209 Chapters
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Chapter 10: Convince the Crowd

Katie Rogers Marzano Research ePub

10

Convince the Crowd

For high school students

Convince the Crowd is a competitive debate game in which the teacher proposes a motion and two panels of students discuss it. Before a single speech is made, an audience of classmates votes either in favor of the motion or against it. The audience casts their votes on the same motion a second time after the debate takes place, allowing everyone to see which side has persuaded the most audience members to change their vote. The side that has the highest percentage difference between before votes and after votes is declared the winner.

This game is recommended for high school students who have had lots of practice with research and argumentation. It works especially well in language arts, science, and social studies classes. The game is modeled after Intelligence Squared (stylized as intelligence2 or IQ2) debates (www.intelligencesquared.com). Motions in past Intelligence Squared debates cover a broad spectrum of topics, from politics (“The rich are taxed enough”) to environmental issues (“The natural gas boom is doing more harm than good”) to entertainment (“Ban college football”). We highly recommend showing one of these debates to students so they can get an overall picture of what a debate looks like and an idea of what form their classroom debates should take.

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Part II Tier 2 Vocabulary Terms From the Common Core State Standards

Marzano, Robert J.; Simms, Julia A. Marzano Research ePub

part II contains Tier 2 general academic terms from the CCSS. In our analysis of the CCSS, we limited our identification of Tier 2 terms to verbs that describe cognitive processes. We also included a number of verbs from Designing & Teaching Learning Goals & Objectives (Marzano, 2009) that work in tandem with the verbs from the CCSS. The words in part II are organized into the categories introduced on page 42. Abbreviations for each category align with the appendix. For a complete alphabetical listing of the terms in this section and the source of each term, please consult the online resource at marzanoresearch.com/commoncore. An alphabetical master list of all the words in parts II and III and their category (for part II words) or measurement topic (for part III words) is included in the appendix (page 215). Teachers can use the appendix to locate specific words in parts II and III.

Each word is accompanied by a description of the word and examples of how that word might be used in ELA and mathematics. The examples are largely drawn directly from the CCSS. For example, to write the examples for the term build, we searched both the ELA CCSS and the mathematics CCSS for the term and wrote examples based on how it was used in each document. If a term was used extensively throughout the CCSS, we focused our examples on what we judged to be the most useful occurrences. If a word was used in only one subject area, we generated examples for the other subject area from experience and by consulting previous compilations of K–12 standards (Kendall & Marzano, 2000). Teachers can use the examples as clues about the best contexts in which to teach the terms in part II. The examples for the word deepen, for instance, indicate that it is probably best taught in the context of research or information-gathering.

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Introduction

Marzano, Robert J.; Heflebower, Tammy Marzano Research ePub

Teaching and Assessing 21st Century Skills is part of a series of books collectively referred to as the Classroom Strategies Series. The purpose of this series is to provide teachers as well as building and district administrators with an in-depth treatment of research-based instructional strategies that can be used in the classroom to enhance student achievement. Many of the strategies addressed in this series have been covered in other works such as The Art and Science of Teaching (Marzano, 2007), Classroom Management That Works (Marzano, 2003), and Classroom Instruction That Works (Marzano, Pickering, & Pollock, 2001). Although those works devoted a chapter or a part of a chapter to particular strategies, the Classroom Strategies Series devotes an entire book to an instructional strategy or set of related strategies.

As the 21st century unfolds, the pace of change in the world is accelerating while education in the United States remains stagnant or, at best, progresses in isolated pockets. Concern over the effects of an inadequate education system on the nation’s economy and innovative potential is growing, and it seems a crisis point is near—a point when the negative aspects of the education system will outweigh the benefits. The consequences of a poorly educated population would be dire, and in order to correct this trajectory, every level of the education system will have to undergo massive changes. Teachers and administrators must lead this cultural shift, which is perhaps as important and massive as the industrial revolution. In Teaching and Assessing 21st Century Skills, we present a model of instruction and assessment based on a combination of cognitive skills (skills students will need to succeed academically) and conative skills (skills students will need to succeed interpersonally) necessary for the 21st century.

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Chapter 6: Which One Doesn’t Belong?

Katie Rogers Marzano Research ePub

6

Which One Doesn’t Belong?

For upper elementary, middle school, and high school students

Which One Doesn’t Belong? is based on a segment on the children’s series Sesame Street called “One of These Things Is Not Like the Others.” In the television version of the game, a group of four items is displayed, one of which differs somehow from the other three, and young viewers choose the item that does not fit. The game has since enjoyed adaptation for use in puzzles, websites, and games, including a classroom vocabulary game (Carleton & Marzano, 2010). Unlike the television show, the spin-off described in this book is not intended for preschoolers. Instead, it is designed to help upper elementary, middle, and high school students practice recognizing the various elements of effective arguments.

Setup

To play, elementary students must be able to distinguish evidence that supports an opinion from evidence that does not. Middle school students must understand the need for backing to support grounds and claims, as well as the three different types of backing (expert opinion, research results, and factual information). High school students need to understand the concept of a qualifier. They also need to know how to identify biased language, which is part of evaluating persuasive rhetoric (pages 34–35). Some high school questions ask students to identify qualifiers; others ask them to identify biased terms in statements.

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Chapter 2 Having a Model of Effective Teaching

Robert J. Marzano Marzano Research ePub

Regardless of the domain in which they operate, all experts have complex models that delineate precisely what to do in specific situations. In other words, they have models of effective performance. The more specific the model, the more nuanced the experts’ behavior will be and the higher their level of expertise (Ambady & Rosenthal, 1992, 1993). To illustrate, chess masters can access approximately 10,000 to 100,000 possible moves, effectively forming a model or menu from which they can select the best moves depending on the placement of other pieces on the board (Gobet & Charness, 2006). Expert pilots have complex models that allow them to consider many variables (such as weather conditions and remaining fuel) when taking off, flying, landing, or reacting to unexpected situations (Durso & Dattel, 2006). The complex models that expert writers use to compose poetry or prose allow them to appropriately adapt their compositions to different genres, audiences, and expectations. Expert golfers use a complex model that takes into account ground conditions, obstacles, wind speed, and wind direction when selecting a club or planning a shot. Hockey player Wayne Gretzky’s expertise has been attributed not to superior shot-making or skating abilities (Gretzky’s shot-making was considered average or below), but to his superior understanding of the game:

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