341 Chapters
Medium 9781780645346

Chapter 4 Fertilization and Mineral Nutrition Requirements for Growing Vegetables

Welbaum, G.E. CAB International PDF

4

Fertilization and Mineral Nutrition

Requirements for Growing Vegetables

Introduction

Vegetables produce their own energy by photosynthesis using sunlight, carbon dioxide, and water, but require a fertile soil or growth media to supply mineral nutrients to live, grow, and reproduce successfully. Healthy, well-fed vegetable crops are better able to withstand diseases and insects and to compete with weeds. When the essential minerals required for plant growth and development are limited, vegetable quality suffers and yields decrease. Since vegetables are consumed directly, appearance is important and often times mineral deficiencies cause stunting, distortion, and color change that reduce quality and marketability. This is in contrast to most agronomic crops, which are harvested as grain and processed into foods. With agronomic crops mineral deficiencies affect yield but changes in appearance tend to be less critical.

Plant nutrients are classified into two categories: macronutrients and micronutrients. Macronutrients are those mineral elements that are needed in relatively large amounts and can be expressed as a percentage of the plant’s dry weight. They include nitrogen (N), carbon (C), oxygen (O), hydrogen (H), potassium (K), sulfur (S), calcium (Ca), magnesium

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Medium 9781780643960

8: Immunopathogenesis of Mycobacterium bovis Infection of Cattle

Edited by H Mukundan, Los Alamos National Laboratory CAB International PDF

8 

Immunopathogenesis of

Mycobacterium bovis Infection of Cattle

W. Ray Waters,1* Jayne C. Hope,2 Carly A. Hamilton,2 Mitchell V. Palmer,1

James McNair,3 Robin A. Skuce,3,4 Adrian R. Allen,3 Bryce M. Buddle,5

­Bernardo Villarreal-Ramos6 and H. Martin Vordermeier6

1

National Animal Disease Center, Ames, USA; 2University of Edinburgh,

Edinburgh, UK; 3Agrifood and Biosciences Institute, Belfast, UK; 4Queens

University, Belfast, UK; 5Hopkirk Research Institute, Palmerston

North, New Zealand; 6Animal and Plant Health Agency, Addlestone, UK

Introduction

Infection with the tubercle bacillus, and the ensuing immunopathogenesis, is a quintessential example of the complex and ancient interplay between host and pathogen (reviewed in Cooper and Torrado, 2012; Reece and Kaufmann, 2012). Upon entry into the host,

Mycobacterium tuberculosis has a unique ability to delay onset of adaptive immune responses in mice or humans (reviewed in Ottenhoff,

2012). Likewise, adaptive responses are delayed with M. bovis infection of cattle (Vordermeier et al., 2009a; Waters et al., 2009). This delay in the adaptive response is likely to give the pathogen both a foothold for infection (a critical mass of tubercle bacilli) and a defined niche to dictate the ensuing response (Cooper, 2009). The tubercle bacillus is also armed with a multitude of immune evasion tactics enabling intracellular survival and persistence. Examples given by

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Medium 9781780643731

15: Role of Microorganisms in Alleviation of Abiotic Stresses for Sustainable Agriculture

Chakraborty, U., Editor CAB International PDF

15 

Role of Microorganisms in Alleviation of

Abiotic Stresses for Sustainable Agriculture

Usha Chakraborty,1* Bishwanath Chakraborty,2 Pannalal Dey1 and Arka Pratim Chakraborty2

Plant Biochemistry Laboratory1 and Immuno-Phytopathology Laboratory2,

Department of Botany, University of North Bengal, Siliguri, India

Abstract

Abiotic stresses affect plants in different ways and are causes of reduction in crop productivity. In order to increase crop productivity it becomes necessary to evolve efficient low-cost technologies for abiotic stress management. Soil microorganisms, surviving in the soil under extreme conditions, have shown great properties, which, if exploited can serve agriculture for increasing and maintaining crop productivity.

While it is well established that beneficial soil microorganisms can promote growth and increase productivity through mechanisms such as nutrient mobilization, hormone secretion and disease suppression, it is also becoming increasingly clear that their effects may be more far-reaching. Several studies have reported that soil microorganisms may have mechanisms for alleviation of abiotic stresses in plants such as water and temperature stress, salinity, heavy metals etc. Some of these include tolerance to salinity, drought

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27: Animal Models for Leprosy Research

Edited by H Mukundan, Los Alamos National Laboratory CAB International PDF

27 

Animal Models for Leprosy Research

Linda B. Adams, Maria T. Pena, Rahul Sharma, Ramanuj Lahiri and Richard W. Truman*

National Hansen’s Disease Programs, Baton Rouge, USA

Introduction

Although Mycobacterium leprae, discovered by

Armauer Hansen in 1873, was one of the first microorganisms to be associated with a human infectious disease, it has yet to be cultured in axenic medium. For nearly a century, attempts by numerous investigators to cultivate the organism outside the human host, or to develop an animal model that accurately recapitulates leprosy, were met with frustration and failure. Animals infected (reviewed in Johnstone,

1987) included the typical laboratory species such as various strains of mice, rats, guinea pigs, gerbils, hamsters, rabbits and monkeys, as well as an assortment of other mammals (e.g. dogs, cats, pigs, armadillos, chinchillas, fruit bats, lemmings, voles, possums, chipmunks and hedgehogs), birds (e.g. pigeons, chickens, paddy birds, canaries, parrots and love-birds) and cold-blooded animals (e.g. eels, fresh and salt water fish, tadpoles, frogs, turtles, snakes, lizards and alligators). The variability seen in success rates for cultivation in these animals may have been due partly to the low quality of the M. leprae inoculum that was used, as it was largely crude patient-derived biopsy material of unknown concentration and viability.

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6 Predicting the Geographial Distribution of an Invasive Species (Chromolaena odorata L. (King) & H.E. Robins) in the Indian Subcontinent under Climate Change Scenarios

CAB International PDF

6

Predicting the Geographical

Distribution of an Invasive Species

(Chromolaena odorata L. (King) &

H.E. Robins) in the Indian

Subcontinent under Climate

Change Scenarios

S.K. Barik and D. Adhikari

Centre for Advanced Studies in Botany, North-Eastern Hill

University, Shillong, India

Introduction

Biological invasion, coupled with climate change, threatens the global environment as well as economics (Thuiller et al., 2007;

Tripathi, 2009; Walther et al., 2009). Rising temperatures, rapid economic development and invasion by alien species can potentially affect ecosystems, rapidly disassemble communities and negatively impact native biodiversity (Sanders et al., 2003; Lin et al.,

2007; Thuiller et al., 2007; Kelly and Goulden,

2008; Walther et al., 2009). Worldwide, alien invasive species cause an estimated annual economic loss of US$314 billion in the agriculture and forestry sectors, of which

India’s share is round US$116 billion

(Pimentel et al., 2001). Around 40% of the total plant species found in India are alien, of which 25% are considered to be invasive

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