336 Chapters
Medium 9781845938178

12: Rodent Control in Practice: Temperate Field Crops and Forestry

Buckle, A.P.; Smith, R.H. CABI PDF

12 

Rodent Control in Practice: Temperate

Field Crops and Forestry

A.P. Buckle1 and H.-J. Pelz2

School of Biological Sciences, University of Reading, Reading, UK;

2

Vertebrate Research Group, Julius Kühn-Institut – Federal Research

Centre for Cultivated Plants, Münster, Germany

1

Introduction

Agriculture in temperate latitudes is extremely diverse. Cropping systems are sometimes based on a single, major component but more often comprise a mosaic of different elements. These elements include the farming of arable crops, such as wheat, barley and maize, the use of pasture and rangeland for the production of wool, milk and meat, the cultivation of semi-permanent topfruit tree crops (tree fruits), a wide variety of vegetable and fruit crops, including those grown for fodder, oil, sugar and energy production, and the planting of forest trees for timber and wood pulp. Without exception, agricultural production in all of these systems is adversely affected by rodent pests.

The species that are pests in temperate commensal situations belong almost exclusively to the family Muridae of the order

See All Chapters
Medium 9781780642635

27: Toxicology of Non-Protein Amino Acids

D'Mello, J.P.F. CABI PDF

27 

Toxicology of Non-Protein

Amino Acids

J.P.F. D’Mello*

Formerly of SAC (Scottish Agricultural College), University of

Edinburgh King’s Buildings Campus,Edinburgh, UK

27.1 Abstract

The appearance of a wide range of non-protein amino acids in foliage, fruits, seeds and root exudates is an

­important expression of secondary metabolism in higher plants. The ubiquitous distribution of these amino acids is exemplified by their presence in food and forage plants as well as in temperate and tropical species. Canavanine occurs widely in legumes such as Canavalia ensiformis, Medicago sativa, Gliricidia sepium, Dioclea megacarpa and

Robinia pseudocacia. Significant concentrations of the selenoamino acids and of S-methylcysteine sulfoxide are present in Brassica oleracea, including broccoli, cabbage, Brussels sprouts and kale. In contrast, the signalling agonists b-N-oxalylamino-l-alanine and b-N-methylamino-l-alanine occur in unrelated species, namely Lathyrus sativus and Cycas circinalis, respectively, while g -aminobutyrate accumulates in plants in response to biotic and environmental stimuli. The aromatic amino acid, mimosine, occurs primarily in Leucaena leucocephala, a tropical legume yielding timber and prolific quantities of palatable forage. Of all the non-protein amino acids cited in this chapter, hypoglycin is unique in its natural distribution; two forms, hypoglycin A and its glutamyl derivative,

See All Chapters
Medium 9781780643137

4: Trade in Meat

Phillips, C.J.C. CABI PDF

Trade in Meat

4

4.1  Introduction

Humans are not anatomically or physiologically designed to eat raw meat. The absence of elongated canine teeth makes tearing through raw meat difficult and the relatively high pH in our stomachs renders us susceptible to food poisoning if the flesh is at all contaminated. For our ancestors the infrequency of successful hunts would have made contamination of stored meat likely. However, their ability to master fire provided a method of processing meat to make it more easily consumed and less likely to be contaminated. Hence for as long as prehistoric records are available, meat consumption has been a part of the human diet. Our ancestors’ advanced ability to communicate facilitated complex hunting methods, luring animals into traps for example. Cave paintings suggest that there were ritual gatherings before the hunt, perhaps even with music and hallucinogenic drugs, which bonded the males together to improve their performance in the hunt.

Hunting for meat provided an alternative to the long process of gathering nutrients from plant life, which varied with climate and season and often required a nomadic lifestyle to follow the geographic availability of suitable plants. The nutrient demands for hunting, gathering and nomadism were considerable, and meat was able to provide the highly digestible food needed. Nevertheless, the risks involved and uncertainty in finding food meant that life was short, typically 25–40 years. With the coming of agriculture, and the development of improved plants, principally cereals, with higher seed yields, a settled way of life became possible and it was no longer necessary to hunt animals for meat. However, in colder parts of the world, particularly the northern parts of the northern hemisphere, meat consumption remained necessary because it could provide the nutrients needed, and in these regions crop growth was limited. Over the last 1000 years people from these regions came to colonize most of the rest of the world and the colonizers took their meat-eating habits with them. For example, the British colonies covered one-third of the world at the beginning of the 20th century,

See All Chapters
Medium 9781780645322

10 Soil Carbon and Agricultural Productivity: Perspectives from Sub-Saharan Africa

Banwart, S.A., Noellemeyer, E., Milne, E. CABI PDF

10 

Soil Carbon and Agricultural

Productivity: Perspectives from

Sub-Saharan Africa

Andre Bationo*, Boaz S. Waswa and Job Kihara

Abstract

Soil carbon plays a key role in maintaining crop productivity in the soils in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA).

This is more so considering that most smallholder farmers cannot afford the use of adequate amounts of inorganic fertilizers to restore the proportion of nutrients lost through crop harvests, soil erosion and leaching. Complicating the situation is the huge proportion of land under threat of degradation in the form of soil erosion and nutrient decline. There are numerous opportunities for improving soil carbon as a basis of ensuing sustainable agriculture. This paper discusses the role of soil carbon in agricultural production, with special focus on sub-Saharan Africa. First, the paper presents a discussion on the functions of soil carbon (biological, chemical and physical). This is followed by a look at the causes of carbon variation across agroecosystems. Management of soil carbon and productivity is evaluated in the context of resource availability, quality and soil organic matter pools. Drawing from the integrated soil fertility management practices in Africa, the paper discusses various strategies for organic carbon management and the implication of the same on crop productivity and soil properties.

See All Chapters
Medium 9781780642994

3 Enhancing the Performance of Food-based Strategies to Improve Micronutrient Status and Associated Health Outcomes in Young Children from Poor-resource Households in Low-income Countries: Challenges and Solutions

Thompson, B., Amoroso, L. CABI PDF

3

Enhancing the Performance of Food-based

Strategies to Improve Micronutrient Status and Associated Health Outcomes in Young

Children from Poor-resource Households in Low-income Countries: Challenges and Solutions

Rosalind S. Gibson*

University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand

Summary

Sustainable food-based micronutrient interventions are needed in poor-resource settings, where the prevalence of coexisting micronutrient deficiencies and infection is high, especially during childhood. Food-based interventions include fortification, dietary diversification and modification (DDM) and biofortification. This review focuses on DDM strategies that aim to improve the availability, access and utilization of foods with a high content and bioavailability of micronutrients throughout the year. The strategies include: increasing the production and consumption of micronutrient-dense foods through agriculture, small animal production or aquaculture and, in the future, biofortification; incorporating enhancers of micronutrient absorption; and reducing absorption inhibitors. Such strategies must be designed using formative research to ensure that they are culturally acceptable, economically feasible and sustainable. DDM has the potential to prevent coexisting micronutrient deficiencies simultaneously for the entire household and across generations without risk of antagonistic interactions. To maximize the impact of DDM, especially among children in poor-resource settings, DDM should be integrated with public health interventions designed to reduce the risk of infections.

See All Chapters

See All Chapters