197 Chapters
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Chapter 3 | Transforming Curriculum

Marzano, Robert J.; Heflebower, Tammy; Hoegh, Jan K.; Warrick, Phil; Grift, Gavin Marzano Research ePub

As mentioned in the first chapter (page 3), current approaches to curriculum can be transformed by an effectual response to the question, What do we want our students to know? We propose that a well-crafted answer to this question begins with a guaranteed and viable curriculum.

The concept of a guaranteed and viable curriculum was first introduced in the book What Works in Schools (Marzano, 2003) and was further developed in a number of later publications (for example, DuFour & Marzano, 2011; Marzano et al., 2005; Marzano et al., 2014). By guaranteed, we mean that the same content is taught in all classrooms. To achieve this, the curriculum must provide “clear guidance regarding the content to be addressed in specific courses and at specific grade levels” (Marzano et al., 2014, p. 69). A prerequisite to a guaranteed curriculum is a viable curriculum—one with content that can be taught in the time available to teachers.

Collaborative teams and a guaranteed and viable curriculum have a symbiotic relationship. If one of the crucial objectives of the PLC process is to increase the quality of students’ learning, then a guaranteed and viable curriculum is a foundational element to that mission. Given that a great deal of the collaborative team’s work centers on monitoring teacher instruction and student achievement, it is imperative that the team’s members have a clear understanding of what they will teach. Without a guaranteed and viable curriculum, assessment tasks and the measurements based on them become inconsistent, invalid, and unreliable. A guaranteed and viable curriculum can only be created, implemented, and sustained through collaborative effort, making this task ideal work for collaborative teams (DuFour & Marzano, 2011). Such activity also creates the opportunity for teachers—those who will eventually deliver the content to students—to be directly involved in curriculum design (DuFour & Marzano, 2011).

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13 - Classroom Feud

Carleton, Lindsay; Marzano, Robert Marzano Research ePub

For lower and upper elementary, middle, and high school language arts, math, science, and social studies


Classroom Feud, modeled after the game show Family Feud, can be used as review in any of the four major content areas (language arts, math, science, and social studies) at the lower and upper elementary, middle, and high school levels.


The material needs for this game vary. If you are using a pencil-and-paper approach, you will need note cards. If you want to display the game questions, you will need an overhead projector or something similar.

Set Up

As with What Is the Question?, prepare the game questions ahead of time. Make sure there are at least as many questions as there are students in the class. You can use multiple-choice, short-answer, or fill-in-the-blank formats for your questions, but make sure you have approximately an even number of questions using each format. For example, if you have five multiple-choice questions, it is best to have five fill-in-the-blank questions as well. Also keep in mind that fill-in-the-blank items are more difficult because they require the student to recall the answer, while multiple-choice and alternative-choice items require only that students recognize the correct answer. Students will have a very limited period of time to answer, so if you are using a short-answer format, make sure your questions allow for complete answers to be given quickly.

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Chapter 3

Marzano, Robert J., Marzano, Jana S. Marzano Research ePub

Managing the inner world is a skill that requires deliberate practice over an extended period of time. We can garner such practice in a variety of ways including retrospective practice, mental rehearsal, and real-time practice. We begin with retrospective practice.

To practice managing the inner world retrospectively, we begin by identifying situations that typically elicit strong negative emotions. Up until this point, we have used the term situations in a relatively loose manner. Here, we note that there are three types of situations we should consider when engaging in retrospective practice: people, events, and tasks.

To illustrate retrospective practice regarding people at school, consider a teacher who retrospectively thinks about the students in her class. She begins by asking herself which of her students typically elicits a negative emotional response. She realizes that she experiences anger when she interacts with one student, Maria. It isn’t the type of anger that makes her want to lash out at Maria. Rather, it is a mild but recurring feeling of irritation that colors all interactions with her. The second question the teacher asks focuses on her interpretation of Maria. In response to this focus, the teacher realizes she usually interprets Maria’s behavior as disrespectful to her. On further consideration, the teacher realizes that this interpretation challenges her own sense of self-esteem; if Maria does not respect her, are there other students who feel the same way? This represents the awareness phase of the management process. She is now cognizant of her reaction to Maria.

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2 Work and Plan Together Through Collaborative Conversations

Heflebower, Tammy; Hoegh, Jan K. Marzano Research ePub


Work and Plan Together Through Collaborative Conversations

Change the world—one conversation at a time.

—Susan Scott

Step 2 in the framework outlines ways to work together in collaborative conversations to plan and implement lessons and instruction using the CCSS. In this chapter, we expand the concept of cultural literacy to include teachers learning more about what they don’t know they don’t know as they plan and reflect together. This step supports educators as we change paradigms: we are no longer the individual teacher teaching behind closed doors; instead, in the 21st century, we are members of a collaborative team of lifelong learners who grow through collaboration and collegial conversations. As we work together to implement the CCSS, we need to incorporate more complex texts, nonfiction, and text sets. We need to find ways for more student talk and less teacher talk. We need to collaborate with our colleagues on ways to include more project-based learning. We need to immerse learners in argumentative writing using critical-thinking skills, and we need to move learners from memorization to understanding. Collaborative conversations within professional learning groups are the vehicle for accommodating this paradigm shift and implementing the CCSS.

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Chapter 2

Marzano, Robert J., Marzano, Jana S. Marzano Research ePub

The more we understand the workings of the human mind, the more effectively we can manage the inner world. In this chapter, we address four topics that provide a sound basis for understanding and executing the management phases and questions introduced in chapter 1: (1) the power of emotions, (2) the nature of interpretation, (3) scripts, and (4) the importance of the self-system.

There is a good reason why the first question one asks when managing the inner world is: What emotions am I experiencing right now? It is because emotions are powerful determiners of both thought and behavior. To illustrate the relationship between emotions, thought, and behavior, Jean Piaget (1964) used the analogy of gasoline to an engine. Affect (that is, emotion) is like the gasoline that fuels the engine; affect fuels the process of human thought. Piaget further noted that thought and emotion are inseparable: “There are not two developments, one cognitive and the other affective, two separate psychic functions, nor are there two kinds of objects: all objects are simultaneously cognitive and affective” (p. 39).

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