341 Chapters
Medium 9781845939076

4 Biology of Chromolaena odorata, Ageratina adenophora and Ageratina riparia: a Review

CAB International PDF

4

Biology of Chromolaena odorata,

Ageratina adenophora and

Ageratina riparia: a Review

R.S. Tripathi1, A.S. Yadav2 and S.P.S. Kushwaha3

1National

Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh,

India; 2Department of Botany, R.R. Autonomous College,

Rajasthan, India; 3Indian Institute of Remote Sensing,

Uttarakhand, India

Introduction

Migration of species from one geographical region to another across the natural barriers such as high mountains, seas and oceans has been taking place since time immemorial.

The movement of species through natural dispersal agents has been rather slow.

However, with globalization there has been a phenomenal increase in trade, tourism, travel and other human activities, and this has caused both intentional and unintentional introduction of species from one country to another at a pace that was never witnessed before.

(Tripathi, 2009)

Thus, over the last 100 years several invasive plant species have occupied new regions far away from their place of their origin, and some species of the genus Eupatorium

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Medium 9781780643960

6: The Continuing Co-evolution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Homo sapiens

Edited by H Mukundan, Los Alamos National Laboratory CAB International PDF

6 

The Continuing Co-evolution of

Mycobacterium tuberculosis and

Homo sapiens

Clifton E. Barry III*

National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Disease, Bethesda, USA

Introduction and Historical Context

Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease of antiquity, with evidence of human disease extending through most, if not all, of recorded human history. The oldest human remains to show evidence of disease were found in Turkey and dated to approximately 500,000 bp (Before

Present) (Kappelman et al., 2008). This specimen of Homo erectus displayed pathology consistent with TB meningitis on the endocranial surface of a frontal bone; although molecular evidence of infection was not obtained, leading other authors to question this diagnosis

(Roberts et al., 2009). Numerous studies have more conclusively identified TB DNA from somewhat more recent human remains from, for example: Egyptian mummies from 2050 bc to 500 bc (Zink et al., 2001, 2003); Peruvian mummies from 1000 bp (Salo et al., 1994);

Lithuanian skeletal remains from the 15th to

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Medium 9781780643755

14: Mites as Biocontrol Agents of Phytonematodes

Askary, T.H., Editor CAB International PDF

14 

Mites as Biocontrol Agents of

Phytonematodes

Uri Gerson*

Department of Entomology, The Robert H. Smith Faculty of Agriculture,

Food and Environment, Rehovot, Israel

14.1  Introduction

Reductions in the extent of nematode damage to plants, which may occur without human intervention, are usually attributed to certain biota that decrease nematode numbers in what are termed suppressive soils. These have been reported from all over the world and include some of the best documented cases of natural, effective biological control of nematodes (Kerry,

1997; Sánchez-Moreno and Ferris, 2007). The biological control (BC) of plant nematodes

(phytonematodes) has been defined (Sayre and

Walter, 1991; Stirling, 1991) as reductions in nematode populations and/or their damage through the activities of organisms other than nematode-resistant host plants. Stirling (2011) later proposed a broader, more ecologicallyminded definition, that BC is the action of soil organisms in maintaining nematode population densities at lower average levels than would occur in their absence. Biological control is usually understood to be a scientific as well as a practical approach (and a management tool) in reducing pest numbers and/or their economic, medical and/or veterinary damage, through the activities of other organisms. When it is applied to arthropod pests, BC consists of three strategies, or modes, namely introductions

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Medium 9781780642895

7 Intensive Livestock Systems for Dairy Cows

Fuhrer, J.; Gregory, P.J., Editors; Fuhrer, J.; Gregory, P.J. CAB International PDF

7

Intensive Livestock Systems for

Dairy Cows

Robert J. Collier, Laun W. Hall and John F. Smith*

University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, USA

7.1 Introduction

The objectives of intensive livestock systems are to take advantage of scale effects to maximize profitability, to provide a uniform thermoneutral environment and consistent nutrition in order to maximize production output and to reduce the impacts of adverse environmental conditions. The use of intensive livestock systems is increasing, and will continue to do so for the immediate future because they are essential to achieving increases in animal productivity. However, the proper construction and management of these systems presents several challenges to producers, who must consider several factors including management of the microenvironments inside the facility, maximizing the efficiency of the labour, capital and nutrients required, as well as waste disposal in the form of waste water and manure.

There is now a strong scientific consensus that climate change is occurring and it is projected that the global average temperature will likely rise an additional 1.1–

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Chapter 14 Family Amaryllidaceae, Subfamily Allioideae

Welbaum, G.E. CAB International PDF

14

Family Amaryllidaceae, Subfamily

Allioideae

Origin and History

Onion originated in Middle Asia and was domesticated in what are today Afghanistan, Iran, and

Pakistan. Onion is a very ancient crop and has been under widespread cultivation dating back to as early as 600 bc. Onions were a popular food of the

Greeks and Romans as early as 400–300 bc and were introduced into northern Europe about ad

500 at the start of the Middle Ages (Zohary and

Hopf, 2000). Production occurs worldwide but the greatest concentration is in the northern hemisphere. In the tropics and much of Southeast Asia unfavorable climate and handling conditions limit onion production so shallots are preferred. Shallots are believed to be native to Asia, explaining their popularity in this region.

Garlic is believed to be of middle Asian origin with a history of human use of over 7,000 years

(Ensminger, 1994). The culture of garlic parallels that of onion. Greek author Homer mentioned garlic in the ninth century bc (Zohary and Hopf,

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