1179 Chapters
Medium 9788131803660

Appendix Final

Dipak Chandra Ghosh, Nripesh Chandra Ghosh, and Prabir Kumar Haldar Laxmi Publications PDF

APPENDIX

SI BASED UNITS AND SI DERIVED UNITS WITH SPECIAL NAMES

Basic Units

Quantity

Name of Units

length mass time electric current thermodynamic temperature amount of substance luminous intensity

meter kilogram second ampere kelvin mole candela

Symbol m kg s

A

K mol cd

Derived Units

Quantity frequency mass density (density) angular velocity acceleration angular acceleration force pressure (mechanical stress) kinematic viscosity dynamic viscosity work, energy, quantity of heat power quantity of electricity potential difference, electromotive force electric field strength electric resistance capacitance magnetic flux entropy specific heat capacity thermal conductivity inductance magnetic flux density magnetic field strength magnetomotive force luminous flux luminance illuminance wave number radiant intensity

Name of Units

Symbol

hertz kilogram per cubic meter radian per second meter per second squared radian per second squared newton pascal square meter per second newton-second per square meter joule watt coulomb

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Ch_2_F

Rajesh Mehra; Vikrant Vij Laxmi Publications PDF

NUMERIC SYSTEMS AND LOGIC CONCEPTS

15

2

NUMERIC SYSTEMS AND

LOGIC CONCEPTS

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

After reading this chapter, you will be able to explain:

1.

2.

3.

4.

2.1

Fundamental concepts of digital electronics

Various number systems and conversions

Gray code, excess-3 and BCD codes.

Boolean algebra, logic gates and IC 7400 series of logic family

INTRODUCTION

In this chapter, we will explain the number systems and digital codes that are most often used in programmable controller applications. We will first introduce the four number systems most frequently used during input/output address assignment and programming: binary, octal, decimal, and hexadecimal. Then, we will discuss the Binary Coded Decimal (BCD) and gray codes. Since these codes and systems are the foundation of the logic behind PLCs, a basic knowledge of them will help you understand how PLCs work. To understand programmable controllers and their applications, you must first understand the logic concepts behind them. In this chapter, we will discuss basic logic functions, and show you how, with just these three functions, you can make control decisions ranging from very simple to very complex. We will also introduce you to the fundamentals of Boolean algebra and its associated operators.

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Medium 9788131805220

ALLC12-6

Manish Goyal Laxmi Publications PDF

732

NUMERICAL METHODS AND STATISTICAL TECHNIQUES USING ‘C’

d =

Test statistic, t=

Σd − 7

Σd 2

=

= – 0.7778 ; s2 =

− (d ) 2 = 2.617 n

9 n d s/ n − 1

− 0.7778

=

2.6172 / 8

= – 1.359

The tabulated value of t0.05 at 8 d.f. is 2.31.

Conclusion. Since | t | = 1.359 < t0.05, H0 is accepted i.e., training was not effective in improving performance.

ASSIGNMENT

1.

2.

The mean life of 10 electric motors was found to be 1450 hrs with S.D. of 423 hrs. A second sample of 17 motors chosen from a different batch showed a mean life of 1280 hrs with a S.D. of

398 hrs. Is there a significant difference between means of the two samples ?

The marks obtained by a group of 9 regular course students and another group of 11 part time course students in a test are given below :

Regular

:

56

62

63

54

60

51

67

69

58

Part time

:

62

70

71

62

60

56

75

64

72

68

66

Examine whether the marks obtained by regular students and part time students differ significantly at 5% and 1% level of significance.

3.

A group of 10 boys fed on diet A and another group of 8 boys fed on a different diet B recorded the following increase in weight (kgs) :

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CH14-1

Dr. Rashmi Tyagi Laxmi Publications PDF

Chapter

14

CELL CULTURE

A

ll biotechnological processes are performed within bioreactors (may be a culture vessel, an open tank or sophisticated fermenters) containing correct medium provided with optimum growth conditions, like pH, temperature, aeration, light (for photosynthetic organisms), etc., The growth of the organisms is the increase of cell material that can be measured in terms of many parameters, like mass (dry weight or fresh weight), total amount of proteins, photosynthetitic pigments, number of cells, etc., Doubling time is the period required for doubling the biomass

(due to cell division as well as due to cell growth) which varies from organism to organism, e.g., for bacteria it is about 0.25–1.00 h, for yeast 1–2 h, for plant cells 20–70 h and for animal cells 15–48 h

(generation time is the time period required for doubling of the cell number due to cell division).

Plant cells (similar to microorganisms) are mainly grown in liquid or solidified nutrient medium for various purposes, like artificial micropropagation of certain plants, production of valuable compounds

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Medium 9789381159682

Ch_9_F

Prof. Rachna Sharma and Prof. Sudipto Das Laxmi Publications PDF

186 A Complete Guide to Computer Networks

9

SCTP

Introduction

The Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) is a Transport Layer protocol, serving in a similar role to the popular protocols Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram

Protocol (UDP). It provides some of the same service features of both: it is message-oriented like

UDP and ensures reliable, in-sequence transport of messages with congestion control like TCP.

Control flags

HL

Destination port address

Source port address

Verification tag

Checksum

Window size

Control chunks

Urgent pointer

Checksum

Control Header

Destination port address

Source port address

Sequence number

Acknowledgement number

Options

Data chunks

Data bytes

A segment in TCP

Data

Data Header and options

The protocol was defined by the IETF Signaling Transport (SIGTRAN) working group in 2000, and is maintained by the IETF Transport Area (TSVWG) working group. RFC 4960 defines the protocol.

A packet in SCTP

Figure 9.1: Comparing SCTP packet and TCP segment formats

9.1

SCTP

Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) is a new reliable, message-oriented transport layer protocol. SCTP, however, is mostly designed for Internet applications that have recently been introduced. These new applications need a more sophisticated service than TCP can provide.

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