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6 Physiological Variation of Insects in Agricultural Landscapes: Potential Impacts of Climate Change

Bjorkman, C., Editor CABI PDF

6

Physiological Variation of Insects in Agricultural Landscapes:

Potential Impacts of Climate

Change

John S. Terblanche,1* Minette Karsten,1 Katherine A.

Mitchell,1 Madeleine G. Barton1 and Patricia Gibert2

1Centre

for Invasion Biology, Department of Conservation Ecology and Entomology, Faculty of AgriSciences, Stellenbosch University,

South Africa; 2Université Lyon, Laboratoire de Biométrie et Biologie

Evolutive, Villeurbanne, France

Abstract

Understanding the physiological and behavioural responses of insects to climate variation is critical, for several reasons, of which three are perhaps most important. First, developing a deeper understanding of pest population dynamics and postharvest control requires information on thermal (and other environmental) traits. Second, invasion of new and emerging pests into novel environments requires some knowledge of the basics of environmental physiology.

Finally, to predict and manage aspects of efficacy in control programmes through the release of laboratory- or mass-reared insects typically hinges on  some information from phenotype–environment interactions. Here, we provide an overview of how climate and landscape environmental opportunities vary spatially and temporally in order to quantify better ecologically meaningful microclimates for insects and to understand better behavioural opportunities in agricultural landscapes. Then, we describe several key biogeographic patterns that may be

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Medium 9781780643922

9 Transforming Nature’s Value – Cultural Change Comes from Below: Rural Communities, the ‘Othered’ and Host Capacity Building

Reisinger, Y., Editor CABI PDF

9

Transforming Nature’s Value –

Cultural Change Comes from Below:

Rural Communities, the ‘Othered’ and

Host Capacity Building

Stephen Schweinsberg,1 Stephen Wearing1 and Michael Wearing2

1University

of Technology and 2University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia

Throughout history the transformative potential of tourism has impacted, for better or worse, tourism stakeholders and their environments.

The growth of mass tourism in the second half of the 20th century was characteristic of broader neoliberalist trends towards market based competition and corporate efficiency. Concern over the unchecked development of mass tourism was one of the catalysts for the development of academic interest in sustainable tourism. Early scholarship on the impacts of tourism often proposed a uniform progression of host community response to tourism development, identifying a correlation between carrying capacity, scale of development and resident perception.

However, more recently commentators have engaged with vagaries of tourism and its relationship to the social and physical environment.

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Medium 9781780642895

7 Intensive Livestock Systems for Dairy Cows

Fuhrer, J.; Gregory, P.J., Editors CABI PDF

7

Intensive Livestock Systems for

Dairy Cows

Robert J. Collier, Laun W. Hall and John F. Smith*

University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, USA

7.1 Introduction

The objectives of intensive livestock systems are to take advantage of scale effects to maximize profitability, to provide a uniform thermoneutral environment and consistent nutrition in order to maximize production output and to reduce the impacts of adverse environmental conditions. The use of intensive livestock systems is increasing, and will continue to do so for the immediate future because they are essential to achieving increases in animal productivity. However, the proper construction and management of these systems presents several challenges to producers, who must consider several factors including management of the microenvironments inside the facility, maximizing the efficiency of the labour, capital and nutrients required, as well as waste disposal in the form of waste water and manure.

There is now a strong scientific consensus that climate change is occurring and it is projected that the global average temperature will likely rise an additional 1.1–

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18 Risk Assessment for Management of Biological Invasions

Edited by J.R. Bhatt, J.S. Singh, S.P. Singh, R.S. Tripathi and R.K. Kohli CABI PDF

18

Risk Assessment for

Management of Biological

Invasions

Zafar A. Reshi and Irfan Rashid

Department of Botany, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India

Introduction

Risk assessment schemes are now being developed and applied globally to predict not only the potential invasive alien species whose introduction could be prevented, but also to identify the high-risk species among those already introduced that would cause ecological and economic impact. Such screening protocols have assumed urgency in view of the enormous increase in the introduction and spread of invasive species due to intentional and unintentional transport of propagules of species beyond their natural biogeographical ranges (Wilson et al.,

2009), and to human-induced environmental changes (Thuiller et al., 2008) that promote such biological invasions, with huge ecological and economic costs estimated at around US$1.4 trillion annually (Pimentel et al., 2005). The need for such protocols also arises from the fact that importing of economically important species used as food, fodder, fibre, fuel, etc. cannot be altogether restricted or prevented; rather, species having the least likelihood of causing any harm need to be identified for use in agriculture, horticulture, forestry, etc. in non-native regions in order to promote human well-being and prosperity in a manner that does not jeopardize the structural and functional integrity of native ecosystems. In contrast to pests that are aggressively managed because of their adverse impacts and no potential benefits,

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Medium 9781780642635

25: Amino Acid Analysis of Plant Products

D'Mello, J.P.F. CABI PDF

25 

Amino Acid Analysis of Plant Products

S.M. Rutherfurd*

Riddet Institute, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

25.1 Abstract

Amino acid analysis has been used as a tool in protein chemistry laboratories, where obtaining information about the amino acid composition of a protein is an important step in the characterization of protein structure. Within scientific disciplines such as food and nutrition, amino acid analysis has gained greater importance over the traditional nitrogen determination methods as a means of assessing dietary protein quality. The need to make this assessment is largely due to an increasing recognition that it is the amino acid balance of a food, in relation to the amino acid requirement of the consumer, rather than the amount of protein per se, that is important from a nutritional standpoint. Indeed, amino acid analysis forms the cornerstone of dietary protein quality assessment methods such as the digestible indispensable amino acid score (DIAAS) method which was recently recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) as the preferred method for assessing dietary protein quality (FAO, 2013). The aim of this chapter is to discuss amino acid analysis both in general terms and within the context of plant products. While there are many examples of different types of plant materials for which amino acid analysis is undertaken, the main focus of this review will be on foods and feedstuffs derived from plants.

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