341 Chapters
Medium 9781780642895

11 Enhancing Climate Resilience of Cropping Systems

Fuhrer, J.; Gregory, P.J., Editors; Fuhrer, J.; Gregory, P.J. CAB International PDF

11

Enhancing Climate Resilience of

Cropping Systems

Heidi Webber,1 Helena Kahiluoto,2 Reimund

Rötter2 and Frank Ewert1

1University of Bonn, Institute of Crop Science and Resource

Conservation (INRES), Crop Science Group, Bonn, Germany;

2MTT Agrifood Research Finland, Plant Production Research,

Mikkeli, Finland

11.1 Introduction

How cropping systems will be impacted by the combination of rising temperatures, changing rainfall, more frequent extreme events and elevated CO2 is highly uncertain

(Tubiello et al., 2007; Osborne et al., 2013).

The attribution of changes in crop productivity to climate change is difficult due to concurrent developments in technology and management (Howden et al.,

2007; IPCC, 2010) which occur in response to many sociocultural, environmental and market factors (Smit and Skinner, 2002;

Mertz et al., 2009). However, growing evidence suggests that at a regional scale, crop phenology (e.g. Siebert and Ewert,

2012) and yields (e.g. Lobell et al., 2011) have already been impacted by increasing temperatures and days with extreme high temperatures (e.g. Reidsma et al., 2009;

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Medium 9781780641645

5 Climate Change, Plant Traits and Invasion in Natural and Agricultural Ecosystems

Ziska, L.H., Editor; Dukes, J.S., Editor CAB International PDF

5

Climate Change, Plant Traits and

Invasion in Natural and

Agricultural Ecosystems

Dana M. Blumenthal and Julie A. Kray

Rangeland Resources Research Unit, USDA-ARS, Fort Collins,

Colorado, USA

Abstract

Invasive plant species often thrive in new and resource-rich environments and may therefore benefit from global changes that create such environments. Global change effects on invasion risk will depend both on the environment in which competition between invasive and resident plant species occurs and on the physiological and life history traits of the competing species. In agricultural environments, risks include the northward movement of many problematic invasive species, decreased biotic resistance to invasion with extreme climatic events and strong global change responses of particular invasive species. However, due to their similar rapid resource acquisition and growth strategies, invasive species and crops may respond similarly to changes that increase resources. Furthermore, management adaptations, such as planting crops or varieties suited to new climate conditions, will help to maintain biotic resistance to invasion in crops. In natural ecosystems, global changes that increase resources rapidly may favour fast-growing invasive plant species and inhibit the slower-growing native species adapted to current climate conditions. In addition, management options to help native species compete with invasive species in novel environments, such as assisted migration, are relatively limited.

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Medium 9781780645346

Chapter 5 Irrigation of Vegetable Crops

Welbaum, G.E. CAB International PDF

5

Irrigation of Vegetable Crops

Introduction

Irrigation may be defined as the science of applying water to the land or soil. Irrigation has many diverse uses, including the growing of agricultural crops, maintenance of landscapes, revegetation of disturbed soils in dry areas and during periods of inadequate rainfall. Additionally, irrigation also may provide frost protection for vegetable crops (Snyder and Melo-Abreu, 2005). In contrast, production that relies only on direct rainfall is referred to as rain-fed or dryland vegetable farming. Successful vegetable production in many regions is dependent upon farmers having sufficient water for irrigation. Water scarcity is a critical constraint to farming in many parts of the world.

Arid regions frequently suffer from physical water scarcity. Physical water scarcity is where there is insufficient water to meet all demands, including those needed for ecosystems to function effectively.

Symptoms of physical water scarcity include environmental degradation and declining groundwater.

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Medium 9781780643731

7: Sugarcane (Saccharum sp.) Salt Tolerance at Various Developmental Levels

Chakraborty, U., Editor CAB International PDF

7 

Sugarcane (Saccharum sp.) Salt Tolerance at Various Developmental Levels

Ch.B. Gandonou,1,2* and N. Skali-Senhaji1

Laboratoire de Biologie et Santé, Faculté des Sciences de Tétouan, Université

Abdelmalek Essaâdi, Tétouan, Morocco; 2Laboratoire de Physiologie végétale et d’Etude des Stress Environnementaux, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques, Université d’Abomey-Calavi, Cotonou, République du Bénin

1

Abstract

Salt-stress affects plant growth and development at different stages. In this work, we evaluated the level of salinity tolerance of five sugarcane (Saccharum sp.) varieties: CP66-346, CP65-357, CP70-321, CP59-73 and

NCo310 by using different NaCl concentrations (0, 17, 34, 68 and 102 mM). This evaluation was based on the in vitro bud emergency, young plants’ survival and growth in hydroponic system, and finally on the aspect and the growth of calli issued from foliar explants. NaCl stress effects result in a reduction of the final bud emergency percentage. At bud emergence stage, varieties CP66-346 and CP59-73 appeared to be the most salt tolerant while NCo310 behaved as the most salt sensitive. Young plants’ survival and growth are also reduced by salinity and at this stage variety CP66-346 seems to be the most tolerant while CP65-357 and CP70321 are the most sensitive. Salinity causes calli necrosis and reduces their growth; varieties NCo310 and

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Medium 9781845939076

23 Control of Lantana and Restoration of Biodiversity in Reserve Forests of Chandigarh: a Case Study

CAB International PDF

23

Control of Lantana and

Restoration of Biodiversity in

Reserve Forests of Chandigarh: a Case Study

Ishwar Singh

Conservator of Forests (Central), Northern Regional Office of the Ministry of Environment and Forests, Chandigarh, India

Introduction

Lantana camara (family Verbenaceae), a tropical shrub of forests, originated in tropical America and is regarded as a noxious weed in about 80 countries (Parsons and

Cuthbertson, 2001). It is a pioneer in secondary succession, occurring in diverse habitats and agro-climatic conditions and on a variety of soil types. The plant generally grows best in open, unshaded situations, such as degraded land, pasture, edges of tropical and subtropical forests, warm temperate forests, beach fronts and forests recovering from fire or logging; it has also invaded plantations and riparian zones. It generally occurs in small clumps of about 1 m in diameter (Palmer and Pullen, 1995). In its naturalized range it often forms dense, mono-specific thickets, and at some sites it even climbs trees (Swarbrick et al., 1998).

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