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Dr. A.J. Nair Laxmi Publications PDF



create a new piece of DNA (recombinant DNA) that could be inserted into host bacterium such as e. coli. We have also observed that yeasts can be made to produce vaccines such as hepatitis B, plants having special properties such as resistance to certain diseases, pests, and herbicides and plants with superior nutritive qualities can be generated very efficiently. These excellent goals of genetic engineering were achieved because of the advent of recombinant DNA technology.

Recombinant DNA technology is one of the few techniques that made conventional biotechnology into “Modern Biotechnology.” Paul Berg, Herbert Boyer, Annie Change, and Stanley Cohen are the team of scientists that made the first recombinant DNA molecule in 1973.

Simply defined, it is the art of cutting and pasting genes. There are, however, many new applications of this technology invented each year, and it is impossible for any textbook to be completely up to date. This technique encompasses a number of methodologies or tools that enable us to construct new combinations of DNA (recombinant DNA or rDNA) in the laboratory for different purposes. The rDNA molecule thus constructed can be introduced into an appropriate host cell, where it can be multiplied and generate many copies. This forms the basic concept of the process known as gene cloning or DNA cloning. In this chapter we will examine the basic tools, methodologies, and applications of recombinant DNA techniques in various fields of biological research.

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A.J. Sebastian SDB Laxmi Publications PDF


Meera Kant’s Nepathya Raag in the

Wings: A Study in Male Domination

Meera Kant, Hindi fiction writer and playwright has very poignantly examined the age old male domination over women, through Khana’s story. In the play, she mingles present with a past mythological story. The play opens in the home of Medha, a young working woman, who finds it extremely difficult working with her male colleagues in the office. She asks her mother is she experienced the same while she was a Government servant. The mother attempts her explanation of the problem of women being subjugated by a male dominated society in India, from times immemorial. She goes on to narrate the fate of Khana, a young and brilliant astrologer, in the fourth-fifth century Ujjaini during the reign of Emperor Chandragupta Vikramaditya. Khana, a village girl, being absorbed in the study of astronomy, becomes a disciple of the renowned astrologer,

Vahara Mihir. Eventually, the scholar’s son Prithuyashas marries her, being attracted by her beauty and charm. Becoming the daughter-in-law of the great Varaha Mihir, brought her recognition, as she was inducted into the company of the Navaratnas (nine jewels) of the court of the emperor. Vikramaditya, being captivated by the intellectual acumen of Khana, wanted to decorate her with membership of the august Royal Assembly.

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Gandharba Swain Laxmi Publications PDF






1.1.1 The Software Crisis he traditional focus of computer systems had been on the hardware. Since the early 1950s, computer hardware was quite expensive. At the same time, there were no desktops or personal computers. All computer processing was based on large mainframe or mini computers, which were very expensive and difficult to maintain. However, this pattern started changing towards the 1980s with the introduction of the personal computer. It has changed so dramatically from that point onwards that in the last few years, almost all concerns regarding the hardware have been nullified, and the chief concern of all the concerned parties in a software project is the software itself.


All modern organizations and corporations have become information-centric. They have quite a few areas where information constantly keeps coming in, or going out. For instance, in a typical organization, there are a number of departments, such as sales and marketing, research and development, customer service, and so on, each of which receives some information, or has to give it out. This information can be qualitative (e.g., our product has made good inroads in USA market) or quantitative (e.g., we have sold 1000 units of our product in USA). Regardless, the organization must keep track of all this information, whether it is current or of the past, and it must be able to access it as and when required with a very short notice. The result is that information systems play perhaps the most critical role in the day-to-day running of any modern business.

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1.14. Distinguish between the Manager and the Leader

G. Murugesan Laxmi Publications PDF





Decision-making by the entrepreneur is mainly with regard to the following

Goals and objectives of the enterprise and broadly how these are to be accomplished.

The kind of image the enterprise is to project of itself and how it is to conduct it self in general.

The kind of products to be manufactured whether top quality and useful products, or low quality and not so useful products.

The concern’s attitude towards its employees, the government, society and so on.


A manager is an employee of the entrepreneur. His job is to work for the accomplishment of the goals and objectives set by the entrepreneur.

There may be cases where a person is both an entrepreneur and a manager at the same time as, for example, in the case of the sole proprietor or the managing partner of a firm. Even so the managerial functions performed by him in this capacity are the same as those of any non-owner manager.

Difference between Entrepreneur and Manager

The main difference between an entrepreneur and a manager is with regard to the degree of freedom enjoyed in his work. Being the owner of the undertaking, the entrepreneur is free to determine the objectives based on his own assessment, beliefs and values. Limitations imposed by the external environment and, to a certain extent, availability of resources will also influence him in this regard.

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Dr. Priyanka Siwach ; Dr. Namita Singh Laxmi Publications PDF







Reagents Required

Experimental lay-out




Bacterial plasmids are small extra chromosomal, circular DNA, capable of autonomous replication.

Most of the plasmids exist as double stranded circular DNA and can exist in any of the three forms-supercoiled (SC) DNA, covalently closed circular (CCC) DNA and open circular (OC)

DNA. These three forms differ in their charge density and so can be separated by gel electrophoresis (Fig. 1.1).

Plasmids have a wide distribution throughout the prokaryotes. They are be divided into different categories depending on different criteria like conjugative or non-conjugative (depending on presence or absence of tra gene that promotes conjugation), relaxed or stringent (depending on number of copies per cell). Generally, conjugative plasmids are of relatively high molecular weight and are present as one to three copies per chromosome whereas non-conjugative plasmids are of low molecular weight and present as multiple copies per chromosome.

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