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Ch-10

Anoop Chaturvedi ; B.L. Rai Laxmi Publications PDF

90

U NIX

AND

S HELL P ROGRAMMING

Chapter

10

INTER -PROCESS COMMUNICATION

IPC mechanism allow arbitrary process to exchange data and synchronize execution.

We have already considered several forms of interprocess communication, such as pipes, named pipes and signals. Pipes suffer from the drawback that they are known only to processes which are descendants of the process that invoke the pipe system call: unrelated process cannot communicate via pipes. Although named pipe allow unrelated process to communicate, they cannot generally be used across a network nor do they readily lend themselves to setting up multiple communications paths for different sets of communicating process: its impossible to multiplex a named pipe to provide private channels for pairs of communicating process. Arbitrary process can also communicate by sending signals via the kill system call, but the message consist only of the signal number.

10.1 PROCESS TRACING

One process traces and controls the execution of another process. Tracing processes, useful for debugging. A debugger process such as sdb, spawns a process to be traced and controls its execution with the ptrace system call, setting and clearing break points, and reading and writing data in its virtual address space.

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CH14-1

Dr. Rashmi Tyagi Laxmi Publications PDF

Chapter

14

CELL CULTURE

A

ll biotechnological processes are performed within bioreactors (may be a culture vessel, an open tank or sophisticated fermenters) containing correct medium provided with optimum growth conditions, like pH, temperature, aeration, light (for photosynthetic organisms), etc., The growth of the organisms is the increase of cell material that can be measured in terms of many parameters, like mass (dry weight or fresh weight), total amount of proteins, photosynthetitic pigments, number of cells, etc., Doubling time is the period required for doubling the biomass

(due to cell division as well as due to cell growth) which varies from organism to organism, e.g., for bacteria it is about 0.25–1.00 h, for yeast 1–2 h, for plant cells 20–70 h and for animal cells 15–48 h

(generation time is the time period required for doubling of the cell number due to cell division).

Plant cells (similar to microorganisms) are mainly grown in liquid or solidified nutrient medium for various purposes, like artificial micropropagation of certain plants, production of valuable compounds

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Appendix-D

Ajay Kumar Saxena Laxmi Publications PDF

Appendix D

FOURIER SERIES IN SOLID STATE PHYSICS

Fourier series expansion is given by

+∞

1

f n einθ

2π n =−∞

It is instructive to generalize this to more than one dimension, and it is especially useful in crystallography and solid state physics, which deal with three dimensional periodic structures.

Let us first consider a special case in which an N-dimensional periodic function is a product of N, one dimensional periodic functions. i.e. we take the N functions f (θ) =

f ( j ) ( x) =

1

Lj

k =−∞

f k( j ) e

2 πikx / L j

, j = 1, 2...N .

(D.1)

and multiply them on both sides to obtain

F (r ) = f (1) ( x1 ), f (2) ( x2 ),... f ( N ) ( xN ) =

1

i g k .r

∑ Fk e

V

(D.2)

k

where we have used the following new notations

F (r ) ≡ f (1) ( x1 ) f (2) ( x2 )... f ( N ) ( xN ), V = L1L2 ...LN

Fk ≡ fk1... fkN k ≡ (k1 , k2 ,.....k N ),

⎛k k ⎞ g k = 2π ⎜ 1 ,... N ⎟ ,

⎝ L1 LN ⎠

r = ( x1, x2 ...xN )

We take eqn (2) as the definition of the Fourier series for any periodic function of N variables (not just the products of N functions of a single variable). However, application of eqn (2) needs here some clarification. In one dimension, the shape of the smallest region of periodicity is unique. It is simply a line segment of length L

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Appdiex_XVI

P.S.Sona Laxmi Publications PDF
Medium 9789383828432

Ch_13_F

P.S.Sona Laxmi Publications PDF

Determination of Efficiency of a Centrifugal Pump 51

EXPERIMENT

13

DETERMINATION OF EFFICIENCY

OF A CENTRIFUGAL PUMP

AIM

To determine the co efficient of discharge of a centrifugal pump.

To determine the overall efficiency of centrifugal pump.

To determine the efficiency of the centrifugal pump.

REQUIREMENTS

The centrifugal pump assemble

(1)

Stop watch

(1)

Energy meter

(1)

PRINCIPLE

Pump is a device which converts mechanical energy to hydraulic energy. Hydraulic energy is in the form of Pressure energy. In a centrifugal pump the mechanical energy is converted into pressure energy by centrifugal force.

A Centrifugal Pump is a roto dynamic pump that uses a rotating impeller to increase the pressure of a fluid. They are commonly used to move liquids through a piping system. Its purpose is to convert energy of a prime mover (an electric motor or turbine) first into velocity or kinetic energy and then into pressure energy of a fluid that is being Pumped. The energy change occurs by virtue of two main parts of the pump, the impeller and the volute or diffuser. The impeller is the rotating part that converts driver energy into the kinetic energy. The volute or diffuser is the stationary part that converts the kinetic energy into pressure energy. The overall system efficiency is dependent on motor efficiency, pump efficiency (velocity of the impeller, impeller diameter, number of blades etc) and the total head developed.

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