336 Chapters
Medium 9781780642994

21 Measurement of Dietary Diversity for Monitoring the Impact of Food-based Approaches

Thompson, B., Amoroso, L. CABI PDF

21

Measurement of Dietary Diversity for Monitoring the Impact of Food-based

Approaches

Nutrition and Consumer Protection Division (AGN),*† Agriculture and Consumer Protection Department (AG)

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy

Summary

Monotonous diets based mainly on energy-dense, but micronutrient-poor starchy staples are common in food-insecure areas and contribute to the burden of malnutrition, particularly to inadequate micronutrient intake. Food-based strategies have been recommended as the first priority to meet micronutrient needs.

An essential element to food-based approaches involves dietary diversification – or the consumption of a wide variety of foods across nutritionally distinct food groups. Increased dietary diversity is associated with increased household access to food as well as increased individual probability of adequate micronutrient intake. Dietary diversity is measured as the number of individual food groups consumed over a given reference period. FAO has developed guidelines on the use of a standardized tool for measuring dietary diversity that can be administered at either the household or individual level. The tool uses an open recall method to gather information on all the foods and drinks consumed by the household or individual over the previous 24 h. The foods and drinks mentioned by the respondent are then recorded into one of 16 standardized food groups. Data collected using the dietary diversity tool can then be analysed in several different ways to provide a picture of dietary patterns within a community as well as among vulnerable groups. Examples of analytical approaches and programmatic uses are drawn from studies in

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Medium 9781780643946

1 The Challenge of Modelling and Mapping the Future Distribution and Impact of Invasive Alien Species

Venette, R.C. CABI PDF

1

The Challenge of Modelling and

Mapping the Future Distribution and Impact of Invasive Alien

Species

Robert C. Venette*

USDA Forest Service, Northern Research Station, St. Paul,

Minnesota, USA

Abstract

Invasions from alien species can jeopardize the economic, environmental or social benefits derived from biological systems.

Biosecurity measures seek to protect those systems from accidental or intentional introductions of species that might become injurious. Pest risk maps convey how the probability of invasion by an alien species or the potential consequences of that invasion vary spatially. These maps inform strategic and tactical decisions for invasive species management. Pest risk modellers must contend with the challenges of developing models that forecast the course or consequence of invasions and are more meaningful than could be obtained by chance, of demonstrating the validity of those models and of portraying results on maps in ways that will be useful for decision makers. Frequently, these forecasts depend on extrapolations from limited information to project how a species might be affected, for example, by changes in commerce, exposure to novel environments or associations with new dispersal vectors, or how these species might affect resident species or ecological processes. Consequently, pest risk maps often focus on one phase of the invasion process: arrival, establishment, spread or impact. Risk

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Medium 9781780643786

12 Pine Wood Nematode, Pine Wilt Disease, Vector Beetle and Pine Tree: How a Multiplayer System Could Reply to Climate Change

Bjorkman, C., Editor CABI PDF

12

Pine Wood Nematode, Pine Wilt

Disease, Vector Beetle and Pine

Tree: How a Multiplayer System

Could Reply to Climate Change

Alain Roques,1* Lilin Zhao,2 Jianghua Sun2 and

Christelle Robinet1

1INRA,

UR633 Zoologie Forestière, France; 2State Key

Laboratory of Integrated Management of Pest Insects and

Rodents, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences,

Beijing, China

Abstract

The pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, constitutes a major threat to pine forests across the world. Under climatic conditions favourable to the expression of the pine wilt disease caused by the nematode, susceptible pine trees may die within a few months following nematode inoculation.

Although considered a secondary pest in its native North America, this organism has caused huge damage in areas it has invaded in south-eastern Asia and south-western

Europe. The nematode is carried by local long-horned beetles in the genus Monochamus, which vector it to pine trees first during maturation feeding and then when ovipositing. As climate is an important driver of insect vectors, nematodes and disease expression, we explore in this chapter how a changing climate could affect this multiplayer system in the future. Warming up is effectively susceptible to enlarging vector distribution, to accelerating its development and possibly to enhancing its flight performances. Therefore, it could change the time window of nematode transmission and increase the spread rate of the nematode.

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Medium 9781780645322

11 Soil as a Support of Biodiversity and Functions

Banwart, S.A., Noellemeyer, E., Milne, E. CABI PDF

11 

Soil as a Support of Biodiversity and Functions

Pierre-Alain Maron* and Philippe Lemanceau

Abstract

The soil is a major reservoir of biological diversity on our planet. It also shelters numerous biological and ecological processes and therefore contributes to the production of a considerable number of ecosystem services. Among the ecological, social and economic services identified, the role of soil as a reservoir of diversity has now been well established, along with its role in nutrient cycling, supporting primary productivity, pollution removal and storing carbon.

Since the development of industrialization, urbanization and agriculture, soils have been subjected to numerous variations in environmental conditions, which have resulted in modifications of the diversity of the indigenous microbial communities. As a consequence, the functional significance of these modifications of biodiversity, in terms of the capacity of ecosystems to maintain the functions and services on which humanity depends, is now of pivotal importance. The concerns emanating from the scientific community have been reiterated in the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MEA, 2005) published by the policy makers. This strategic document underlines the need to consider biodiversity as an essential component of ecosystems, not only because of its involvement in providing services essential to the well-being of human societies but also because of its intrinsic value in terms of a natural patrimony that needs to be preserved. This objective cannot be raised without the improvement of our ability to predict the effects of environmental changes on soil biodiversity, ecosystem functioning and the associated services; this requires a better quantification of soil biodiversity at different temporal and spatial scales, and its translation into biological functioning. Major advances in molecular biology since the mid-1990s have allowed the development of techniques to investigate and resolve the diversity of soil microbial communities (Maron et al., 2007).

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36 CONCLUSION

Thompson, B., Amoroso, L. CABI PDF

Selected Findings and Recommendations from the SymposiumBrian Thompson and Leslie Amoroso*Nutrition and Consumer Protection Division (AGN), Agriculture and ConsumerProtection Department (AG), Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, ItalyThe following selected findings were prepared as a summary of the main conclusions and recommendations of the papers that were presented and of the discussions that took place during the International Symposium onFood and Nutrition Security held at FAOHeadquarters in Rome, Italy, in December2010. The symposium:••••Regretted that over the past 20–25 years food and agriculture-based initiatives for improving nutrition have been systematically neglected and underfunded.Acknowledged that food and agriculture serve as the foundation for nutrition and health.Emphasized that agriculture, including crops, livestock, fisheries and forestry activities, represents the broad field of activities concerned with the production, processing, storage, distribution and marketing of food and other commodities, along with related social, economic and environmental concerns.

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