# Results for: “Laxmi Publications”

70 eBooks

## 11_Chapter |
Dr. B.C. Punmia ; Ashok Kr. Jain, Arun Kr. Jain | Laxmi Publications | |||||

11 PLANE TABLE SURVEYING CHAPTER 11.1 GENERAL: ACCESSORIES Plane tabling is a graphical method of survey in which the field observations and plotting proceed simultaneously. It is means of making a manuscript map in the field while the ground can be seen by the topographer and without intermediate steps of recording and transcribing field notes. It can be used to tie topography by existing control and to carry its own control systems by triangulation or traverse and by lines of levels. Instruments used The following instuments are used in plane table survey: 1. The plane table with levelling head having arrangements for (a) levelling, (b) rotation about vertical axis, and (c) clamping in any required position. 2. Alidade for sighting 3. Plumbing fork and plumb bob. 4. Spirit level. 5. Compass. 6. Drawing paper with a rainproof cover. 1. The Plane Table (Fig. 11.1): Three distinct types of tables (board and tripod) having devices for levelling the plane table and controlling its orientation are in common use: See All Chapters |
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## Ch_7 |
Saradindu Panda | Laxmi Publications | |||||

168 Microelectronics and Optoelectronics Technology Now, The axial strain \ = ea ea = FG DL IJ HL K ... (7.1) 0 Stress = s s= F = Area F F DI pG J H 2K 2 ... (7.2) Strain is a dimensionless quantity, and is usually expressed in units of 10–6 or microstrains, because for most materials strain values are quite small. The units of stress s are commonly N/m2 or Pa. The standard sign convention for stress is for tensile stresses to be negative and compressive stresses to be negative and compressive stresses to be positive. Here the force F, in figure is acting perpendicularly to the end of the rod. This type of force is termed an axial force, and results in an axial strain ea and axial stress ¶a. Shear forces, which act parallel to the surface of a body, generate shear stress and strain. From the Hooke’s law we get, where ¶ = eE E = slope of the stress-strain curve. ... (7.3) Another important mechanical effect is the change in lateral dimensions due to an axial force. The rod in Fig. 1 is shown as decreasing in diameter as a result of the axial tensile force F. This change in width is characterised by a lateral strain ec, which is related to the axial strain ea by Poisson’s ratio v by, v =– See All Chapters |
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## ALLC5-3 |
Manish Goyal | Laxmi Publications | |||||

353 NUMERICAL INTEGRATION AND DIFFERENTIATION Example 3. Evaluate z 6 dx 0 1 + x2 by using (i) Simpson’s one-third rule (ii) Simpson’s three-eighth rule (iii) Trapezoidal rule (iv) Weddle’s rule. Sol. Divide the interval (0, 6) into six parts each of width h = 1. The values of f(x) = 1 1 + x2 are given below : x : 0 1 2 3 f(x) : 1 0.5 0.2 0.1 y0 y1 y2 y3 4 5 6 1 17 y4 1 26 y5 1 37 y6 (i) By Simpson’s one-third rule, z dx 6 1+ x 0 2 = h [(y0 + y6) + 4(y1 + y3 + y5) + 2(y2 + y4)] 3 = 1 3 LMFG 1 + 1 IJ + 4 FG0.5 + 0.1 + 1 IJ + 2 FG0.2 + 1 IJ OP = 1.366173413. H 17 K Q 26 K NH 37 K H (ii) By Simpson’s three-eighth rule, z 6 0 dx 1+ x 2 = 3h [(y0 + y6) + 3(y1 + y2 + y4 + y5) + 2y3] 8 = 3 8 LMFG 1 + 1 IJ + 3 FG.5 + .2 + 1 + 1 IJ + 2(.1)OP = 1.357080836. 17 26 K NH 37 K H Q (iii) By Trapezoidal rule, z 6 0 dx 1+ x 2 = h [(y0 + y6) + 2(y1 + y2 + y3 + y4 + y5)] 2 = 1 2 (iv) By Weddle’s rule, z 6 0 dx 1+ x 2 LMFG 1 + 1 IJ + 2 FG.5 + .2 + .1 + 1 + 1 IJ OP = 1.410798581. 17 26 K Q NH 37 K H = 3h [y + 5y1 + y2 + 6y3 + y4 + 5y5 + y6] 10 0 = 1 3 1 1 + 1 + 5(.5) + .2 + 6(.1) + +5 = 1.373447475. 17 10 26 37 LM N FG IJ H K See All Chapters |
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## Ch_2f |
Dipak Chandra Ghosh, Nripesh Chandra Ghosh, and Prabir Kumar Haldar | Laxmi Publications | |||||

�� Jean Louis Marie Poiseuille 2C Chapter Viscosity 2C.1 INTRODUCTION Liquids and gases together are termed as fluids as there are some analogus in behaviour between them. Fluid cannot permanent by withstand any shearing stress. However, gases are compressible but liquids are not the same way. When a liquid is at rest, do not show any kind of rigidity. But when ever a liquid flows, there is a relative motion between the adjacent layers of the liquid, internal tangential forces act between two adjacent layers opposing this relative motion arise. If we consider any particular layer of the liquid we find that the layer immediately above it is moving faster than the layer immediately below it. The property of a liquid owing to which it opposes the relative motion between its different layers is called viscosity. Their magnitude differing from one liquid to another. 2C.2 v + 3dv v + 2dv v + dv v v – dv v – 2dv Figure 2C.1 FLOW OF LIQUIDS The liquids flow by two different ways: (a) Streamlined flow When a liquid flows such that each particle passing a certain point follows exactly the same path as the preceding particles which passed the same point, the flow is said to be streamlined and the path is called a streamline. v2 See All Chapters |
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## Ch_7_F |
Arijit Saha; Nilotpal Manna | Laxmi Publications | |||||

7 O PTOELEC TRONIC DISPLAY DEVICES 7.1 INTRODUCTION Visual display is one of the basic requirements of the recent systems. As the technology advances and most of the systems are based on the electronic devices, development of display systems is not lagging behind. Depending on the applications, various display devices have been developed to meet the requirements. Display devices can be divided into two broad categories: (a) those that emit radiation their own (active devices) and (b) those that in some way modulate incident radiation to provide display information (passive devices). However all the display devices are characterized by the general term as Luminescence, which is used to describe the emission of radiation from a solid when it is supplied with some form of energy. The type of luminescence may be distinguished by its method of excitation, as described below: · Photoluminescence: Excitation arises from the absorption of photons. · Cathodoluminescence: Excitation by the bombardment with a beam of electrons. See All Chapters |