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Chapter 2

Jeanie M. Ilberlin Marzano Research PDF

Chapter 2

STRESS REDUCTION

One of the most important and well-documented benefits of mindfulness is stress reduction.

Mindfulness is not about doing things perfectly or never feeling anxiety; however, it can help people notice and respond to stress in ways that restore a healthier, happier state of being. For students, and for educators, life can sometimes feel overwhelming. As noted, research has shown that students of all ages are feeling exhausted, depressed, irritable, and overwhelmed in their everyday lives (U.S. Department of

Health and Human Services, 2001; Weissberg, Walberg, O’Brien, & Kuster, 2003). The human body is conditioned to handle danger and stress; the fight-or-flight response primes the body to protect itself.

However, frequent or prolonged periods of this response take a toll on one’s health and well-being.

Relaxing is the opposite of the fight-or-flight response; it decreases heart rate and blood pressure and increases attention and cognitive function (Benson, 2010). Mindfulness offers students and teachers specific techniques to reduce stress, relax, replenish, and re-energize.

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Chapter 6

Jeanie M. Ilberlin Marzano Research PDF

Chapter 6

POSITIVE INTERACTIONS

Increased focus on mindfulness can enhance a student’s ability to engage in positive interactions with others. Mindfulness helps students increase the think-time between stimulus and response, thus giving them the chance to slow down, consider others’ thoughts and feelings, and consider their options before taking action. This allows students to respond less impulsively, thus improving the chances for positive interactions with peers, staff, and parents.

Encouraging positive interactions among students (and with other people in the learning environment) helps to build a school and classroom atmosphere that promote learning and improve schoolwide culture (Bernard, 2004). Examples of positive interactions include listening, being compassionate, respecting others’ personal space, encouraging and supporting others, expressing gratitude, and using manners. Nonexamples include behaviors such as criticizing, gossiping, hitting, bullying, blaming, interrupting, controlling, and not listening.

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Chapter 1

Jeanie M. Ilberlin Marzano Research PDF

Chapter 1

RESEARCH AND THEORY

Throughout the 1980s, 1990s, and early 2000s, education experienced a shift toward a focus on achievement and accountability. Few would argue against the importance of students achieving at high levels, and most would agree that some level of accountability is valuable. However, this shift also led to unforeseen changes in the content prioritized in schools. Mandated high-stakes tests, usually emphasizing English language arts and mathematics, came to the forefront, often at the expense of the arts, physical education, and social-emotional learning. Social-emotional learning in particular includes decision-making skills, self-management, self-awareness, social awareness, and people skills. Although these essential competencies are not often emphasized in schools, many teachers see the need for them, especially in the ever-changing and often stressful modern world.

Addressing Students’ Levels of Stress, Worry, and Depression

Small amounts of stress are motivating and can be positive. Excessive stress, especially in children, has negative effects on emotions and physiology (American Academy of Pediatrics, 2014). On a dayto-day basis, students feel a tremendous amount of stress. Fourteen percent of children ages eight to twelve self-reported that they worry a great deal. Forty-four percent of children and teens (ages eight to seventeen) reported worrying about success in school. Other sources of stress for eight- to twelve-yearolds include having family financial worries and getting along with their peers (American Psychological

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Part II: Scoring the Common Core State Standards

Robert J. Marzano Marzano Research ePub

MRL’s scales for the Common Core State Standards were designed to include all of the ELA standards from the CCSS. Here we include several notes about MRL’s scales for the ELA CCSS that may interest teachers and readers.

In some cases, the CCSS present substandards for an overarching standard. For example, the overarching Writing standard W.6.1 has five substandards, labeled using a, b, c, d, and e. In cases like this, MRL used one of two approaches: we either included (1) both the overarching standard and the substandards (if the overarching standard contains additional information) or (2) the substandards but not the overarching standard (if the overarching standard does not contain additional information).

MRL created a single set of Reading measurement topics that includes standards from Reading Literature and Reading Informational Text.

Writing standards 9 and 10 are not included in MRL’s scales because our analysis found them to be more focused on instructional guidance rather than specific ELA content. In other words, Writing standards 9 and 10 give teachers guidance about how to structure lessons and combine content rather than specifying what students should know or be able to do as a result of instruction.

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Chapter 5: Competency-Based Education

Robert J. Marzano Marzano Research ePub

Chapter 5

Competency-Based Education

Level 5 addresses the extent to which a school matriculates students based on their demonstrated competence rather than on the amount of time they have spent learning. In other words, students only move to the next level when they have demonstrated competence at the previous level. Level 5 status represents the most rarefied level of high reliability designation; once a school has achieved this level, it will have implemented competency-based education (also called standards-based education). Level 5 has three leading indicators:

The most straightforward approach to implementing a competency-based system while maintaining traditional grade levels is to treat grade levels as performance levels. Each grade level represents a level of knowledge or skill defined by specific learning goals for which proficiency scales have been developed. It is important to note that, within this approach, a student will be operating at different grade levels for different subject areas.

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