336 Chapters
Medium 9781780643137

1: The History of Animal Trade

Phillips, C.J.C. CABI PDF

The History of Animal Trade


1.1  Introduction

Our ancestors existed as hunter gatherers, and before that as anthropoid apes. The hunter gatherers had varied diets, which gave them security as a population against climatic extremes that favoured certain plant and animal types (Milton, 2000). The costs and risks of procuring meat and animal products were high and many were primarily gatherers. However, meat, once it was obtained, was a concentrated source of energy and protein, the most important nutrients that they required for survival. Not only did hunter gatherers in different parts of the world have quite varied diets, depending on availability, they were also free to migrate to utilize different fauna and flora sources, depending on the season and weather patterns.

Settled agriculture, adopted over a period of just a few thousand years beginning about 10,000 years ago, offered the opportunity for higher yields from plants and animals that were farmed in small areas. However, the static nature of this activity and the enhanced resource requirements of this form of food production, in the form of a regular water supply and a nutrient-rich soil, increased exposure to climatic and seasonal extremes. The inevitable variation in productivity could only be absorbed into a successful existence if humans cooperated with neighbouring groups, so that food surpluses in one region were transported to others where the need was greater. Thus our cognitive skills in organizing this trade, coupled with our highly social behaviour, combined to make plant and animal raising a viable alternative to hunter gathering when societies cooperated by trading in surplus goods.

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Medium 9781780644325

21 Phage Therapy in Livestock Methane Amelioration



Phage Therapy in Livestock

Methane Amelioration

Rosalind A. Gilbert,1,2* Diane Ouwerkerk1,2 and

Athol V. Klieve1,2,3


of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry,

Queensland, Australia; 2Centre for Animal Science, Queensland

Alliance for Agriculture and Food Innovation, Queensland,

Australia; 3School of Agriculture and Food Sciences, University of Queensland, Queensland, Australia


Viruses of prokaryotes (phages) are obligate microbial pathogens that can, in the lytic phase of development, infect and lyse their respective bacterial or archaeal hosts. As such, these viruses can reduce the population density of their hosts rapidly, and have been viewed as possible agents of biological control (phage therapy). Phage therapy is becoming increasingly important as a means of eradicating or controlling microbial populations as the use of antibiotics and chemical treatments becomes both less effective and less publicly acceptable. Phage therapy has therefore been raised as a potential strategy to reduce methane (CH4) emissions from ruminants, providing an innovative biological approach, harnessing the potent, yet targeted, biocidal attributes of these naturally occurring microbial predators.

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Medium 9781780642994

4 Food-based Approaches for Combating Malnutrition – Lessons Lost?

Thompson, B., Amoroso, L. CABI PDF


Food-based Approaches for Combating

Malnutrition – Lessons Lost?

Ted Greiner*

Hanyang University, Seoul, Republic of South Korea


This chapter describes programmes that focused on dietary quality in Tanzania, Zimbabwe and Bangladesh, a crucial but neglected part of food and nutrition security. These programmes utilized various approaches and were all in some way successful though, as usual, valuable lessons often come from dealing with unexpected difficulties that frequently arise, especially in such large-scale programmes as most of these were.

Although some of these programmes are no longer in operation, the lessons they taught are still valuable and are reported here because they are generally not among the better known projects that have been repeatedly reported at international meetings. The chapter also reports on research illuminating why foodbased approaches commonly do not seem to work well to improve human nutrient status and what can be done to improve such projects. Carotenes, by far the main source of vitamin A in low-income diets, tend to be poorly absorbed, but adding small amounts of fat and doing routine deworming will correct much of this problem; both of these options are very low in cost and convey additional benefits. Similarly, consuming vitamin C-rich foods at or close to meal times is a feasible way to improve iron absorption from plant foods.

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Medium 9781845939212

16 Productivity Growth and Technology Capital in the Global Agricultural Economy

Fuglie, K.O., Ball, V.E., Wang, S.L. CABI PDF


Productivity Growth and Technology Capital in the

Global Agricultural Economy

Keith O. Fuglie

Economic Research Service, US Department of Agriculture,

Washington, DC



The chapters of this volume have presented some of the latest and most comprehensive assessments of productivity growth for agriculture in various countries and regions of the world. As reviewed in the introduction to this volume, the global story is a mixed one. Industrialized countries have generally sustained relatively strong rates of total factor productivity (TFP) during the past several decades, although Australia and South

Africa show signs of productivity stagnation. In transition countries there has been a fairly robust productivity recovery after more than a decade of economic reforms that forced a sharp contraction on the agricultural sectors of these countries. But just as the reform process has been uneven across these countries, so has the pace of their agricultural recovery. Among developing countries, several, most notably Brazil and China, have achieved remarkable productivity gains over the past several decades. Others, especially those in sub-Saharan

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Medium 9781780643946

13 Identifying and Assessing Critical Uncertainty Thresholds in a Forest Pest Risk Model

Venette, R.C. CABI PDF


Identifying and Assessing

Critical Uncertainty Thresholds in a Forest Pest Risk Model

Frank H. Koch1* and Denys Yemshanov2


Forest Service, Southern Research Station, Eastern

Forest Environmental Threat Assessment Center, Research

Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA; 2Natural Resources Canada,

Canadian Forest Service, Great Lakes Forestry Centre, Sault

Ste. Marie, Ontario, Canada


Pest risk maps can provide helpful decision support for invasive alien species management, but often fail to address adequately the uncertainty associated with their predicted risk values. This chapter explores how increased uncertainty in a risk model’s numeric assumptions (i.e. its principal parameters) might affect the resulting risk map. We used a spatial stochastic model, integrating components for entry, establishment and spread, to estimate the risks of invasion and their variation across a two-dimensional gridded landscape for Sirex noctilio, a non-native woodwasp detected in eastern North

America in 2004. Historically, S. noctilio has been a major pest of pine (Pinus spp.) plantations in the southern hemisphere. We present a sensitivity analysis of the mapped risk estimates to variation in six key model parameters: (i) the annual probabilities of new S. noctilio entries at US and Canadian ports; (ii) the S. noctilio population-carrying capacity at a given location; (iii) the maximum annual spread distance; (iv) the probability of local dispersal (i.e. at a distance of 1 km); (v) the susceptibility of the host resource; and (vi) the growth rate of the host trees. We used Monte Carlo

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