern Dynasties (ad 420–589). The first line of the book says

‘Among all the plants, there is one called bamboo, the property is not too strong nor too soft, it belongs to neither herb nor wood (植类之中,

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Medium 9781780644202

25: Substrate and Genotype Effects on Growth for Seed Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Production in Malawi



Substrate and Genotype Effects on Growth for Seed Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Production in Malawi

S.C. Zimba,* J.P. Njoloma, J.A. Nyaika, W.F. Mwase,

M.F. Maliro, M.B. Kwapata and J.M. Bokosi

Lilongwe University of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Lilongwe, Malawi


Potato farmers in Malawi and other developing countries lack healthy and quality seed potato. This is due to a limited multiplication programme to provide farmers with clean seed potato. A study to evaluate the effect of media and genotypes on growth and seed yield performance of micropropagated potato genotypes in greenhouse conditions would assist in planning for future selection of good high-yielding varieties and a rapid seed multiplication programme of pathogen-free planting materials to increase production of potato in the country. Three different types of media (vermiculite, sand and sawdust) and seven different genotypes (two local genotypes – Magalabada and Rosita; and five introduced genotypes –

Up to date, Buffelspoort, Van der plank, Lady Rosetta and Bp 1 2007) were investigated. Pathogen-free potato plantlets were produced in the tissue culture laboratory and then transferred to the greenhouse for minituber production. The plantlets were planted with a 10 cm distance between rows and 10 cm between plantlets in trays filled with media. The study revealed significant (P ≤ 0.05) variations between and among media and genotype tested on growth and yield characteristics. Genotype Rosita grown on vermiculite produced the greatest plant height (45.87 cm). Similarly plantlets grown on vermiculite performed better than those grown on the alternative media with higher minituber yield of

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Medium 9781780645254

6 Impact of Parthenium Weed on Human and Animal Health

Adkins, S.; Shabbir, A.; Dhileepan, K. CABI PDF


Impact of Parthenium Weed on

Human and Animal Health

Sally Allan,1* Boyang Shi2 and Steve W. Adkins1


of Queensland, Gatton, Queensland, Australia;

Queensland, Department of Agriculture and Fisheries,

Brisbane, Queensland, Australia


6.1  Introduction

6.1.1  Issues and causes

The annual, herbaceous plant parthenium weed (Parthenium hysterophorus L.) is a weed of global significance (Towers et  al., 1977;

Dhileepan, 2009; Adkins and Shabbir, 2014).

Originating from southern North America,

Central America including the Gulf Coast, the West Indies and Caribbean Islands, and

South America (Rollins, 1950, in Picman and Towers, 1982; Wedner et  al., 1989), parthenium weed has spread from its native range to over 40 tropical and subtropical countries around the world (Shabbir, 2012;

Adkins and Shabbir, 2014; EPPO, 2014). The spread of parthenium weed has produced negative impacts on grazing animal production (Jayachandra, 1971; Chippendale and

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