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3: ‘Before’

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3

‘Before’

I vividly remember the day I booked my trip to East Timor. It was 22 November

2005, 2 weeks after submitting my undergraduate research (Honours) thesis

(the study that marked the first stage of my investigation of travel and transformation). The day didn’t start well. In the morning I found myself huddled on the floor, a physical and emotional wreck. It had been a tough year. I had enjoyed my first degree and had decided to complete a year-long research degree in

2005. Determined to give it my all, I began 2 months before the official start of the academic year. Even the best made plans go astray and, only 2 days into my literature review, I was offered a 3-month contract with Tourism New South

Wales – the state government tourism agency. Although I had doubts about balancing two full-time pursuits, the opportunity was too good to turn down.

My 3-month contract turned into 4 months, and months ended up becoming a full year. By the time I submitted my bound contribution to knowledge, I was exhausted. The wheels fell off shortly after.

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11: Understanding the Seasonal Concentration of Tourist Arrivals: The Case of the South of Spain

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11

Understanding the Seasonal

Concentration of Tourist Arrivals:

The Case of the South of Spain

José David Cisneros-Martínez * and Antonio Fernández-Morales

Universidad de Málaga, Málaga, Spain

11.1 Introduction

Seasonality is a phenomenon that affects many economic activities, including tourism.

Regions or destinations where the tourism industry represents a significant part of their economies are indeed more affected by seasonal fluctuations. In Andalusia, the southern region of Spain, tourism is a very important economic industry, with 12.8% of the share in the regional gross domestic product (GDP) for 2013. Employment

­figures for 2013 indicate that there are 320,000 tourism-related jobs, which is 13% of the total regional employment. Moreover, it has been estimated that 22.4 million tourists visited Andalusia in 2013, of which 59% chose the Andalusian coastline; ‘sun and beach’ was the predominant product (Consejería de Turismo, Comercio y Deporte

[CTCYD], 2013).

Thus, the entire Andalusian region must deal with the effects of seasonality. Both local and regional administration, as well as tourism business owners, are currently confronting this problem by implementing remedial measures to reduce seasonal concentration with the relentless pursuit of new formulas for product diversification.

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14: Socio-economic Profile of Sustainable Tourists and Expenditure at Destinations: A Local-based Analysis in Andalusia, Spain

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14

Socio-economic Profile of

Sustainable Tourists and

Expenditure at Destinations:

A Local-based Analysis in

Andalusia, Spain

Pablo Juan Cárdenas-García* and Juan Ignacio Pulido-Fernández

University of Jaén, Spain

14.1 Introduction

The core around which all economic impacts revolve is tourism expenditure

(Cárdenas-García, 2012; Brida and Scuderi, 2013), which is therefore considered a key variable in the analysis of the tourism market, even though its assessment is becoming increasingly complex (Aguiló and Juaneda, 2000).

In fact, tourists have specific characteristics – such as age, origin, income, occupational status, etc. – that usually determine the tourism expenditure linked to a particular tourism activity. Thus, the study of the underlying causes that explain such expenditure becomes crucial to guide both the private sector and those responsible for setting tourism policy, inasmuch as it would be possible to know in advance the tourism expenditure that will be performed by a consumer according to his or her specific characteristics (Woodside and Dubelaar, 2002).

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6: ‘After’

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‘After’

After returning from Cambodia and Laos, I was at a loss. I arrived home late on a Wednesday evening and spent the night at my brother’s place in the city so that I could head to work early in the morning. I finally made my way home by train the following evening. What was usually an hour-long journey became seriously delayed. Struggling with the idea of going home, on top of coping with a faulty transport system in a supposedly developed country, I walked to an unoccupied part of the carriage, filled an empty water bottle with a healthy portion of duty-free gin and proceeded to inebriate myself. I could vaguely make out the guard and driver offering alternative explanations for the delay as

I sat listening to music. The guard believed there was a gas leak on the northern line. The driver insisted there was a fatality on the western line. They continued this back and forth intermittently for half an hour, with increasingly terse explanations, as we crawled along the tracks. I turned the volume of my music up and at some stage caught one of them apologizing as they had been incorrect. I struggled to make sense of any of this. I refused to be picked up from the train station and eventually arrived home on the bus. Everything in my house seemed different: cleaner, sharper, bolder.

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8: Green Economy Practices in the Tourism Industry: The Case of Limpopo Province, South Africa

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Green Economy Practices in the

Tourism Industry: The Case of

Limpopo Province, South Africa

Charles Nhemachena,1* Siyanda Jonas2 and Selma Karuaihe2

International Water Management Institute, Pretoria, South Africa; 2Human Sciences

Research Council, Pretoria, South Africa

1

8.1

Introduction

Tourism as an industry contributes significantly to the national and provincial ­economies of South Africa, accounting for over 5% of gross domestic product (GDP). In recent years, the focus on the green economy initiatives across the various sectors is gaining momentum. In its 2013 World Tourism Barometer, the United Nations World

Tourism Organization (UNWTO, 2013) showed that the contribution of tourism to the global economy was estimated at around 9% of GDP, through direct and induced impact. Moreover, the sector’s contribution to employment was estimated at an average of 1 in 11 jobs generated globally. The contribution of the tourism industry in South Africa has led the government to recognize the sector as, inter alia, a key sector that can precipitate addressing the challenges of inequality, poverty and unemployment. For instance, the State of Travel and Tourism in South Africa posits that the government identifies tourism as one of the key contributing sectors to the medium-term strategic priorities of growing the economy and creating decent work

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