336 Slices
Medium 9781780645322

18 Valuation Approaches for Soil Carbon

Banwart, S.A., Noellemeyer, E., Milne, E. CABI PDF

18 

Valuation Approaches for Soil Carbon

David J. Abson*, Unai Pascual and Mette Termansen

Abstract

Valuation of soil carbon can be understood as the process for assigning ‘weights’ to soil carbon when these are inadequately represented in decision making processes. There are different types of weights or ‘values’ that can be assigned to soil carbon. One approach is to assign monetary weights to such resources using economic valuation models. The total set of such monetized weights is referred to as total economic value (TEV). The different components of the value of soil carbon differ both conceptually and with respect to how they can be measured or manifested. There are various methods for quantifying soil carbon values that differ with respect to the types of values they are suitable or able to assess. This chapter reviews the various valuation approaches that can be applied to estimate different components of the TEV of soil carbon. In this respect, it discusses how soil carbon values can be estimated through both stated and reveal preferences methods, and places particular emphasis on the production function approach. In addition other approaches are presented, including the preventive or mitigation expenditure (marginal abatement costs) approach and the social cost of carbon approach. Lastly, the chapter addresses the question of how economic values can be included in economic decision making processes.

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Medium 9781780642994

9 Integrating Nutrition into Agricultural and Rural Development Policies: The Brazilian Experience of Building an Innovative Food and Nutrition Security Approach

Thompson, B., Amoroso, L. CABI PDF

9

Integrating Nutrition into Agricultural and Rural Development Policies: The Brazilian

Experience of Building an Innovative Food and Nutrition Security Approach

Luciene Burlandy,1* Cecilia Rocha2 and Renato Maluf 3

Universidade Federal Fluminense, National Council of Food and Nutrition Security

(CONSEA), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 2Ryerson University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada;

3

Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro and National Council of Food and Nutrition Security, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

1

Summary

Established in 2006, Brazil’s National System of Food and Nutrition Security is made up of representatives of civil society organizations and different governmental sectors. Innovative programmes have emerged as a consequence of this institutional framework. Effective connections made at programme design and implementation level have generated concrete results, such as the convergence of different programmes geared to the poorest groups. This chapter analyses different assessments of the Family

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Medium 9781780644325

11 Climate Change: Impacts on Livestock Diversity in Tropical Countries

Malik, P.K CABI PDF

11

Climate Change: Impacts on

Livestock Diversity in Tropical

Countries

S. Banik,1* P.K. Pankaj2 and S. Naskar1

1National

Research Centre on Pig, Guwahati, India; 2Central

Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture, Hyderabad, India

Abstract

The effect of changing climate will not only be confined to limited production, and the productivity of agricultural commodities, but will also have far-reaching consequences on dairy, meat, wool and other animal products.

The impact of climate change on the livestock sector as a whole will be felt more in tropical countries compared to temperate countries, largely because of the structure of production system and economics. The resultant pressure, both direct and indirect, is likely to result in further dilution of livestock diversity, which would specially affect the nutritional security and livelihood of small and marginal farmers. The challenge is to sustain genetic diversity and productivity by different adaptation strategies like production adjustment, breeding strategies, alteration of management systems, developing appropriate policies, scientific intervention and capacity building of livestock owners. In light of concerns over the impacts of climate change and climate variability, this chapter provides an overview of the opportunities for adaptation and mitigation strategies in tropical climatic conditions.

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Medium 9781780643946

6 The NCSU/APHIS Plant Pest Forecasting System (NAPPFAST)

Venette, R.C. CABI PDF

6

The NCSU/APHIS Plant Pest

Forecasting System (NAPPFAST)

Roger D. Magarey,1* Daniel M. Borchert,2 Glenn A.

Fowler2 and Steven C. Hong1

1Center

for Integrated Pest Management, North Carolina State

University, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA; 2Plant Epidemiology and

Risk Analysis Laboratory, Center for Plant Health Science and

Technology, Plant Protection and Quarantine, Animal Plant Health

Inspection Service, USDA, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA

Abstract

This chapter describes the North-CarolinaState-University/Animal-and-Plant-HealthInspection-Service Plant Pest Forecasting

System (nappfast). nappfast, developed for pest risk modelling and mapping, was formerly used to support pest detection, emergency response and risk analysis for the US Department of Agriculture. nappfast employs an internet-based graphical user interface to link weather databases with interactive biological model templates. The weather databases include historical daily weather databases for North

America and the world. The templates include degree-days, generic empirical models, infection periods and the Generic

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Medium 9781780644370

14 Countering Pest Resistance with Genetically Modified Bt Toxins

Soberon, M. CABI PDF

14

Countering Pest Resistance with

Genetically Modified Bt Toxins

Mario Soberón,1* Blanca Ines García-Gómez,1

Sabino Pacheco,1 Jorge Sánchez,1 Bruce E.

Tabashnik2 and Alejandra Bravo1

1Instituto

de Biotecnología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de

México, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico; 2Department of

Entomology, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, USA

Summary

Insecticidal crystalline (Cry) toxins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) used in sprays and transgenic crop plants have provided major benefits for pest control, including decreased reliance on broadspectrum chemical insecticides. However, extensive use of Bt toxins has selected for resistance, thus reducing or eliminating these benefits against some populations of at least seven species of major crop pests.

This chapter reviews efforts to counter pest resistance to native Bt toxins with genetically engineered toxins called Cry1AbMod and

Cry1AcMod. We generated these modified toxins by trimming the genes encoding the native toxins Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac so they lack the nucleotides that code for a portion of the amino-terminal end of the protein, including helix -1 and part of helix -2.

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