University Of North Texas Press (30)
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“Driving Across Texas at Thirty-Five Miles Per Hour”

Kenneth L. Untiedt, editor University of North Texas Press PDF

DRIVING ACROSS TEXAS AT THIRTY-FIVE

MILES PER HOUR by Jean Granberry Schnitz

Progress. That’s what they call it. True, travel is easier and faster than it was when I was a child, but trips across Texas are not what they were during the 1930s and 1940s. Expressways and interstate highways now speed travelers to their destinations. The wonderful little towns, the cities full of amazing sights, the courthouses, many with matching small-scale jails—all are by-passed by modern transportation systems. Gone are stop lights and bumpy roads, but not hot, dusty afternoons and freezing mornings. We just don’t notice the outside weather as much now that the windows are tightly closed!

Imagine having no radio or tape deck or CD player or television to bombard the vehicle with sound! Modern children cannot imagine dashing across Texas at thirty-five miles an hour—or less.

How long would a mere six-hundred-mile trip take at that speed?

It would require seventeen hours of driving, plus time for meals, fuel, and other stops. Seventeen hours strapped into a child safety seat would be pure torture! Despite the long hours, I wouldn’t take anything for the experiences my family had during such trips.

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“Walter Henry Burton’s Ride—Bell County to Juarez, Mexico in 1888”

Kenneth L. Untiedt, editor University of North Texas Press PDF

WALTER HENRY BURTON’S RIDE—BELL

COUNTY TO JUAREZ, MEXICO IN 1888 by James Burton Kelly

Walter Henry Burton was the first of seven sons born to John

Henry Martin Burton Jr. and Cynthia Priscilla Pass Burton. He was my maternal grandfather. He stood about 5′ 7″ tall and probably weighed 150 pounds—boots, hat, longjohns and all. But to me, he was a giant of a man, from my first recollection of him until the day he was buried in the Cleburne cemetery following a fatal automobile accident at age 76.

I could and hopefully will write a lot more about his life and the stories he told me when I was a young boy and spent all of my summers and holidays on the family farm and ranch six miles southwest of Cleburne in Johnson County, Texas. This story is about his two trips horseback from Bell County, Texas, to Juarez,

Mexico, to visit and work for his maternal grandfather Lafayette

Pass in 1888.

Walter Burton’s children called him “Dad” and his grandchildren called him Daddy Burton. When I was very young, Daddy

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“Farm and Ranch Entrances in West Texas”

Kenneth L. Untiedt, editor University of North Texas Press PDF

FARM AND RANCH ENTRANCES

IN WEST TEXAS by Mary Harris

In Elmer Kelton’s novel The Man Who Rode Midnight, the grandson of the old-time rancher and protagonist Wes Hendrix thinks about city folks moving to the country and pretending that they are ranchers. Kelton writes:

Along the road, especially near to town, Jim Ed saw perhaps twenty fancy gateways of stone and steel and brick, bearing names like Angora Acres and

Rancho Restful and The Poor Farm. He looked twice at a sign that declared Heavenly Days Ranch.

These were the harbingers of an urban invasion, ten- and twenty- and fifty-acre ranchettes, homesites for city folk who wanted to play at the rustic life without suffering its discomforts.1

The novelist’s references to “fancy gateways,” and what he later refers to as an “entrance gate” or a “decorative arch,” are called in this paper “decorative entrances.” These decorative entrances are those highway and county road structures that announce to the passer that here is access to a Charolais ranch or a cotton farm, or as Kelton writes, smaller places where the people want “to play at the rustic life.”2

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“Eating Up Route 66: Foodways of Motorists Crossing the Texas Panhandle”

Kenneth L. Untiedt, editor University of North Texas Press PDF

EATING UP ROUTE 66: FOODWAYS

OF MOTORISTS CROSSING

THE TEXAS PANHANDLE by T. Lindsay Baker

From the mid-1920s to the mid-1960s, U.S. Highway 66 served as a major thoroughfare for motorists traveling between the Midwest and the Pacific coast. In the mid-1920s, the U.S. Bureau of

Roads began designating highways in the forty-eight states with identifying numbers. In 1926, the agency gave number 66 to a combination of roads that started at Chicago and passed through

St. Louis, Oklahoma City, Amarillo, and Albuquerque to reach Los

Angeles, over 2,400 miles away. In Texas the roads that became

Route 66 were dirt tracks parallel to the Rock Island Railroad across the Panhandle.

