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Chapter 3

Marzano, Robert J., Marzano, Jana S. Marzano Research ePub

Managing the inner world is a skill that requires deliberate practice over an extended period of time. We can garner such practice in a variety of ways including retrospective practice, mental rehearsal, and real-time practice. We begin with retrospective practice.

To practice managing the inner world retrospectively, we begin by identifying situations that typically elicit strong negative emotions. Up until this point, we have used the term situations in a relatively loose manner. Here, we note that there are three types of situations we should consider when engaging in retrospective practice: people, events, and tasks.

To illustrate retrospective practice regarding people at school, consider a teacher who retrospectively thinks about the students in her class. She begins by asking herself which of her students typically elicits a negative emotional response. She realizes that she experiences anger when she interacts with one student, Maria. It isn’t the type of anger that makes her want to lash out at Maria. Rather, it is a mild but recurring feeling of irritation that colors all interactions with her. The second question the teacher asks focuses on her interpretation of Maria. In response to this focus, the teacher realizes she usually interprets Maria’s behavior as disrespectful to her. On further consideration, the teacher realizes that this interpretation challenges her own sense of self-esteem; if Maria does not respect her, are there other students who feel the same way? This represents the awareness phase of the management process. She is now cognizant of her reaction to Maria.

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Chapter 6 Managing Misbehavior

Jason E. Harlacher Marzano Research ePub

The final element of an effective classroom management plan is the use of a continuum of strategies to decrease unwanted behavior. In other words, the teacher has a variety of management strategies in place to prevent or deter students from behaving in a way that causes problems for others in the classroom. Managing misbehavior is not the same as punishing a student when he or she misbehaves. Instead, effective management involves reinforcing appropriate behavior and using instances of misbehavior as opportunities to teach more appropriate conduct (Alberto & Troutman, 2013; Carr et al., 2002; Wolery et al., 1988). Scott Stage and David Quiroz (1997) conducted a meta-analysis on different methods for managing disruptive behavior. The most effective methods involved reinforcement strategies (such as token economies) rather than punishment strategies (such as taking away privileges). Table 6.1 displays a summary of their findings; note that a negative effect size indicates a reduction of disruptive behavior—a desirable result in this case.

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Appendix A - Answers to Exercises

Robert J. Marzano Marzano Research ePub

Answers to Exercise 2.1
Learning Goals vs. Activities and Assignments

1. Students will be able to recognize the protagonist, theme, and voice of a piece of literature.

This is a learning goal. There is a desired outcome specified (recognizing the protagonist, theme, and voice of a piece of literature).

2. Students will produce a book report on a book of their choice, including a table of contents, with proper pagination and format throughout.

This is primarily an activity. The cognitive or behavioral outcome is not clearly specified. There is no particular level of understanding or ability that is needed to produce a book report with these specifications. There are no clear standards for judging the quality of the product.

3. Given a set of coordinates, students will be able to graph the slope of a line.

This is a learning goal. There are clearly defined cognitive and psychomotor skills that students must demonstrate.

4. Students will compare and describe the slopes of two lines.

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Appendix B: Noteworthy Books, Programs, and Resources

Jeanie M. Ilberlin Marzano Research ePub



Here you will find a list of notable books, magazines, programs, and other resources to help achieve mindfulness in the classroom.

Books and Magazines

Best Practices for Yoga in Schools by Traci Childress and Jennifer Cohen Harper (2015)

Experienced yoga teachers and researchers wrote this helpful resource. It offers best practices for safe yoga and appeals to students of all ages. It includes specific how-to steps for creating yoga programming in schools.

Blueberry Girl by Neil Gaiman (2011), illustrated by Charles Vess

This book is appropriate for all ages. Originally written to celebrate the birth of a close friend’s daughter, Blueberry Girl is an encouraging, inspirational book about hopes for the girl’s life. Accompanying the text are beautiful illustrations of the wonders of the world.

Child’s Mind: Mindfulness Practices to Help Our Children Be More Focused, Calm, and Relaxed by Christopher Willard (2010)

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Chapter 1 The Status of the 21st Century

Marzano, Robert J., Heflebower, Tammy Marzano Research ePub

The specific skill set that students will need to succeed in the 21st century has been a topic of interest in education since at least the early 1990s. In 1991, the United States Department of Labor formed the Secretary’s Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills (SCANS) and charged it with the task of examining “the demands of the workplace and whether our young people are capable of meeting those demands” (U.S. Department of Labor, 1991, p. vii). The commission’s 1991 report, What Work Requires of Schools, contrasted the old requirements for success in America, defined as “a strong back, the willingness to work, and a high school diploma,” with what students need in the new American workplace, defined as “a well-developed mind, a passion to learn, and the ability to put knowledge to work” (p. 2). The report criticized schools, saying that “despite their best efforts, most schools have not changed fast enough or moved far enough” to prepare students for the demands of the new workplace (p. 4). It also defined the criteria for success in the workplace in terms of five competencies and three foundational requirements. This was one of the first efforts to define 21st century skills and the role that schools should play in teaching them.

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