341 Chapters
Medium 9781780643960

12: Mycobacterial Infections in Camelids

Edited by H Mukundan, Los Alamos National Laboratory CAB International PDF

12 

Mycobacterial Infections in Camelids

Shelley Rhodes,1* Tim Crawshaw,1 Ricardo de la Rua-Domenech,1

Sue Bradford,1 Konstantin P. Lyashchenko,2 Gezahegne Mamo,3

Di Summers,4 Ulli Wernery5 and Patrik Zanolari6

1

Animal and Plant Health Agency, UK; 2Chembio Diagnostic

Systems, Inc., Medford, USA; 3Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa,

Ethiopia; 4Camelid TB Support and Research Group; 5Central

Veterinary Research Laboratory, Dubai, United Arab Emirates;

6

Vetsuisse-Faculty of Berne, Berne, Switzerland

Introduction

Tuberculosis (TB) is a major infectious disease of mammals caused by infection with bacteria of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) (Smith et al., 2009). The disease is characterized by the formation of granulomas, primarily in the respiratory system and associated lymph nodes, from which the mycobacteria are excreted and infect other susceptible individuals. Most cases of TB in farm animals are caused by infection with

M.  bovis, the member of the MTBC that causes bovine TB. However, TB in camelids caused by infection with M. microti (another member of the MTBC), M. kansasii and

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Medium 9781780645346

Chapter 18 Family Asparagaceae

Welbaum, G.E. CAB International PDF

18

Family Asparagaceae

ASPARAGUS

Origin and History

Asparagus is a very ancient crop native to the eastern

Mediterranean region, Asia Minor, and possibly as far east as the Caucasus mountains (Rubatzky and

Yamaguchi, 1997). The Ancient Greeks (200 bc) and

Romans considered asparagus a delicacy that also had medicinal qualities for relieving toothaches.

Asparagus was gathered from the wild until the

Romans began cultivation. After the Roman

Empire ended, there was little mention of asparagus during medieval times (Vaughan and Geissler, 2009).

There are historic references to asparagus production in England in 1538 and Germany in 1567, and by the end of the 16th century asparagus was produced in France. Louis XIV enjoyed asparagus so much that he constructed hothouse beds for out-of-season production (Ilott, 1901). Asparagus was introduced to North America from Europe by 1672, and President Thomas Jefferson grew asparagus at his home in Virginia in the late 1700s.

Asparagus was first planted in California in the

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Medium 9781780642895

6 UK Fruit and Vegetable Production – Impacts of Climate Change and Opportunities for Adaptation

Fuhrer, J.; Gregory, P.J., Editors; Fuhrer, J.; Gregory, P.J. CAB International PDF

6

UK Fruit and Vegetable Production

– Impacts of Climate Change and

Opportunities for Adaptation

Rosemary Collier1 and Mark A. Else2

1Warwick

Crop Centre, School of Life Sciences, University of

Warwick, Wellesbourne, Warwick, UK; 2East Malling Research, East

Malling, Kent, UK

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Fruit Production

Outdoor horticultural crops grown in the

UK are particularly sensitive to changes in climate due to the impact of increasing temperatures, changing rainfall patterns and increased frequency of extreme events

(Knox et al., 2010a). It is clear that climate change will offer both opportunities and threats to UK horticultural production

(Knox et al., 2010b). The complex interactions between the variables make accurate predictions of the effects of climate change on agricultural and horticultural production notoriously difficult, and recent predictions in the UK Climate Change Risk Assessment

(CCRA) published in January 2012 (CCRA,

2012) have stimulated much debate (e.g.

Knox and Wade, 2012; Semenov et al., 2012).

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Medium 9781780642789

Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum Linn.)

Kumar, P.; Sharma, M.K. CAB International PDF

COTTON (Gossypium hirsutum Linn.)

NITROGEN (N) DEFICIENCY

Symptoms

Plate 584. Entire plant appearing light green and stunted. (Photo by Dr Prakash Kumar and Dr Manoj Kumar Sharma.)

1. Deficient plants appear stunted with short, thin stems.

2. A bright red pigmentation often develops on the lower parts of the stem.

3. The entire plant exhibits a light green appearance (Plate 584).

4. Younger leaves become smaller in size and the number of branches is reduced.

5. Nitrogen is a mobile nutrient in plants and it is rapidly moved from older to younger parts of the plants when its supply is reduced.

6. The deficiency symptoms appear primarily on older leaves and become more severe with time (Plates 583 and 585).

7. Initially, old leaves become pale green, then yellow and finally develop brown necrosis, usually in interveinal regions.

8. Eventually, the affected leaves die and fall off early.

Developmental stages

Stage I: In mild deficiencies, the entire plant appears uniformly light green in colour (Plate 584).

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5 Vineyard Establishment

Glen L. Creasy and Leroy L. Creasy CAB International PDF

5

Vineyard Establishment

Where to place your vineyard and how to bring it into production are critical questions in the process of developing a viable and quality grape production system. It is therefore important not to be hasty at this stage, as a mistake then will stay with the vineyard for the long term. Growing grapes is a high-cost venture so, to minimize risk, as much information as possible should be gathered at every opportunity. In this chapter, the process of putting in a vineyard is followed from first thoughts to making sure that the vines get off to a healthy start, ready to produce as much high-quality crop as possible for the life of the vineyard.

SITE SELECTION

Probably the most important decision that is made for a vineyard is where it is situated. The site influences many factors that affect how the grapes will grow, how easy they will be to manage and what kinds of grape products can be successfully produced from it. It is easy to see, then, why this decision should be thoroughly researched and well considered before choosing the spot: an inferior site results in an inferior vineyard producing inferior grapes.

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