209 Chapters
Medium 9780982259207

Chapter 1 - Research and Theory

Marzano, Robert J. Marzano Research ePub

Before addressing the research and theory on goals and objectives, it is useful to consider the issue of terminology. The terms goals and objectives have been used by different people in different ways. For some, the term goal applies only to the overarching purpose of curriculum, and the term objective is reserved for day-to-day instructional targets. In the research and theoretical worlds, these terms tend to be used interchangeably for general and specific purposes. In this book, the terms will be used interchangeably. However, as the following discussion illustrates, the focus of this book is on day-to-day classroom instruction.

The importance of goals and objectives in education was established as far back as the first half of the last century by the educational philosopher and evaluation expert Ralph Tyler (1949a, 1949b). For Tyler, a well-constructed objective should contain a clear reference to a specific type of knowledge as well as reference to the behaviors that demonstrate proficiency relative to that knowledge. Prior to Tyler's recommendations, educators typically did not identify specific areas of information and skill as targets for student learning. Instead, broad topic areas such as “probability” or “World War II” represented the most specific level of curricular organization.

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Medium 9780983351207

Chapter 2 Research and Theory

Marzano, Robert J.; Heflebower, Tammy Marzano Research ePub

In chapter 1, we identified a small set of 21st century skills that have been researched and vetted throughout the 20th century and will likely have great utility throughout the 21st century. Five categories of skills were identified and organized into two sets: cognitive skills and conative skills. Cognitive skills include:

1.  Analyzing and utilizing information

2.  Addressing complex problems and issues

3.  Creating patterns and mental models

Conative skills include:

4.  Understanding and controlling oneself

5.  Understanding and interacting with others

This chapter is a brief but representative review of the research and theory on the cognitive and conative skills addressed in this book.

The 21st century brings increased access to a vast plain of information. The video InfoWhelm and Information Fluency (21st Century Fluency Project, 2010) stated that our worldwide collective digital output by 2009 was five hundred exabytes of data. If you wanted to record five hundred exabytes in printed form, you would need enough books to connect Earth and Pluto thirteen times (and printing them would deforest Earth twelve times)!

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Medium 9780982259245

Chapter 3 Am I Interested?

Marzano, Robert J.; Pickering, Debra J. Marzano Research ePub

As described in chapter 1, the extent to which students pay attention in class is a function not only of how they feel but also of their level of interest. In other words, students will attend to activities in the classroom if they can affirmatively answer the question “Am I interested?” In this chapter, we consider four categories of strategies that stimulate student interest: (1) using games and inconsequential competition, (2) initiating friendly controversy, (3) presenting unusual information, and (4) questioning to increase response rates.

Games and inconsequential competition help trigger and maintain situational interest. Games should always have an academic focus. One way to maintain such a focus is to organize games around relevant vocabulary terms. After each game, the teacher leads students in a brief review of the terms that students found most challenging. Inconsequential competition can accompany games. As its name implies, this type of competition is just for fun. Students are organized into ad hoc groups or groups that last for a single lesson or unit. Throughout the year, students are continually regrouped so that all students experience winning and losing. Points are tallied to identify winning teams, but points are not used to increase or decrease students’ scores or grades. Here we consider two general categories of games and inconsequential competition: (1) vocabulary games and (2) turning questions into games.

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Chapter 6

Marzano, Robert J., Marzano, Jana S. Marzano Research ePub

The previous chapters detailed what teachers should know about the inner workings of their self-systems so that they might function more purposefully and effectively in their professional and personal lives. In addition to understanding the self-system for their own edification, teachers can use this understanding to enhance the lives of their students. This chapter addresses strategies and activities to this end. More pointedly, it addresses how to teach in such a way as to honor the self-system of each student who comes under our tutelage. With this perspective in mind, we consider the six levels of goals and desired states that constitute the self-system.

Levels 1 and 2 of the hierarchy of goals and desired states deal with physiological comfort and safety, respectively. As we have seen, if students don’t have physiological comfort and feel safe, they will not be able to concentrate in class. Rather, their attention and energy will be focused on getting their basic needs met.

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Chapter 2 How Will the Learning Environment Support Student Agency?

Robert J. Marzano Marzano Research ePub

Transitioning to a PCBE system not only requires a shift in how teachers view content but also a shift in the way they view learning. For example, classroom management strategies common in a traditional system are often less effective in a PCBE system because they are based on the assumption that the teacher is responsible for and in charge of all teaching, learning, and assessment activities. In a PCBE system, students not only have the invitation but also the right to share in these responsibilities. We use the phrase “students have the right” to emphasize an important point about PCBE. Traditional K–12 education has placed students in a passive role within the classroom. They have virtually no say in what happens relative to teaching, learning, and assessment activities. It seems intuitively obvious that inviting students to provide input into these activities should enhance their engagement and teach valuable skills. The research and theory cited in the following discussion attest to this. However, we go one step further and assert that learners of all ages have the basic right to such input within an education system that is designed to maximize the potential of its constituents. A PCBE system, as described in this handbook, would ensure that right is honored.

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