University Of North Texas Press (30)
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“Driving Across Texas at Thirty-Five Miles Per Hour”

Kenneth L. Untiedt, editor University of North Texas Press PDF

DRIVING ACROSS TEXAS AT THIRTY-FIVE

MILES PER HOUR by Jean Granberry Schnitz

Progress. That’s what they call it. True, travel is easier and faster than it was when I was a child, but trips across Texas are not what they were during the 1930s and 1940s. Expressways and interstate highways now speed travelers to their destinations. The wonderful little towns, the cities full of amazing sights, the courthouses, many with matching small-scale jails—all are by-passed by modern transportation systems. Gone are stop lights and bumpy roads, but not hot, dusty afternoons and freezing mornings. We just don’t notice the outside weather as much now that the windows are tightly closed!

Imagine having no radio or tape deck or CD player or television to bombard the vehicle with sound! Modern children cannot imagine dashing across Texas at thirty-five miles an hour—or less.

How long would a mere six-hundred-mile trip take at that speed?

It would require seventeen hours of driving, plus time for meals, fuel, and other stops. Seventeen hours strapped into a child safety seat would be pure torture! Despite the long hours, I wouldn’t take anything for the experiences my family had during such trips.

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“Walter Henry Burton’s Ride—Bell County to Juarez, Mexico in 1888”

Kenneth L. Untiedt, editor University of North Texas Press PDF

WALTER HENRY BURTON’S RIDE—BELL

COUNTY TO JUAREZ, MEXICO IN 1888 by James Burton Kelly

Walter Henry Burton was the first of seven sons born to John

Henry Martin Burton Jr. and Cynthia Priscilla Pass Burton. He was my maternal grandfather. He stood about 5′ 7″ tall and probably weighed 150 pounds—boots, hat, longjohns and all. But to me, he was a giant of a man, from my first recollection of him until the day he was buried in the Cleburne cemetery following a fatal automobile accident at age 76.

I could and hopefully will write a lot more about his life and the stories he told me when I was a young boy and spent all of my summers and holidays on the family farm and ranch six miles southwest of Cleburne in Johnson County, Texas. This story is about his two trips horseback from Bell County, Texas, to Juarez,

Mexico, to visit and work for his maternal grandfather Lafayette

Pass in 1888.

Walter Burton’s children called him “Dad” and his grandchildren called him Daddy Burton. When I was very young, Daddy

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“Farm and Ranch Entrances in West Texas”

Kenneth L. Untiedt, editor University of North Texas Press PDF

FARM AND RANCH ENTRANCES

IN WEST TEXAS by Mary Harris

In Elmer Kelton’s novel The Man Who Rode Midnight, the grandson of the old-time rancher and protagonist Wes Hendrix thinks about city folks moving to the country and pretending that they are ranchers. Kelton writes:

Along the road, especially near to town, Jim Ed saw perhaps twenty fancy gateways of stone and steel and brick, bearing names like Angora Acres and

Rancho Restful and The Poor Farm. He looked twice at a sign that declared Heavenly Days Ranch.

These were the harbingers of an urban invasion, ten- and twenty- and fifty-acre ranchettes, homesites for city folk who wanted to play at the rustic life without suffering its discomforts.1

The novelist’s references to “fancy gateways,” and what he later refers to as an “entrance gate” or a “decorative arch,” are called in this paper “decorative entrances.” These decorative entrances are those highway and county road structures that announce to the passer that here is access to a Charolais ranch or a cotton farm, or as Kelton writes, smaller places where the people want “to play at the rustic life.”2

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“Eating Up Route 66: Foodways of Motorists Crossing the Texas Panhandle”

Kenneth L. Untiedt, editor University of North Texas Press PDF

EATING UP ROUTE 66: FOODWAYS

OF MOTORISTS CROSSING

THE TEXAS PANHANDLE by T. Lindsay Baker

From the mid-1920s to the mid-1960s, U.S. Highway 66 served as a major thoroughfare for motorists traveling between the Midwest and the Pacific coast. In the mid-1920s, the U.S. Bureau of

Roads began designating highways in the forty-eight states with identifying numbers. In 1926, the agency gave number 66 to a combination of roads that started at Chicago and passed through

St. Louis, Oklahoma City, Amarillo, and Albuquerque to reach Los

Angeles, over 2,400 miles away. In Texas the roads that became

Route 66 were dirt tracks parallel to the Rock Island Railroad across the Panhandle.

