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Appendix A | Answers to Comprehension Questions

Marzano, Robert J.; Heflebower, Tammy; Hoegh, Jan K.; Warrick, Phil; Grift, Gavin Marzano Research ePub


1.Why are schoolwide norms important?

Schoolwide norms are important because the entire school operates as a PLC. To create consistency of purpose and execution across the various collaborative teams, the whole school community should be tied together by schoolwide norms.

2.Identify three structures that should be allowed for in a PLC schedule. What are common ways that schools make time for these structures?

The most essential scheduled structure is collaborative time for teams to meet and work together. Other structures include regular intervention time and meetings between school leaders and collaborative teams. Many schools make time for collaboration by scheduling a common planning period for team members. Others use late-start or early-out schedules for students to create opportunities for teacher collaboration. Intervention time could be scheduled on a schoolwide basis by periodically setting aside instructional time; intervention could also be handled within a collaborative team by grouping and regrouping students within the team. Collaborative teams’ meetings with school leaders can easily be accomplished by having leaders attend portions of team meetings or by having collaborative team representatives meet with the leader at another available time.

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Chapter 2 | Establishing and Maintaining Collaborative Teams

Marzano, Robert J.; Heflebower, Tammy; Hoegh, Jan K.; Warrick, Phil; Grift, Gavin Marzano Research ePub

In the first chapter, we were rather loose in our use of terms like PLC, the PLC process, and collaborative teams. We felt that this was necessary because those researchers and practitioners who have written about the PLC concept have used these and related terms in various, idiosyncratic ways. To rectify this issue, we will define and use specific terms in specific ways from here on out. We’ll use the term PLC process to represent all the policies and practices that lead a school to establish and maintain a network of collaborative teams whose work enhances the learning of students. We’ll refer to a PLC as a school that consistently achieves this goal. To this extent, becoming a PLC is a standard to which a school holds itself, celebrating when the standard is met and making adjustments when it is not. Finally, the core of a PLC is the network of collaborative teams—the groups of teachers working together to improve student learning. As the title of this book indicates, we believe that collaborative teams have the potential to transform the major aspects of teaching and learning. We begin with a discussion of the context that must surround the establishment and maintenance of collaborative teams.

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Chapter 5 Creating Patterns and Mental Models

Marzano, Robert J.; Heflebower, Tammy Marzano Research ePub

Creating patterns and mental models is our final category of cognitive skills important to the 21st century. In this chapter, we address six types of strategies for creating patterns and mental models: (1) identifying basic relationships between ideas, (2) creating graphic representations, (3) drawing and sketching, (4) generating mental images, (5) conducting thought experiments, and (6) performing mental rehearsal.

Cognitive psychologists tell us that the basic unit of thought for human beings is the proposition (Kintsch, 1974). In basic terms, a proposition is what we would think of as a single clause. More technically and more accurately, a proposition is a statement that can be affirmed or denied. The following are examples of eight basic propositions:

1.  Tina walks.

2.  Tina is pretty.

3.  Tina eats fruit.

4.  Tina is in Denver.

5.  Tina gave a toy to Julia.

6.  Tina hit Lindsay with a pillow.

7.  Tina runs fast.

8.  Tina was overcome with sorrow.

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Appendix B - What is an Effect Size?

Marzano, Robert J. Marzano Research ePub

Reports on educational research use terms such as meta-analysis and effect size (ES). While these terms are without doubt useful to researchers, they can be confusing and even frustrating for the practitioner. So what does meta-analysis mean exactly? What is an effect size?

A meta-analysis is a summary, or synthesis, of relevant research findings. It looks at all of the individual studies done on a particular topic and summarizes them. This is helpful to educators in that a meta-analysis provides more and stronger support than does a single analysis (meta-analysis is literally an analysis of analyses).

An average effect size tells us about the results across all of the individual studies examined. For example, let's say the purpose of the meta-analysis is to examine multiple studies regarding the effect of clear learning goals on student achievement (that is, the effect of X on Y). An average effect size reports the results of all of the included studies to tell us whether or not clear learning goals improve student achievement and, if so, by how much.

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Chapter 4

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The Engaged Student

If we teach today’s students as we taught yesterday’s, we rob them of tomorrow.

—John Dewey

The third point on the evolutionary triad critical for substantial growth to become reality in schools is student engagement, which holds a position of equal importance in the overall change process to teacher optimism and transformational instructional leadership. Despite intense school efforts and government mandates to reform educational practice, the most compelling perspective in terms of informing the discussion is, almost always, conspicuously absent—that of the learners themselves. In this chapter, we’ll examine the student’s role in evolving schools, explore the theory and research on student engagement, consider the aspects of student engagement in PCBE, and reflect on the implications for leadership practice.

The Student’s Role in Evolving Schools

Educators rarely ask students what they think about their education or what works best for them, nor do they usually give students the opportunity to provide feedback on teaching practices in the classroom. University of Hawaii Department of

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