Few highways in America gave travelers such geographical and cultural diversity as Route 66. From the cornfields of Illinois, drivers went through the Ozarks in Missouri before entering the oil fields and red hills of Oklahoma. They then crossed the treeless plains in the Texas Panhandle before driving through the deserts and Indian country of New Mexico and Arizona. In their unairconditioned cars they proceeded through the Mojave Desert, passed by orange groves in southern California, and reached the

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“Traveling Texan”

Kenneth L. Untiedt, editor University of North Texas Press PDF

TRAVELING TEXAN by Archie P. McDonald

People just can’t stay put. As much as we love hometowns, or

Texas, or America, curiosity and horizons summon us to adventures beyond the seas. Texans, no less than Connecticut Yankees, wander the world with itchy feet and wide eyes at the wonder of it all.

I joined the caravan late. Apart from occasional excursions across the Rio Grande, I was dangerously close to the epitaph I read in an old novel a half century ago: “Here is my butt, the very watermark of all my sails.” Title and author escape me now, so this is as much attribution as I can muster for a line I wish I had written.

Then, in 1986, Ab and Hazel Abernethy tolerated my tagging along with them to Australia for three weeks on a folklore exchange. Ask Ab about our assignment to entertain the inebriated crew of the USS Joseph Kennedy, in port at American River on Kangaroo Island, South Australia, or the controversies that come with comparison of Queensland versus South Australia beer.

The passport acquired for visiting Australia got another stamp in 1990, when the fellow slated to escort fifteen high schoolers on a three-week summer trip to Germany had to withdraw. “Have passport and will travel,” says I, when the chairman of the exchange committee asked me to take over. The deal involved round-trip airfare and home stay with Rotarians in three cities.

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Solution Tree Press (19)
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Chapter 1: The Challenges Facing English Language Learners and Their Teachers

r4Educated Solutions Solution Tree Press ePub

1

The Challenges Facing English Language Learners and Their Teachers

Every student should have equitable and optimal opportunities to learn mathematics free from bias—intentional or unintentional—based on race, gender, socioeconomic status, or language. In order to close the achievement gap, all students need the opportunity to learn challenging mathematics from a well-qualified teacher who will make connections to the background, needs, and cultures of all learners.

—National Council of Teachers of Mathematics

Reflection 1.1

Choose one or more of the following questions, and respond in the margin. Write from your heart, your beliefs, and your past experience. Compare your answers to those on page 131.

•   Why do some students transition to English very quickly while others attend English-speaking schools for many years without acquiring academic English?

•   How can we make grade-level mathematics accessible to all students regardless of language proficiency?

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Chapter 5: Applying Strategies for ELLs: A 5E Lesson

r4Educated Solutions Solution Tree Press ePub

5

Applying Strategies for ELLs: A 5E Lesson

Learning without thought is labor lost; thought without learning is perilous.

—Confucius

In the first four chapters, we examined the needs of English language learners and how to support them in the affective, linguistic, and cognitive domains. The question now arises of how to incorporate the tools, practices, and strategies into practical classroom use. Perhaps you are asking yourself:

•   What does a lesson look like that meets the needs of my English language learners?

•   How can I meet the needs of my English language learners and still meet the needs of other students in my classroom?

Echevarria, Vogt, and Short (2004) identify the critical instructional features necessary for the academic and language development of English language learners.

Lesson preparation: Planning should result in lessons that enable students to make connections between their knowledge and experiences and the new information being taught.

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Appendix D: Reproducibles for Lesson on Three-Dimensional Figures

r4Educated Solutions Solution Tree Press ePub

Appendix D

Reproducibles for Lesson on Three-Dimensional Figures

Who Am I?

Making Math Accessible to ELLs (K–2) © 2010 r4 Educated Solutions • solution-tree.com Visit go.solution-tree.com/ELL to download this page.

Cooperative Grouping Guide Cards

Making Math Accessible to ELLs (K–2) © 2010 r4 Educated Solutions • solution-tree.com Visit go.solution-tree.com/ELL to download this page.

