2223 Chapters
Medium 9781780646947

11: Aquatic Plant Biodiversity: A Biological Indicator for the Monitoring and Assessment of Water Quality

Ansari, A.; Gill, S.S.; Abbas, Z.K. CABI PDF

11

Aquatic Plant Biodiversity: A Biological

Indicator for the Monitoring and

Assessment of Water Quality

Abid Ali Ansari1*, Shalini Saggu1, Sulaiman Mohammad

Al-Ghanim1, Zahid Khorshid Abbas1, Sarvajeet Singh Gill2,

Fareed A. Khan3, Mudasir Irfan Dar3, Mohd Irfan Naikoo3 and Akeel A. Khan4

1

Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Tabuk, Tabuk,

Saudi Arabia; 2Stress Physiology and Molecular Biology Lab, Centre for

­Biotechnology, MD University, Rohtak, Haryana, India; 3Department of ­Botany,

Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India; 4GF College affiliated to

MJP Rohilkhand University, Shahjahanpur, U.P., India

Abstract

The present chapter covers the concept of water pollution, its cause and effects on plant diversity of an aquatic ecosystem. An alteration in the diversity of plants and the disappearance of aquatic plants has been noted in the majority of the world’s water bodies as a result of water pollution. In polluted aquatic ecosystems, plant diversity was studied as a strong bioindicator of water quality. Numerous studies on phytoplankton and aquatic macrophytes have been incorporated in this chapter as an indicator of water pollution. Water pollution leads to changes in species composition, declines in overall plant species diversity and the loss of rare and uncommon species. A perturbation in aquatic ecosystems causes succession of macrophytes with complete loss of submerged vegetation and dominance of phytoplanktons and weeds. Monitoring, assessment and measurement of plant diversity through density, frequency, abundance and diversity indices are also integrated in this chapter.

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Medium 9781780644011

7: Assessing the Effectiveness of Agricultural R&D for Groundnut, Pearl Millet, Pigeonpea and Sorghum in West and Central Africa and East and Southern Africa

Walker, T.S. CABI PDF

7 

Assessing the Effectiveness of

Agricultural R&D for Groundnut, Pearl

Millet, Pigeonpea and Sorghum in West and

Central Africa and East and Southern Africa

J. Ndjeunga,1* K. Mausch2 and F. Simtowe3

International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT)

West and Central Africa, Niamey Niger; 2ICRISAT, Nairobi;

3

CIMMYT, Nairobi (formerly ICRISAT, Nairobi), Kenya

1

Introduction1

Arable land in sub-Saharan Africa is often ­cultivated during seasonal rains in regions where the supply of rainfall exceeds the demand for rainfall for only 2–7 months of the year. These rainfall supply and demand conditions define rainfed agriculture in the semi-arid tropics (SAT). In 1972, the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) was ­e stablished in India with a global mandate to i­ncrease agricultural production in the SAT, thereby enhancing poor people’s welfare in these rainfall-unassured production environments.

Technically, the SAT encompassed large areas of Australia, Latin America and Asia, but the geographic focus at ICRISAT was always on peninsular India and sub-Saharan Africa where most rural and urban poor lived. By 2020, the total population of people in Asia’s and Africa’s

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Medium 9781780648200

18: Volatile Organic Compounds in Integrated Pest Management of Brassica Oilseed Crops

Reddy, G.V.P. CABI PDF

18

Volatile Organic Compounds in Integrated Pest Management of Brassica Oilseed Crops

Sari J. Himanen1, Tao Li2, James D. Blande3 and Jarmo K. Holopainen3*

1

Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Mikkeli, Finland; 2University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; 3University of Eastern Finland,

Kuopio, Finland

18.1  Introduction

All plants emit volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which have high vapour pressures that enable their evaporation into the surrounding air and can be perceived by other organisms in the environment, such as insects (Bruce et  al., 2005). Understanding the roles of VOCs in mediating insect behaviour potentiates the use and development of VOC-based crop protection strategies. Oilseed brassicas have a specialized secondary chemistry characterized by glucosinolates, which are degraded upon tissue damage into products that include volatile compounds

(Halkier and Gershenzon, 2006). Together with terpenoids and other VOCs, these compounds serve as signals to various Brassica-feeding arthropods and their natural enemies. Herbivores themselves also emit VOCs for intraspecific communication, such as aggregation, alarm and sex pheromones, and synthetic analogues can be used in pheromone traps

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Medium 9781780647159

Section 2: Disciplines and Areas of Study

Lohmann, G.; Panosso Netto, A. CABI PDF

Section 2: Disciplines and Areas of Study

2.1

Jafari’s Interdisciplinary Model

Jafar Jafari1 is the founder of the scientific journal

Annals of Tourism Research, which has been published in English since 1973 and in Spanish since

1999. He also edited two editions of the

Encyclopaedia of Tourism (published by Routledge in 2000 and Springer in 2016) and is a co-founder of the International Academy for the Study of

Tourism (http://www.tourismscholars.org) and the

Tourism Research Information Network (TRINET, founded in 1988), an international online list for discussing tourism. He is probably one of the bestknown tourism scholars in the world.

Jafari’s article ‘Toward a framework for tourism education – problems and prospects’, published with Brent Ritchie in 1981, contains a chart that attempts to explain how tourism knowledge is produced at the university through interdisciplinarity.

Although the article was written by both authors, the model was conceived by Jafari in 1981.

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Medium 9781780645216

18: Biotechnological Production of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

Gupta, V.K.; Sharma, G.D.; Tuohy, M.G. CABI PDF

18 

Biotechnological Production of

Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

Ederson R. Abaide, Juliana Bastos, Valeria Dal Prá, Lisiane de Marsillac Terra, Raquel C. Kuhn and Marcio A. Mazutti*

Department of Chemical Engineering, Federal University of Santa Maria, Santa Maria, Brazil

Abstract

The market for omega-3 fatty acids or polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) for biodiesel production is continuously increasing. The main source of omega-3 fatty acids is from the extraction of oil from cold-water fish that usually inhabit deep-water environments, whereas biodiesel is produced from vegetable oils. Microbial oil can be an interesting alternative for the production of PUFAs. This chapter reviews the production, extraction, chemical characterization and future trends on microbial oil production for applications in the food, pharmaceutical and chemical industries. From the analysis of several studies available in the literature, it has been shown that the production of lipids by the biotechnological route can be an effective way to complement the production of fatty acids for biodiesel production or to substitute the traditional extraction of fish oil for production of PUFAs. However, more technologies should be developed to enable the industrial production of microbial lipids.

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