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15: Networking for Sustainable Cultural Tourism Activities and Dynamics: The Case of Oporto

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15

Networking for Sustainable

Cultural Tourism Activities and

Dynamics: The Case of Oporto

Ivana Stević* and Zélia Breda

University of Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal

15.1 Introduction

‘We live in a networked world’ (Scott et al., 2008, p. 1), with constantly getting in touch with the term ‘network’ in our everyday lives, yet not thinking about what it actually represents and using it without a second thought. We have our networks of friends, family members and colleagues with whom we interact, interrelate and cooperate. We all are parts of a complex global system that functions on the basis of connections and interrelations, both people and industries, with tourism being no exception. Tourism is a phenomenon, an industry, an activity, an international business, an income generator, a development mechanism, a poverty alleviator. It can be studied and defined from the demand side (e.g. Frechtling, 2001; Eurostat, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, United Nations and World Tourism Organization, 2001), from the supply side (e.g. Smith, 1988, 1991, 1993, 1995), as a system composed of supply and demand (e.g. Mill and Morrison, 1985; Leiper, 1990; Wall and Mathieson, 2006), from a community perspective (e.g. Murphy, 1985; Murphy and Murphy, 2004), or from a market perspective (e.g. Hall, 2003).

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12: Tourism Policy and the Challenge of Seasonality: The Case of the Balearic Islands

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12

Tourism Policy and the Challenge of Seasonality: The Case of the

Balearic Islands

Margarita Alemany,* Maria Antonia García and Ángela Aguilo

University of the Balearic Islands, Palma de Mallorca, Spain

12.1 Introduction

The origin of tourism in the Balearic Islands dates from the end of the 19th century, but travelling to the Balearic Islands did not become a mass phenomenon until the late 1950s and 1960s. This was the so-called tourism boom, which led to a significant increase in hotel capacity and annual number of tourists. This new reality became the backbone of a unique economic model, which has almost always shown an upward trend, with only slight fluctuations such as the one caused by the energy crisis of the

1960s. This tourism model established itself as a successful production system, reaching a turning point in the 1980s when, as a consequence of the decentralization of state powers prompted by the Spanish constitution of 1978, the area of responsibility for tourism was transferred to the Autonomous Region. This led to the development of an independent tourism model for the notable creation of wealth, which, despite inevitable fluctuations from one year to another, has been the undisputed driver of the economy of the Balearic Islands from its creation to the present day.

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6: The Potential Effects of Climate Change on the Tourism Industry: A Study in Turkey

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6

The Potential Effects of Climate

Change on the Tourism Industry:

A Study in Turkey

Musa Pinar,1* Ibrahim Birkan,2 Gamze Tanil3 and Muzaffer Uysal4

Valparaiso University, Valparaiso, USA; 2Atilim University, Ankara, Turkey; 3Dogus

University, Istanbul, Turkey; 4Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University,

Blacksburg, USA

1

6.1  Introduction

Scientific research shows that the global climate has changed as a result of human

­activities that are increasing greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere.

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) declared ‘warming of the climate system is unequivocal’. Climate change includes an increase in continental average temperatures, temperature extremes and wind patterns, widespread decreases in glaciers and ice caps and warming ocean surface temperature that contributed to a sea level rise of 1.8 mm/year from 1961 to 2003 and approximately 3.1 mm/year from

1993 to 2003 (IPCC, 2007). These changes to the world’s climate cause substantial concerns, for many reasons. For example, the rising sea level threatens the viability of many coastal zones and small islands; temperature rises are predicted to change precipitation patterns, which could exacerbate water supply problems and create a greater risk of both flooding and drought conditions in many parts of the world; and climate change also seems likely to increase the magnitude, frequency and risk of ­extreme climatic events, such as storms and sea surges. Moreover, recent research indicates that hot extremes, heatwaves and heavy precipitation events will become more frequent and tropical cyclones (typhoons and hurricanes) will become more intense (UNWTO, UNEP–WMO, 2008). Water scarcity and increased drought will also be serious problems for some regions.

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4: Travels through Mobile Spaces, Places and Landscapes – A Sensual Essay

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4

Travels through Mobile Spaces,

Places and Landscapes –

A Sensual Essay

The challenge of investigating complexity opens the door for creative approaches. As argued in Chapter 2, when physical travel and transformation are no longer conceptualised using an out-dated, sedentarist paradigm of travel/ tourism, but viewed instead as mobile, sensual and embodied, the investigation of these complex socio-cultural phenomena requires innovation. This entails not only suitable methods of data collection, but also techniques for successfully analysing, re/presenting and communicating the rich and multifaceted experiences, stories and voices uncovered. Up until this point, the book has addressed the latter by including participant stories between each chapter, along with incorporating a short personal vignette at the start of Chapter 3. The present chapter takes this experimentation a step further by utilizing a sensual essay, comprising visual material, captions and travel narratives, to explore the encounters and interactions that physical travel enables with/in mobile spaces, places and landscapes (along with their affective/effective consequences).

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16: Facing the Challenges of Sustainability: The Case of Bulgarian Tourism

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16

Facing the Challenges of

Sustainability: The Case of

Bulgarian Tourism

Mariya Stankova*

South-West University ‘Neofit Rilski’, Blagoevgrad, Bulgaria

16.1 Introduction

Bulgaria is a country with beautiful and fascinating nature, ancient cultural and historical heritage left by old-world civilizations, and magical music, dances and rituals.

In all their diversity, those resources provide various combinations for the tourist offerings. Tourism development in Bulgaria dates back to the pre-World War II period, but gained momentum after the war (Ivanov and Dimitrova, 2013). Over the years, Bulgaria has been a holiday destination for the former Soviet bloc (Madanoglu,

2012), but after its collapse and during the transition period (after 1989) it faced the challenge of finding the right path of development. Today, tourism, as one of the leading industries in the Bulgarian economy, is characterized by dynamic development and high rates of growth, clearly expressed since 2000. Its contribution to the growth of the gross domestic product (GDP) is indisputable, and this makes it an efficient tool of social economic growth, as is apparent from the statistical indicators of the Bulgarian National Statistical Institute (NSI) (2015). The merits for its development could be attributed to a large extent to private entrepreneurs. Nowadays, over

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