Vocabulary Organizer

Making Math Accessible to ELLs (K–2) © 2010 r4 Educated Solutions • solution-tree.com Visit go.solution-tree.com/ELL to download this page.

Three-Dimensional Geometric Figures Cards

Making Math Accessible to ELLs (K–2) © 2010 r4 Educated Solutions • solution-tree.com Visit go.solution-tree.com/ELL to download this page.

Three-Dimensional Geometric Figures

Making Math Accessible to ELLs (K–2) © 2010 r4 Educated Solutions • solution-tree.com Visit go.solution-tree.com/ELL to download this page.

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Chapter 2: Providing Affective Supports for English Language Learners

r4Educated Solutions Solution Tree Press ePub

2

Providing Affective Supports for English Language Learners

There are hundreds of languages in the world, but a smile speaks them all.

—Anonymous

Reflection 2.1

Imagine you are going to be an exchange student in a country where you do not know the language. What positive classroom aspects could motivate you to learn the language relatively quickly? Compare your answers to those on page 133.

The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (2000) has articulated the importance of a positive classroom climate in learning mathematics. The classroom environment communicates subtle messages about what is valued in learning and doing mathematics and encourages students to participate in the learning and doing of mathematics. The English language learner’s first impression of the classroom and the teacher sets the tone for learning and success. Putting yourself in the place of the student and envisioning what would make you feel welcome will put you on the right path toward creating a positive classroom climate that meets the needs of English language learners in learning mathematics.

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Chapter 4: Providing Cognitive Supports for English Language Learners

r4Educated Solutions Solution Tree Press ePub

4

Providing Cognitive Supports for English Language Learners

The true spirit of delight, the exaltation, the sense of being more than Man, which is the touchstone of the highest excellence, is to be found in mathematics as surely as in poetry.

—Bertrand Russell

In chapter 2, we looked at factors that affect language acquisition. Since the factor over which educators have the most control is the quality of instruction, we will continue to emphasize the importance of the role of the mathematics teacher as we look at increasing student understanding, participating, and communicating. In much the same way that we examined how to provide linguistic supports for language acquisition in chapter 3, here we will examine how to provide cognitive supports for the development of the skills, conceptual understanding, and thought processes that lead to mathematical proficiency.

When students encounter a word problem, they must not only read the text but also decode the mathematics involved. They must determine relevant concepts, including whether there is extraneous information, and decide which operations to use on any numbers.

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Indiana University Press (209)
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5 An Eleventh Hour Surprise

RushJr. Loving Indiana University Press ePub

As McClellan—now at the Central—watched the merger’s inevitable approach, he and the other junior officers of the two railroads grew increasingly apprehensive. Although they could not imagine its impact, they were about to be caught in the middle of the biggest debacle the transportation industry had ever experienced. For McClellan it would be a watershed that would determine everything he was to experience or do for the rest of his life.

If the Central had joined with the C&O–B&O and the Pennsy with the N&W, it would have created two competitive lines. Instead, they were being amalgamated out of fear, not from some grand dream of creating a better transport system. “I didn’t think it was a particularly good merger, but we were trapped into some kind of merger,” Perlman said later. They had too many tracks, too many yards, too much railroad, and they needed to cut back by consolidating. It did not seem normal for two such fierce competitors to join up. “Those of us inside the New York Central or Pennsy said, ‘This is an unnatural act! Not the way to go. This is crazy. It’s going to be a monopoly,’” said McClellan. In his view, railroads got lazy and unimaginative when they held monopolies.

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10 Some High Society Sex

RushJr. Loving Indiana University Press ePub

As the snowdrifts melted and the flowers started blooming on Philadelphia’s Main Line, Stuart Saunders was still demanding savings, but no one could find anything else to cut—except for workers, but that would have cost millions because of the labor agreement. More urgently than ever, Saunders and David Bevan went on searching for new capital, but now no source seemed left but Washington.

Bevan and Saunders were walking a high-wire, because one was trying to keep the financiers thinking all was relatively well while the other was trying to convince Washington that Penn Central’s straits were so dire that help was imperative. This, plus the constant search for more savings and more paper profits, would tax the time and imagination of the most formidable chief executive officer, and although a man of whirlwind energy, Saunders’s days were being stretched to the limit. In the middle of all that, the chairman’s attention and even valuable working hours were captured and diverted by a much more personal concern that was so well guarded that only three or four of his closest aides ever knew of it.

