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Latin America

Barbara Vinick Indiana University Press ePub

Geographers usually include twenty-one countries in Latin America: thirteen in South America, seven in Central America, and one in North America (Mexico). Most of the residents of these countries speak Spanish, with the exceptions of Brazil, where Portuguese is the official language, and Belize, where English is the main language. Sometimes, the island nations of the Caribbean, which have a separate section in this volume, are included in Latin America.

The history of Jewish communities in Latin America is not as thoroughly researched as that of some other areas, but it appears that the first Jews came to Latin America to escape the Inquisitions of Spain and Portugal. Most of these immigrants were Conversos who had been converted forcibly to Christianity. Jews were marginalized and stigmatized in their new homes, and through the generations most of these early settlers lost their Jewish identity.1 For the most part, the current communities of Latin American Jews did not arrive until the nineteenth century and early twentieth. There are now about 450,000 Jews in Latin America, with the largest number in Argentina and other large communities in Brazil, Mexico, and Uruguay.

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2 Caves

John Sallis Indiana University Press ePub

 

Kaua‘i

Hawai‘i

April

There are opposites that are said and opposites that are seen. When opposites that have been said come to be seen, they inevitably prove to be less opposed than they were said to be. The sky above is no mere opposite of the earth below; rather, they are also bound together, encompassing the space in which nearly everything of concern to humans appears. Day and night, determined primarily by the presence or absence of sunlight, not only are bound by their sequential occurrence but also display, each in its own way, a certain play of light. No matter how brilliantly illuminated it may be, no daytime scene is totally without its shadows. Only rarely, if ever, is the night completely dark; and even then, light can always be kindled.

So it is, also, with the relation between the open air, which can be filled with radiant sunlight, and the dark sea, which keeps its depths withdrawn from the light. So it is, to a greater degree, with the relation of the open air to the compact, closed-off earth. In whatever ways they may be bound together, nothing both conjoins and distinguishes them more decisively than their peculiar reception of light. Wherever either extends into the other, there is a site that displays the reception and play of light in an exemplary way.

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4. Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain and the American Dream

Glenn W. LaFantasie Indiana University Press ePub

An air of expectation filled the Boston Music Hall as the audience waited for Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain, the incumbent governor of Maine and “the Hero of Little Round Top,” to be introduced. Chamberlain was going to speak on one of his favorite subjects, “The Left at Gettysburg,” and his skill as a public orator had already brought him considerable fame in his home state and throughout New England. It was “the celebrity of Gen. Chamberlain,” said one newspaper, that had drawn the sizable crowd to the music hall that November evening in 1868. The people of Boston wanted to see for themselves this great hero of the war and hear him tell his tale.

He did not disappoint them. Chamberlain described in vivid detail the bloody afternoon of July 2, 1863, when he had saved the Union army by ordering his regiment—the 20th Maine Infantry—to make a desperate bayonet charge down the slopes of Little Round Top in the face of a superior Confederate force. For more than an hour, the audience was entranced by his “glowing eloquence” and “graphic power.” The lecture, said one reporter, was “a masterly production.”1 No one who saw his performance that night could have ever doubted that Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain was a true American hero.

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Appendix 2. Biographies from the Ilinden Dossier

Keith Brown Indiana University Press ePub

The fourteen personal statements included here are taken from the Ilinden Dossier, housed at the National Archives of Macedonia in Skopje. This set of materials is stored in forty-three boxes, and individual files are catalogued by box number, first letter of surname, and sequential number among pension recipients under that letter. I have included a mixture of biographies, which were usually included in initial applications, and petitions, appeals, or complaints, which were submitted by unsuccessful or dissatisfied applicants and often provide more specific detail.

These fourteen records, composed by eleven men and three women, constitute only a small sample from the 3,500 applications, and also from the 375 awardees on whose records I took detailed notes. I selected them with an eye to geographical range (they represent twelve different birthplaces) and diversity in status and roles in the organization (including several self-styled četniks and couriers, and a vojvoda, a terrorist, a jatak, and a cashier or blagajnik). They offer rich descriptions of different kinds of mobility associated with unfree and paid labor, trade, marriage and education, and the ways the MRO harnessed those patterns of movement. A majority provide detailed and consistent information about key personalities and places.

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9 GIS, e-Science, and the Humanities Grid

David J Bodenhamer Indiana University Press ePub

PAUL S. ELL

The development of electronic resources for use by scholars in the humanities has proliferated at a dramatic pace over the last twenty years. Although scholars might feel that few resources are available to them, this is likely not to be the case. Much effort, and funding has been devoted specifically to create e-resources, ranging from highly specialized and subject-specific material to, and of more import to most scholars, what might be termed strategic or key resources. These latter resources might be considered strategic because of their spatial spread (i.e., they provide information for a spatially large area), their spatial granularity (providing information at a detailed spatial level), their chronological depth (data available over long time-periods), or their contextual nature. They are consulted and used by relatively large numbers of scholars, forming, if not a core foundation for their research, at least a backdrop. Such e-resources vary in their nature and include national censuses, socio-economic surveys, the work of mapping agencies, thematic collections of monographs, manuscripts, and journals, and so on.

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