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1-D bar element 154

1-D fin 287

2D beam-column element 201

2D elements with nodes 135

2D-truss element 171

3-noded bar element 239, 241

3-noded right angle triangle 215

3 points gauss quadrature 47

4 noded bar element 253


Adjoint matrix 25

Admissible displacements 61

Admissible function 106

Applicability of FEM 19

Area co-ordinates 230

Assembly 7

Axial bar element 60


Bar element 140, 141, 249

Beam analysis 181

Beam-bar combination 207

Beam column 66

Beam column element 202

Beam theory 181

Body force 158, 228

Bottom-Up steps 9

Boundary conditions 7, 175

Brick element 263


Cartesian local co-ordinates 155

Centrifugal force 158

Centrifugal loading 189

Cholesky’s method of solution 33

Co-efficient matrix 218

Co-factor 25

Compatibility 145, 183, 268

Compatible condition 73

Compatible transitions 268

Completeness condition 267

Complex elements 260

Composite wall 282

Concentrated load 159, 190

Conductance matrix 283

Conduction heat transfer 278

Connectivity matrix 149, 152

Continuity equation 3

Continuous systems 55

Continuum 2, 3, 21, 129

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Rehana Khan Laxmi Publications PDF





In the 1940s, George Beadle and Edward L. Tatum set out to determine the nature of the products specified by genes. For their study, they used the pink bread mold

Neurospora crassa. They recovered the auxotrophs at the cost of substantial labour. They analyzed about 2000 ascospores to recover the three vitamin-requiring mutants, all of the transfers being done one at a time. Current technology facilitates the recovery of auxotrophs in fungi; such as Neurospora and yeast, and in bacteria. One of the technique

Replica Plating.


After studying nutritional mutants in Neurospora. Edward Tatum turned his attention to bacteria, in particular to E. coli. The first E. coli auxotrophs to be isolated were recovered in a laborious manner similar to the one originally used for Neurospora mutants; individual strains were transferred one at a time to different types of media. Subsequently, in 1952, Tatum’s associates Ester and Joshua Lederberg introduced the procedure of replica plating. This technique is very effective in recovery of mutants in organisms, such as bacteria, that produce discrete colonies by division on solid agar medium.

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Copyright © by Laxmi Publications (P) Ltd.

All rights reserved including those of translation into other languages. In accordance with the Copyright (Amendment) Act, 2012, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise. Any such act or scanning, uploading, and or electronic sharing of any part of this book without the permission of the publisher constitutes unlawful piracy and theft of the copyright holder’s intellectual property.

If you would like to use material from the book (other than for review purposes), prior written permission must be obtained from the publishers.

Printed and bound in India

Typeset at Shubham Composer

First Edition: 2015


ISBN 978-93-83828-43-2

Price: ` 195.00

Limits of Liability/Disclaimer of Warranty: The publisher and the author make no representation or warranties with respect to the accuracy or completeness of the contents of this work and specifically disclaim all warranties. The advice, strategies, and activities contained herein may not be suitable for every situation. In performing activities adult supervision must be sought. Likewise, common sense and care are essential to the conduct of any and all activities, whether described in this book or otherwise. Neither the publisher nor the author shall be liable or assumes any responsibility for any injuries or damages arising herefrom. The fact that an organization or Website if referred to in this work as a citation and/or a potential source of further information does not mean that the author or the publisher endorses the information the organization or Website may provide or recommendations it may make. Further, readers must be aware that the Internet Websites listed in this work may have changed or disappeared between when this work was written and when it is read.

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Arvind Kumar Bhatt Laxmi Publications PDF


Administrative and Business Communication


The meeting with the employees is found to be very useful in building formal communication the higher-ups are to encourage the employees to talk about their constructive suggestions, job problems and needs.

They are also to be encouraged to express their views on whether the management practices help the job performance or interfere with it.

Well planned and productive group communications are essential for conducting modern business, to achieve objectives and results that cannot be accomplished effectively in another way. Meetings have always taken a large part of the average manager’s time. In addition the increased use of teams also means that meetings are even more frequent.

Just because meetings are common doesn’t mean that they are always productive. A survey by one marketing research company showed that gatherings meetings executives consider one third of the they attend to be unnecessary. So, to be productive, any type of meeting will require a good preparation from all participants in general and the chairperson in particular. The chairperson is the one who takes the responsibility for planning and conducting or leading the meeting.

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