341 Chapters
Medium 9781780641645

1 Introduction

Ziska, L.H., Editor; Dukes, J.S., Editor CAB International PDF



Jeffrey S. Dukes1 and Lewis H. Ziska2


of Forestry and Natural Resources & Department of

Biological Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana,

USA; 2Crop Systems and Global Change Laboratory, USDA-ARS,

Beltsville, Maryland, USA

As we write this, the global population has reached 7.1 billion. At present rates, approximately 5 million new individuals will be added each month, every month, for the foreseeable future. (www.census.gov/ popclock).

Ultimately, it is our rapidly increasing population and our need to increase the production of food, feed, fibre and fuel from a finite set of natural resources that are driving the environmental issues in this book, and that give these issues urgency. We need to transition to a sustainable society if we are to provide for this population (or even a smaller one) into the future. Such sustainability is necessary if we are to preserve our planet’s ecosystem services, maintain its capacity to produce food and protect its biodiversity.

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Medium 9781780643755

7: Nematophagous Fungi: Commercialization

Askary, T.H., Editor CAB International PDF


Nematophagous Fungi:


Mohammad Reza Moosavi1* and Tarique Hassan Askary2


Department of Plant Pathology, Marvdasht Branch, Islamic

Azad University, Marvdasht, Iran; 2Division of Entomology,

Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and

Technology, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India

7.1  Introduction

It is estimated that about 842 million people, or 12% of the global population, did not have enough food to satisfy their dietary energy requirements in 2011–13. This means that approximately one in eight people in the world are likely to have suffered from chronic starvation (FAO et al., 2013). Plant diseases are considered a significant threat to increasing agricultural productivity since they can cause serious losses and in turn endanger food security (Strange and Scott, 2005). At least 12% of worldwide food production is lost due to plant-parasitic nematodes (PPNs)

(Nicol et al., 2011) and this quantity is too high to be ignored. Therefore, it becomes mandatory to decrease the level of damage caused by PPNs to agricultural and horticultural crops, though it is a daunting task and difficult to achieve. Management of PPNs has been principally based on application of chemical nematicides but there is a need to substitute chemicals with other effective methods. The efficient synthetic nematicides are not affordable by a lot of growers or have generally been taken off the market due to concerns about the environmental hazards and human

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Medium 9781780643922

13 Ethnic Conflict: Is Heritage Tourism Part of the Solution or Part of the Problem?

Reisinger, Y. CAB International PDF


Ethnic conflict: Is Heritage Tourism

Part of the Solution or Part of the Problem?

Gregory Ashworth

University of Groningen, the Netherlands

It is frequently assumed that the development of heritage tourism might contribute in some ways to the alleviation or mitigation of often deepseated ethnic and cultural divisions. The expectation is that heritage tourism, being a discretionary entertainment-motivated activity transcending national or ethnic borders, could become an instrument for reconciliation. However, practice casts doubt on any such automatic impact and, in some cases, raises fears that tourism, especially locally based heritage tourism, may well, contrary to expectations, consolidate ethnic divisions and even exacerbate ethnic tensions. This explorative chapter will range over the cases of the islands of Ireland and Cyprus, Palestine, South Africa and specific heritage sites elsewhere, such as in Thailand, examining the various circumstances in which the development of heritage tourism contributes positively or negatively to the resolution of ethnic or cultural division within host societies. If a positive outcome is not to be taken as axiomatic then it becomes essential for the right placemanagement lessons to be drawn.

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Medium 9781780642789

Wheat (Triticum aestivum Linn.)

Kumar, P.; Sharma, M.K. CAB International PDF

WHEAT (Triticum aestivum Linn.)



Plate 156. Chlorosis of older leaves. (Photo by

Dr Prakash Kumar and Dr Manoj Kumar Sharma.)

1. Nitrogen deficiency is most common and widespread in wheat-grown areas. Wheat is very sensitive to nitrogen deficiency.

Deficiency symptoms appear even in mild deficiency conditions.

2. Deficient plants appear pale, stunted, thin and spindly. The number of tillers and the grain yield are reduced severely.

3. Nitrogen is mobile in plants and under short supply conditions it is easily mobilized from older to younger leaves. The deficiency symptoms appear first and become more severe on older leaves.

4. In mild deficiency conditions or during the young stage of the crop, the entire plant becomes pale green to yellow.

5. If deficiency persists and becomes more severe, a pale yellow chlorosis develops at the tip of older leaves and advances in a broad front towards the leaf base.

6. Pale yellow to almost white chlorotic leaves turn pale brown and die.

7. In deficient crops, green youngest leaves, pale green middle leaves and lemon yellow to pale brown older leaves may appear simultaneously (Plate 155).

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Medium 9781780643960

15: Mycobacterial Infections in Other Zoo Animals

Edited by H Mukundan, Los Alamos National Laboratory CAB International PDF


Mycobacterial Infections in Other Zoo Animals

Michele A. Miller1* and Konstantin P. Lyashchenko2

Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa; 2Chembio Diagnostic

Systems, Inc., Medford, USA



Mycobacterial infections are historical and ongoing concerns in zoological collections worldwide. Due to the chronic nature of mycobacterial disease, individuals and populations can be affected for months to years, sometimes without detection. With the diversity of animal species in zoological collections, mycobacterial infections present diagnostic, epidemiological and other potential challenges for veterinarians, zoological managers, public health and regulatory officials. Tuberculosis

(TB) has been recorded as a cause of morbidity and mortality in zoo animals over the last century. This chapter will highlight the information available regarding these infections in zoological collections. Mycobacterial infections reported in zoological taxa are listed in

Table 15.1.

The host response to mycobacterial infection is dependent on a number of factors including genetic susceptibility (individual and species related), immune status, infectious dose, virulence of organism and additional confounders such as environment and co-­ infections (Davies and Grange, 2001). These factors can complicate the understanding of immunopathogenesis, available diagnostics

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