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17: Tuberculosis in Pigs and Wild Boar

Edited by H Mukundan, Los Alamos National Laboratory CAB International PDF


Tuberculosis in Pigs and Wild Boar

Christian Gortázar,1* Joaquín Vicente,1 José de la Fuente,1

Graham Nugent2 and Pauline Nol3


SaBio-IREC, Ciudad Real, Spain; 2LandCare Research, Lincoln,

New Zealand; 3USDA-APHIS-VS-Wildlife Livestock Disease

Investigations Team, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA


The Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa) is a native wild suid with an ancestral range reaching from the Far East to Western Europe and northern Africa. It is the ancestor of the domestic pig.

Maintenance of backyard and semi-free-ranging domestic pigs, along with escapes and releases of pigs, wild boar or their crossbreds, have resulted in an almost global distribution of the different forms of S. scrofa.

Wild boar and pigs are mostly herbivores obtaining their food often by rooting the ground.

They also consume invertebrates such as insects and earthworms, as well as small mammals and birds, or carrion if it is available. Wild boar and feral pig densities can easily reach values of over ten individuals per square kilometre. However, true densities are difficult to assess and most monitoring is based on cull or hunting harvest data. These data indicate increasing populations throughout the ancestral range, as well as in areas with introductions.

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Medium 9781780641645

7 Synergies between Climate Change and Species Invasions: Evidence from Marine Systems

Ziska, L.H., Editor; Dukes, J.S., Editor CAB International PDF


Synergies between Climate

Change and Species Invasions:

Evidence from Marine Systems

Cascade J.B. Sorte

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of

California, Irvine, California, USA


The hypothesis that climate change will facilitate species invasions has recently received increasing focus in studies of marine systems. Over the past decade, approaches to testing this hypothesis have shifted from time-series observations of concomitant increases in both processes to experimental tests that are beginning to reveal the mechanisms underlying the synergies between these two aspects of global change. The results of many studies conform to expectations that under climate change, invasive species’ abundances, ranges and per capita effects – collectively indicative of invader impacts – will increase. However, there remain significant gaps in our understanding of responses to non-thermal factors (such as changes in ocean pH, dissolved oxygen and storm events) and how species-specific idiosyncrasies will manifest in changes at the community level.

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Medium 9781780643922

4 The Normalization of Places and Spaces: Tourism and Transformation – A Glossary on the Eye-of-Authority

Reisinger, Y. CAB International PDF


The Normalization of Places and

Spaces: Tourism and Transformation –

A Glossary on the Eye-of-Authority

Keith Hollinshead,1 Kellee Caton2 and Milka Ivanova1


of Bedfordshire, UK and 2Thompson Rivers University, Canada


This chapter is the second of two chapters that seek to situate Foucault’s applied work on dominance and subjugation in everyday institutional discourse to tourism settings and to tourism studies research contexts. Chapter 3 by Hollinshead, Ivanova and Caton introduced Foucault’s outlook on the mundane/quotidian habitual forms of practice which all fields/institutions/disciplines have, and it sought to explain how

Foucault’s views on the ordinary/banal governmentality of things could be applied to day-byday subject making in tourism/tourism studies, just as in any other domain of discourse and praxis.

To recap, the previous chapter on the political economy of things explained that Foucauldian forms of power-knowledge within institutions work as a form of normalized truth ‘there’: that is, dominant/hegemonic truths serve as an ensemble of ordered procedures that (sometimes consciously but, more consequentially, unconsciously) act as a circular system – or conditioning formative force – which governs what is sayable or doable within the given institutional field of relations.

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Medium 9781780641850

9 Hospitality Information systems

Benckendorff, P.J.; Sheldon, P.J. CAB International PDF

chapter 9

Hospitality Information


Learning Objectives

After reading this chapter you should be able to:

understand the nature of the hospitality industry and its unique applications of IT;

● be able to explain how a hotel’s property management system works and connects to other systems in the hotel;

● know the ways a hotel can service its guest better with IT applications throughout the hotel;

● know how restaurants can use IT for improved operations; and

● to understand how a hotel or restaurant can use IT for improved management and decision-making.


The places where travelers stay and eat vary immensely and yet almost all of these institutions benefit from IT. The hospitality sector includes lodging operations (hotels, motels, guest houses, bed and breakfasts, self-catering apartments

and cottages, caravan parks and campsites) and food and beverage operations (fine dining, fast food, convention and event foodservice). Each of these types of institutions consists of a variety of operations. Some are small and independent, some are large multinational chain operations; some are specialized and attract niche markets, others cater to the mass market.

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Medium 9781780643755

16: Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi as Biocontrol Agents of Phytonematodes

Askary, T.H., Editor CAB International PDF


Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi as

Biocontrol Agents of Phytonematodes

Chellappa Sankaranarayanan*

Division of Crop Protection, Sugarcane Breeding Institute,

Coimbatore, India

16.1  Introduction

endomycorrhiza or arbuscular mycorrhiza, ericoid mycorrhiza, arbutoid mycorrhiza, monoThe symbiotic associations between the plant tropoid mycorrhiza, ect-endomycorrhiza, and roots and fungi are referred to as ‘Mycorrhizae’. orchidaceous mycorrhiza.

The term mycorrhiza from the Greek (mykes =

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), mushroom or fungus and rhiza = root) can also previously known as vesicular-arbuscular mycorbe defined as ‘a mutualistic symbiosis between rhizae (VAM), are mutualistic symbiotic associplant and fungus, localized in a root or root-like ations between the roots of most vascular plants structure in which energy moves primarily and a small group of fungi belonging to the from plant to fungus and inorganic resources new phylum Glomeromycota (Schussler et al., move from fungus to plant’. These symbiotic 2001). AMF are characterized by the presence relationships are characterized by two-way of intercellular or intracellular hyphae, arbusmovements of essential nutrients such as move- cules which are branched hyphae involved ment of carbon from plant to the fungus and in nutrient exchange (Fig. 16.1), extra-radicle movement of inorganic nutrients from fungus mycelium that connect the root to the soil, to plant, which are critical symbiotical link- and spores that are formed in the extra-radicle ages between the soil, root and plant. Mycor- mycelium. Some fungal species also form rhizal fungi in infertile soil help in uptake of intra-radicle structures referred to as vesicles nutrients, which results in improvement of plant (enlarged portions of hyphae that are filled with growth. Mycorrhizal plants are always com- lipid bodies) (Fig. 16.2). Taxonomically, AMF petitive and are able to withstand unfavourable belong to the phylum Glomeromycota, class environmental conditions compared to non-­ Glomeromycetes, orders Archaeosporales, Parmycorrhizal plants. The vast majority of land aglomerales, Diversisporales and Glomerales. plants form symbiotic associations with fungi and Eight genera of AMF have been recognized, an estimated 95% of all plant species belong to mainly on the basis of morphological characdiverse genera that characteristically form mycor- ters of asexual spores (Schussler et al., 2001). rhizae. On the basis of morphology and anatomy, These are Glomus, Paraglomus, Sclerocystis, only seven types of mycorrhizae have come into Scutellospora, Gigaspora, Acaulospora, Archaeospora general use so far. These are: ectomycorrhiza, and Entrophospora, including ­approximately

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