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Medium 9781780645742

Appendix: Selected Software for Decision Analysis

J.B. Hardaker CAB International PDF

Appendix:

Selected Software for

Decision Analysis

In developing the examples in this book, we made use of the following software:

@Risk and RiskOptimizer from Palisade Corporation. Available at: http://www.palisade.com

(­ accessed 2 June 2014). data, later replaced with TreeAge Pro from TreeAge Software, Inc. Available at: http://www.treeage. com (accessed 2 June 2014).

GAMS from GAMS Development Corporation. Available at: http://www.gams.com (accessed

2 June 2014).

Logical Decisions from Logical Decisions. Available at: http://www.logicaldecisions.com (accessed

2 June 2014).

Microsoft Excel, a component of Microsoft Office from Microsoft Corporation. Available at: http:// www.microsoft.com/en-au/default.aspx (accessed 2 June 2014).

ModelRisk from Vose Software. Available at: http://www.vosesoftware.com (accessed 2 June 2014).

Solver for Excel from FrontlineSolvers. Available at: http://www.solver.com (accessed 2 June 2014).

WhatsBest! from Lindo Systems Inc. Available at: http://www.lindo.com (accessed 2 June 2014).

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Medium 9781780643304

9 Good Intentions vs Good Ideas: Evaluating Bioenergy Projects that Utilize Invasive Plant Feedstocks

Quinn, L.D., Editor CAB International PDF

9

Good Intentions vs Good Ideas:

Evaluating Bioenergy Projects that

Utilize Invasive Plant Feedstocks

Lloyd L. Nackley*

University of Cape Town and South Africa National Biodiversity

Institute, Cape Town, South Africa

Abstract

This chapter evaluates the sustainability of using naturalized or cultivated invasive plant species as feedstocks for bioenergy, including electrical power, liquid biofuels, and chemical substitutes. The evaluations apply a sustainability framework that recognizes economic and social development, as well as environmental protection. The necessity of using a sustainability framework is illustrated by revealing how historical bioenergy developments, which did not consider multiple aspects of sustainability (e.g., only economics), fell short of providing socially acceptable and environmentally neutral/ beneficial bioenergy. There are two divergent issues regarding the use of invasive plants in bioenergy: (i) dedicated energy feedstocks that may foster biological invasions; and (ii) harvesting existing invasive plant biomass for bioenergy conversion. Fertile dedicated feedstocks are shown to be a less sustainable option than sterile species with no history of invasion. No species with a history of invasion should be used as a dedicated energy feedstock. Harvesting existing invasive populations is shown to be economically unsustainable if the bioenergy conversion process is dependent on the invasive plant population. When invasive plant populations represent a small portion of the overall energy supply (<10%) there are possible synergies available for thermal energy conversion processes (e.g., bioelectricity, or syngas production), but not for liquid biofuels, which currently cannot tolerate a heterogeneous feedstock mix. Lastly, invasive plant-based biochar is deemed the most suitable option, because it meets all sustainability criteria.

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Medium 9781845938116

9 Reducing Invasive Plant Performance: a Precursor to Restoration

Monaco, T.A., Editor CAB International PDF

9

Reducing Invasive Plant

Performance: a Precursor to

Restoration

Joseph M. DiTomaso1 and Jacob N. Barney2

1 Department

2 Department

of Plant Sciences, University of California, USA of Plant Pathology, Virginia Tech, USA

Introduction

Most non-native plants in natural areas do not out-compete native species or cause significant impacts to ecosystem function

(Rejmánek, 2000, 2011; Smith and Knapp,

2001). It has been estimated that <10% of invasive species that have established and persist in natural areas actually transform the ecosystem by changing the character, condition, form, or nature of an area

(Richardson et al., 2000). There are many theories and reviews on why species become invasive, including release from natural enemies and herbivores in their native range

(Keane and Crawley, 2002; Daehler, 2003), improved competitive ability through a shift in allocation from defense to growth

(Blossey and Nötzold, 1995), and the development of novel growth or functional forms in invasive species that have competitive advantages over native species

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6 Physiology and Biochemistry of Salt Stress Tolerance in Plants

Chakraborty, U., Editor CAB International PDF

6 

Physiology and Biochemistry of Salt Stress

Tolerance in Plants

André Dias de Azevedo Neto1* and Elizamar Ciríaco da Silva2

Laboratory of Biochemistry, Centre of Exact and Technological Sciences, Federal

University of Recôncavo of Bahia, Cruz das Almas, Brazil; 2Laboratory of Applied

Botany, Department of Biology, Federal University of Sergipe, Aracaju, Brazil

1

Abstract

Salinity is one the major environmental stresses affecting crop production worldwide. The salt effects on plants include osmotic stress, ion toxicity, nutrient imbalance and deficiencies, resulting in membrane damage, decreased cell expansion and division, changes in metabolic processes, oxidative stress and genotoxicity. Thus plant salt tolerance is a highly complex phenomenon that involves alterations in physiological and biochemical processes, which may result in morphological and developmental changes. In this scenario, the regulation of uptake, transport and compartmentation of Na+ and Clˉ, biosynthesis of compatible solute and specific proteins, reduction of reactive oxygen species formation and increase of antioxidant defence system have been related as important mechanisms for salt tolerance. In this chapter, we give an overview of the physiological, biochemical and molecular mechanisms underlying salt tolerance, combining knowledge from classic physiology with recent findings. Special emphasis will be given on salt signal perception and transduction and mechanisms related to maintenance of osmotic, ionic, biochemical and redox homoeostasis in salt-stressed plants. A fundamental biological knowledge in conjunction with understanding about the effects of salt stress on plants is essential to supply additional information for a thorough analysis of the plant salt-tolerance mechanisms and reduce the deleterious effects of salinity on plants, improving crop productivity important to agricultural sustainability.

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Medium 9781845938291

9. Copitarsia spp.: Biology and Risk Posed by Potentially Invasive Lepidoptera from South and Central America

Pena, J.E., Editor CAB International PDF

9 

1

Copitarsia spp.: Biology and Risk

Posed by Potentially Invasive

Lepidoptera from South and Central America

Juli Gould,1 Rebecca Simmons2 and Robert Venette3

USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Center for Plant Health Science and Technology, Buzzards Bay, Massachusetts, USA; 2University of North Dakota,

Grand Forks, North Dakota, USA; 3USDA Forest Service, Northern Research,

St. Paul, Minnesota, USA

9.1  Introduction

9.2  Taxonomy

Members of the genus Copitarsia (Lepidoptera:

Noctuidae) represent a potential threat to US agriculture. Although they are not known to be established in the USA, they are frequently intercepted on vegetables and cut flowers at ports of entry. These species are not generally outbreak pests in their native ranges; however, it is possible that these moths could greatly impact domestic agriculture after invasion, due to the release from selection pressures posed by native predators and parasitoids. This threat is complicated by difficulties in identifying species and understanding their life history and host preferences. Here we summarize the state of knowledge for members of this genus in terms of their pest status and control. We have reviewed the taxonomic difficulties involved with members of Copitarsia, their geographic range, host plant preferences and associated economic impacts. We have summarized the life  histories of these species and procedures for  rearing them in colonies for future study.

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