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R. K. Jangda Laxmi Publications PDF




1.1.1 History of C

The name ‘C’ cryptic, is derived from an earlier version written by Ken Thompson1, a Bell Laboratory System Engineer. He was following a language BCPL (Basic

Combined Programming language) by Martin Richards2. After developing the language the first letter B was dropped and new language became CPL. This was called C programming language.

This language was originally designed and implemented on the UNIX operating system on DEC-PDP11 by Dennis Ritchie at Bell labs and later entire UNIX was rewritten in C.

1.1.2 Features of Language C

In ‘C’ one can write programs like that of high level languages as in COBOL, BASIC,

FORTRAN etc. as well as it permits very close interaction with the inner workings of the computer.

It is a general purpose programming language. It is usually called “system programming language” but equally suited to writing a variety of applications.

It supports various data types.

It follows the programming style based on fundamental control flow constructions for structured programming.

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5.5. Significance and Limitations of Control

G. Murugesan Laxmi Publications PDF



function enables managers to detect changes that are affecting their organizations product as services. They can then move to cope with the threats or opportunities that these changes represent.

Complaints: Today’s vast and complex organisations, with geographically separated plants and decentralized operations make control a necessity. Diversified product lines need to be watched closely to ensure that quality and profitability are being maintained. Sales in different retail outlets need to be recorded accurately and analyzed, the organisations various markets. Foreign and domestic require close monitoring.

Mistakes: Managers and their subordinates very often commit mistakes. For example, wrong parts are ordered, wrong pricing decisions are made, problems are diagnosed incorrectly and so on. A control system enables manager to catch the mistakes before they become serious.

Delegation: When manager delegate authority to subordinates, their responsibilities to their own superiors is not reduced. They only was manager can determine if their subordinates are accomplishing the tasks that have been delegated to them is by implementing a system of control.

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Dr. A.J. Nair Laxmi Publications PDF







generation of cells developing from that will be entirely dependent on the genetic material that they receive from the parent cell. Mitosis is the cell division that occurs in the somatic cells (body cells) and meiosis takes place in the sex organs for the production of gametes. The main features and the process of mitosis and meiosis are discussed below.


Mitosis is the process that facilitates the equal partitioning of replicated chromosomes into two identical groups. Two new daughter cells arise from one original cell. All the cells created through mitosis are genetically identical to one another and to the cell from which they came. The main purpose of mitosis in eukaryotic cells is: n Growth of the individual, n To repair tissue, and n To reproduce asexually.

Mitosis is a nuclear division in which the daughter cells receive the same number of chromosomes as that of the parent cell. The nuclear division is sometimes referred to as karyokinesis, which is followed by the cytoplasmic division known as cytokinesis. The daughter cells resulting from mitosis are identical to each other and also to the parent cell in the quantity and quality of genetic material. The genetic information, which the cell is copying and distributing during mitosis, is contained in the form of chromosomes.

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Dr. Priyanka Siwach ; Dr. Namita Singh Laxmi Publications PDF





• Introduction

• Nature of Ends Produced

• Chances of Occurrence of Recognition Sequence in a DNA


• Some Definitions


Restriction endonucleases are enzymes, produced by many bacterial species that cut the DNA into discrete fragments by acting only at specific DNA sequences. The discovery of these enzymes started with the observations of phage infection pattern in some bacterial strains in late 60s. It was noticed that a phage DNA survival in a particular bacterial host depends on the last host where it has propagated e.g., if phage is infecting a bacterial strain (say Haemophilus influenzae strain Rd), the phage DNA will be digested by bacterial defense enzymes. However, in this process of digestion, if some phage lambda are able to escape from the host and if these phages are re–plated on the same host i.e., Hamophilus influenzae strain, the phages will no longer be digested/restricted. Such phage infection cycles were studied for many generations and in diverse bacterial strains using radiolabeled phage DNA. All these studies could conclude together that some or most of the bacterial strains are blessed with a unique restriction–modification system.

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P.S.Sona Laxmi Publications PDF

190 A Practical Manual of Pharmaceutical Engineering






To determine the rate of corrosion of metal pieces in different solutions.


Metal pieces (Iron) diameter 20 mm and thickness of 3mm




Round bottom flasks


Heating mantles


Glass rods


Reflux condensers


Weighing balance


Weighing Box


Concentrated solutions of acids

(1 M H2SO4, 1M HCl, 1M NaOH)


Corrosion can be defined as the degradation of a material due to a reaction with its environment. In broad terms, the interaction between a material and its environment that results in a degradation of the physical, mechanical, or even esthetic properties of that material. More specifically, corrosion is usually associated with a change in the oxidation state of a metal, oxide, or semiconductor. Resistance to a corroding medium is often an important factor in the selection of material for construction of a chemical plant. Laboratory corrosion test are frequently the quickest and most satisfactory means of selection of most suitable materials for chemical plants. The

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