Few highways in America gave travelers such geographical and cultural diversity as Route 66. From the cornfields of Illinois, drivers went through the Ozarks in Missouri before entering the oil fields and red hills of Oklahoma. They then crossed the treeless plains in the Texas Panhandle before driving through the deserts and Indian country of New Mexico and Arizona. In their unairconditioned cars they proceeded through the Mojave Desert, passed by orange groves in southern California, and reached the

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3. Work Experiences

Jeffrey Marcos Garcilazo University of North Texas Press PDF

Jeffrey Marcos Garcilazo various duties that trackmen performed: unloading rails, ties and tamping the roadbed. And, of course, it reflects the physical exhaustion and hard-core vernacular that often accompanied heavy masculine work. Indeed, the most salient issue emerging from this corrido is the collective experience of Mexican trackmen in cooperation with one another in one of the largest employment sectors in the country. And as such, these workers derived overwhelmingly from the Mexican working-class. According to the late Ernesto Galarza,

“as a group [the Mexican immigrant worker] they represent the most authentic transplant of Mexican working-class culture in the

United States.”2

This chapter examines the work experiences of Mexican track workers (primarily men) based upon both the attitudes of railroad managers about Mexicans and Mexican attitudes about their backbreaking work on el traque. It describes what they did off the job, i.e., during lunch, evenings, weekends, holidays, as well as how they coped during down-times, unemployment. Specifically this chapter discusses the concept of common labor, working conditions, the effects of Americanization and Taylorism. Finally, it reconstructs the recreational and casual activities of Mexican track workers. In so doing, this chapter shows how traqueros shaped the world of track work within the context and limitations of industrial capitalism through their bonds and relationships with one another as well as with the institution of the railroad.

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Solution Tree Press (19)
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Chapter 1: The Challenges Facing English Language Learners and Their Teachers

r4Educated Solutions Solution Tree Press ePub

1

The Challenges Facing English Language Learners and Their Teachers

Every student should have equitable and optimal opportunities to learn mathematics free from bias—intentional or unintentional—based on race, gender, socioeconomic status, or language. In order to close the achievement gap, all students need the opportunity to learn challenging mathematics from a well-qualified teacher who will make connections to the background, needs, and cultures of all learners.

—National Council of Teachers of Mathematics

Reflection 1.1

Choose one or more of the following questions, and respond in the margin. Write from your heart, your beliefs, and your past experience. Compare your answers to those on page 131.

•   Why do some students transition to English very quickly while others attend English-speaking schools for many years without acquiring academic English?

•   How can we make grade-level mathematics accessible to all students regardless of language proficiency?

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Chapter 5: Applying Strategies for ELLs: A 5E Lesson

r4Educated Solutions Solution Tree Press ePub

5

Applying Strategies for ELLs: A 5E Lesson

Learning without thought is labor lost; thought without learning is perilous.

—Confucius

In the first four chapters, we examined the needs of English language learners and how to support them in the affective, linguistic, and cognitive domains. The question now arises of how to incorporate the tools, practices, and strategies into practical classroom use. Perhaps you are asking yourself:

•   What does a lesson look like that meets the needs of my English language learners?

•   How can I meet the needs of my English language learners and still meet the needs of other students in my classroom?

Echevarria, Vogt, and Short (2004) identify the critical instructional features necessary for the academic and language development of English language learners.

Lesson preparation: Planning should result in lessons that enable students to make connections between their knowledge and experiences and the new information being taught.

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Appendix D: Reproducibles for Lesson on Three-Dimensional Figures

r4Educated Solutions Solution Tree Press ePub

Appendix D

Reproducibles for Lesson on Three-Dimensional Figures

Who Am I?

Making Math Accessible to ELLs (K–2) © 2010 r4 Educated Solutions • solution-tree.com Visit go.solution-tree.com/ELL to download this page.

Cooperative Grouping Guide Cards

Making Math Accessible to ELLs (K–2) © 2010 r4 Educated Solutions • solution-tree.com Visit go.solution-tree.com/ELL to download this page.

Vocabulary Organizer

Making Math Accessible to ELLs (K–2) © 2010 r4 Educated Solutions • solution-tree.com Visit go.solution-tree.com/ELL to download this page.

