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6: Nematophagous Fungi: Formulation, Mass Production and Application Technology

Askary, T.H., Editor CAB International PDF


Nematophagous Fungi: Formulation,

Mass Production and Application


Paulo Roberto Pala Martinelli,1* Pedro Luiz Martins Soares,1

Jaime Maia dos Santos1 and Arlete Jose da Silveira2


Department of Plant Protection, UNESP Jaboticabal, São Paulo, Brazil;


Department of Agrarian and Environmental Sciences, State University of Santa Cruz, Ilheus-Bahia, Brazil

6.1  Introduction

A successful plant-parasitic nematode (PPN) management requires a combination of management tactics, such as exclusion measures, crop rotation, use of antagonistic plants, resistant varieties and chemical and biological methods. Among these, the biological method of nematode management by using nematophagous fungi has drawn considerable attention by researchers all over the world (Barron,

1977; Fattah, 1988; Maia et al., 2001; Bernardo,

2002; Corbani, 2002; Martinelli et al., 2012a,b).

These carnivorous fungi are the most studied organisms for the management of nematodes.

The first report of fungi parasitizing nematodes was reported by Zopf (1888), and the first attempt of using these microorganisms in nematode control was taken by Cobb in

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5: Visual Semantics and Destination Competitiveness: The Case of Wedding Tourism in Mexico

Artal-Tur, A. CAB International PDF


Visual Semantics and Destination

Competitiveness: The Case of

Wedding Tourism in Mexico

Gerardo Novo Espinosa de los Monteros1* and Maribel Osorio Garcia

El Colegio Mexiquense, Zinacantepec, México; 2Universidad Autónoma del

Estado de México, Toluca, México




While Mexico has not positioned itself explicitly as a wedding destination, it has in recent years begun to capitalize on those attributes that make it an attractive destination for such purposes and has begun to channel its efforts toward particular market segments, primarily the North American market. Its marketing efforts, particularly those using visual communication of destination weddings, have featured

Mexican destinations that serve as ideal backdrops for such celebrations, while also highlighting the qualities that make them attractive for vacationing and tourism. For consumers, choosing a location for a destination wedding has become a complex task as more and more places attempt to incorporate into their offerings activities, amenities and integrated services for organizing a wedding.

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Chickpea (Cicer arietinum Linn.)

Kumar, P. CAB International PDF

CHICKPEA (Cicer arietinum Linn.)



Plate 332. Nitrogen-deficient crop in foreground compared with nitrogen-fertilized crop behind.

(Photo by Dr Prakash Kumar.)

1. The formation and development of nodules are restricted under soil salinity and sodicity conditions.

2. Nitrogen fixation reaches the maximum level at flowering stage and then declines sharply during pod filling.

3. Nitrogen deficiency restricts plant growth and reduces branching. Plants have fewer flowers. Fewer pods are formed resulting in poor yields.

4. When nitrogen supply becomes restricted the older leaves display deficiency symptoms first.

5. The entire plant appears chlorotic, while older leaves turn more yellow than upper leaves (Plate 332).

6. Pink pigmentation develops on the lower part of the stem

(Plate 333).

7. In the later stage, the yellow older leaves turn white and drop prematurely.

Developmental stages

Stage I: Early deficiency symptoms are expressed as stunted growth and a uniform pale green appearance of the entire plant.

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4. Diabrotica speciosa: an Important Soil Pest in South America

Pena, J.E., Editor CAB International PDF


Diabrotica speciosa: An Important

Soil Pest in South America

Crébio José Ávila and Alexa Gabriela Santana

Embrapa Western Agriculture, Caixa Postal 661, Dourados 79824-100, Brazil

4.1  Introduction

The genus Diabrotica, typically of Neotropical

­origin, represents a large number of polyphagous beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae:

Galerucinae: Luperini) and consists of about

338 described species (Wilcox, 1972). This genus is usually divided into three subgroups: signifera, fucata and virgifera. The fucata and virgifera groups are the most studied in the world (Krysan, 1986), containing 305 and

21  species, respectively, while the signifera group is represented by only 11 species (Wilcox,

1972; Krysan and Smith, 1987).

In Brazil, D. speciosa (Germar, 1824) is the predominant species of the genus Diabrotica.

The adults attack the aerial part of various crops and the larvae attack roots and tubers

(Gassen, 1989; Ávila and Milanez, 2004). In

Brazil, the adults of D. speciosa have the common names ‘vaquinha’, ‘brasileirinho’ and

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3. Cellular, Metabolic and Molecular Aspects of Chromoplast Differentiation in Ripening Fruit

P Nath CAB International PDF


Cellular, Metabolic and Molecular

Aspects of Chromoplast Differentiation in

Ripening Fruit

Jean Claude Pech,1,2* Mondher Bouzayen1,2 and Alain Latché1,2 de Toulouse, Castanet-Tolosan, France; 2INRA, CastanetTolosan, France


3.1 Introduction

Chromoplasts are non-green plastids that are responsible for the yellow, orange and red colours of many fruit. They evolve during fruit ripening by differentiation of other forms of plastids. In a number of fruit, such as tomatoes and peppers, coloured chromoplasts are derived from green chloroplasts with the disintegration of the thylakoid membranes and the formation of new carotenoid-bearing structures (Frey-Wyssling and Kreutzer,

1958; Rosso, 1968). In other fruit, such as the flesh of developing papayas, chromoplasts evolve from leuco- or proplastids, as no intermediate amyloplast or chloroplast structures are encountered

(Schweiggert et al., 2011). A very complex origin of chromoplasts has been found in mango where a dynamic interconversion of plastids occurs, although it was not possible to establish a sequential pattern

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