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13 Booted Off the Property

RushJr. Loving Indiana University Press ePub

As he had watched Penn Central unravel from his post at the Federal Railway Administration, Jim McClellan had continued exploring ways to relieve Penn Central of its passenger losses. He and the staff of the ICC had found that while the railroads were overstating the losses, the railroad labor unions and politicians who advocated continuing passenger trains were understating them by a significant margin. Moreover, not only Penn Central but all the nation’s railroads were losing more and more cash every month on passenger services.

Their report had been sent to Congress in July 1969, sparking a Senate hearing two months later when Stuart Saunders had traveled down to urge immediate government action. Some senators had responded with open skepticism. “This house is on fire now, and it has been on fire for some time!” Saunders had retorted.

The problem was lack of revenue and high costs. The railroads had a market share of only 7.5 percent, and train after train was leaving the station nearly empty. For example, two Penn Central trains between Harrisburg and Buffalo were carrying an average of only 17 passengers apiece. Just after its merger, Penn Central was allowed to discontinue two trains that ran between St. Louis and the Indiana/Ohio border that carried an average of only seven passengers a day at a loss of more than a half-million dollars a year. The passenger business had once been as profitable as it was glamorous. Twenty-six percent of the Pennsylvania Railroad’s operating revenues in 1900 had come from passenger service. Except for those people who journeyed by river or coastal steamer, the railroad industry’s market share of intercity travelers had been essentially 100 percent. Forty years later, private automobiles had accounted for nearly 90 percent of the mileage traveled by intercity passengers, and railroads had provided only 7.5 percent. Cars would retain pretty much that share of the market for the decades to come.

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17 Merging Railroads over Bourbon

RushJr. Loving Indiana University Press ePub

Claude Brinegar had been wasting no time. Just a few months after the 45-Day Report, knowing that the new bill would require an even more detailed study of the problem by DOT, he had put to work a team of analysts, Jim McClellan among them. Viewing his brief March report to Congress as merely the forerunner of more advice and counsel, Brinegar wanted a document that would outline the kind of rail system that the region between the Mississippi and the Mid-Atlantic and New England needed. The secretary intended that it become a blueprint for resolving the crisis, and that is what the new law was to require of him. “Brinegar had us solving a problem,” said the Federal Railway Administration’s Bill Loftus. “We were searching for the solution, but Brinegar wanted a nongovernment solution.”

The network that would result had to be solvent and strong enough to provide dependable service to the region’s shippers. Early in their study the FRA staff agreed that they must look at all the railroads in the region, healthy as well as sick. Unquestionably, a lot of blood would flow. For instance, a line that wound past the estates of northern Baltimore and through the Amish farms of southern Pennsylvania had carried for decades the Pennsy’s sleepers and express trains bound from Washington to Harrisburg, Buffalo, Pittsburgh, and points west. Now it bore not one passenger train and barely any freight. Just to the west lay the tracks of the Western Maryland Railway, which paralleled the Pennsylvania almost all the way to York and carried at least five times the tonnage that moved over the Pennsy line.

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24 John Snow, CEO

RushJr. Loving Indiana University Press ePub

Norfolk Southern may have lost the round, but the war was by no means over, and while NS licked its wounds, McClellan assessed its mistakes. Quickly he concluded that in the next confrontation he and the others would concentrate on the media and geographical targets that were important and try not to spread themselves so thin. Furthermore, they would not let themselves be constrained by price. Norfolk had more money than CSX. It should be willing, if needed, to outspend its opponent.

In the meantime, Norfolk Southern expanded by acquiring a moving van company. Of much greater importance, the railroad bought the rights to a new kind of highway trailer that was designed so that railroad wheels could be attached to it, thereby enabling it to run both on the road and on the tracks, where it was pulled along on the back of a train. Since NS’s corporate symbol was a racehorse, the marketing department named the new enterprise Triple Crown Service. The innovative van would some day help boost Norfolk’s intermodal revenues to the point where they excelled income from every commodity the railroad carried, except coal.

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