Three-Dimensional Geometric Figures Cards

Making Math Accessible to ELLs (K–2) © 2010 r4 Educated Solutions • solution-tree.com Visit go.solution-tree.com/ELL to download this page.

Three-Dimensional Geometric Figures

Making Math Accessible to ELLs (K–2) © 2010 r4 Educated Solutions • solution-tree.com Visit go.solution-tree.com/ELL to download this page.

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7 - Think Big, Start Small

Gayle Gregory Solution Tree Press ePub

Think Big, Start Small

Think big, start small, act now.

—Barnabas Suebu

Good teachers take all they know about the brain, researched best practices, and student differences and creatively plan multiple opportunities for students to be successful. In addition, educators must acknowledge the differences in learners of the 21st century. With the daily use of technology, students’ brains are wiring in new and unique ways. By considering some of the major differences, we may be able to understand how this generation is changing how school must be done. In his book Grown Up Digital, Don Tapscott (2009) summarizes eight differentiating characteristics of our students:

1. They want freedom in everything they do, from freedom of choice to freedom of expression.

2. They love to customize, personalize.

3. They are the new scrutinizers.

4. They look for corporate integrity and openness when deciding what to buy and where to work.

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Chapter 2: Providing Affective Supports for English Language Learners

r4Educated Solutions Solution Tree Press ePub

2

Providing Affective Supports for English Language Learners

There are hundreds of languages in the world, but a smile speaks them all.

—Anonymous

Reflection 2.1

Imagine you are going to be an exchange student in a country where you do not know the language. What positive classroom aspects could motivate you to learn the language relatively quickly? Compare your answers to those on page 133.

The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (2000) has articulated the importance of a positive classroom climate in learning mathematics. The classroom environment communicates subtle messages about what is valued in learning and doing mathematics and encourages students to participate in the learning and doing of mathematics. The English language learner’s first impression of the classroom and the teacher sets the tone for learning and success. Putting yourself in the place of the student and envisioning what would make you feel welcome will put you on the right path toward creating a positive classroom climate that meets the needs of English language learners in learning mathematics.

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Indiana University Press (209)
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1 Antebellum Beginnings

J. Parker Lamb Indiana University Press ePub

Development of permanent communities in most of the Gulf states began with the Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek, signed in 1830 at the end of the War of 1812. This agreement ceded to the U.S. government lands previously controlled by indigenous tribes of Choctaws, Chickasaws, and others. Credit for establishing Meridian’s predecessor, a settlement known as Sowashee, belongs to Richard McLemore of Virginia, who purchased several thousand acres and began recruiting new settlers. The village was named for a nearby stream that flooded the area regularly. Thus, the Choctaws had given it the name “Angry Water.”

Eventually, McLemore sold large plots around the village to two ambitious businessmen, Lewis Ragsdale and John Ball, who soon began to lead in the development of a larger town. By late 1833 much of McLemore’s original tract had been incorporated into Lauderdale County, which by 1850 included five villages, with Marion as the county seat.

The initial line to reach east-central Mississippi began in the port of Mobile, Alabama. Always considered a poorer cousin to its western neighbor near the mouth of the Mississippi River, Mobile found its shipping tonnage in a declining position in the mid-1840s after its ranking among U.S. ports dropped from third (behind only New Orleans and New York City) to sixth position in a scant six years. Much of this was due to the rapid expansion of railroad building along the Eastern Seaboard during this period, as the complementary roles of railroads and waterborne transportation began to evolve. Such activity had been largely absent along the Gulf, as the major cotton states (Alabama, Louisiana, and Mississippi) contained a total of only 165 miles of trackage in 1848.

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10 Another Renaissance

J. Parker Lamb Indiana University Press ePub

Congressional passage of the Staggers Rail Act of October 1980 was the most extensive overhaul of the nation’s railroads in over half a century. At once it redefined the rules by which railroad commerce was carried out by erasing many of the restrictions that remained from the early twentieth-century era of railroad dominance in interstate transport, a period characterized by the involvement of the Interstate Commerce Commission in virtually every strategic move by a railroad company. In the wake of this deregulation, rigid ICC control was replaced by the less restrictive policies of the Surface Transportation Board. The Staggers Act also allowed more aggressive marketing by railroads and redefined the playing field with respect to consolidations. One of its overall benefits was to transform rail investment into a more attractive market.

An anticipated effect of this loosened federal control was an acceleration of mergers by the nation’s largest companies, themselves formed from an earlier round of mergers during the 1970s. The first of these mega-mergers was the 1980 formation of CSX, which combined lines of the Chessie and Seaboard systems. The former was composed of Chesapeake & Ohio, Baltimore & Ohio, and Western Maryland, while the latter included the Seaboard Coast Line and affiliated lines such as L&N, Clinchfield, and the West Point route.

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13 - Passenger Trains: Coach Class

John H.Jr. White Indiana University Press ePub

Coach Class

THE RAILWAY WAS ENGLAND'S GIFT TO THE WORLD. PRIMITIVE tramways were used to carry coal to coastal ports since Elizabethan times. They gradually evolved into carriers for both passengers and cargo by 1825. Iron rails and wheels provided a low-friction means of transport that remains economical today. The introduction of the railway was an epic improvement in an epic time. It revolutionized travel as well as our concept of time and space. It required a massive investment and was an unprecedented enterprise in terms of management and employment. Ralph Waldo Emerson once wrote, “Railroad iron is a magician's rod, in its power to evoke the sleeping energies of the land and water.” Even Henry Thoreau, no friend of industry, was impressed by the iron horse. Its snort sounded like thunder, he said, and its feet shook the land “as if the earth had a race now worthy to inhabit it.” Many writers have observed that railroads bound our nation together by pumping commerce across the vast continent. An explosion of industrial power followed the creation of a national rail network. The United States was transformed from underdeveloped pastoral land into a leading producer of iron, coal, lumber, and steel. The country's population doubled and its exports tripled as America became the world's wealthiest nation. Trains raced over the mountains and prairies, their mournful whistles and rhythmic rumble awakening generations of Americans. The countryside grew quiet again as the train passed and disappeared. The iron steed never rested as train followed train. The cars merrily followed along, clicking and grinding over the iron rails. They were, as Walt Whitman put it, the “emblem of motion and power, pulse of the continent.”

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4 - Streetcars: That Most Democratic Conveyance

John H.Jr. White Indiana University Press ePub

That Most Democratic Conveyance

THE OMNIBUS PROVIDED ADEQUATE PUBLIC TRANSIT IN MOST cities by the middle of the nineteenth century. Yet transit operations, especially in the larger urban centers, were looking for ways to increase vehicle capacity and lower operating costs. The solution was the streetcar. It was a very low-tech scheme that used old and familiar methods. The track plan was the old-fashioned strap-iron rail scheme that performed poorly on steam-powered lines but was sufficient for small, light city cars. Its big advantage was cheapness. The cars were undersized and devoid of heating or power brakes. The driver's right arm powered the brake lever. Lighting was minimal, with one small oil lamp at each end of the car. The motive power was the horse, a creature enslaved for drayage since the beginning of civilization. They were a serviceable, if unenthusiastic, street motor but were costly and inefficient. Horses were expensive to buy, capable of working only a few hours a day, and subject to illness. They were always hungry. They also presented a health hazard to all city dwellers, because the street was their toilet. Because thousands of horses were needed to power the cars, the pavement was always covered in urine and feces. Labor costs were high as well. It took a two-man crew to operate each car; one managed the horses and the hand brake while the second looked after the passengers and collected the fares. This rudimentary form of transit was clearly hard on both man and beast.

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8 - Lake Steamers: On the Inland Sea

John H.Jr. White Indiana University Press ePub

On the Inland Sea

NATURE KINDLY DUG FIVE LARGE LAKES ALONG THE NORTHERN border of the United States about twelve thousand years ago. Humans have used these convenient waterways as a means to get around the region since the ice age finally released its frigid grip on North America. The Great Lakes are the largest reservoir of fresh water in the world. They measure from east to west about 1,500 miles long (fig. 8.1). They rank in size, starting with the largest, from Lake Superior to Huron, Michigan, Erie, and Ontario. Superior has places that are 1,000 feet deep; Ontario's mean depth is 400 feet, while Erie's mean depth is only 90 feet. Erie's shallow waters are more easily disturbed by winds, making it stormier than its sisters. She is considered treacherous and dangerous to navigate and so is disliked by sailors. The other lakes can swell up in a grand fury, though they are somewhat more pacific than the Erie. All of the lakes are graveyards of sunken ships and lost seamen.

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