University Of North Texas Press (30)
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6. Traquero Culture

Jeffrey Marcos Garcilazo University of North Texas Press PDF

Chapter 6

Traquero Culture


his chapter examines cultural relationships among

Mexican railroad workers and their families both at home and on the job. Furthermore, it shows how a Mexican working-class culture evolved to become a distinct railroad-worker culture inextricably tied to work on the railroad, especially track work.1

While the experiences and behaviors of Mexican railroad workers and their families were not uniform, certain cultural aspects such as adaptability and resiliency characterized Mexican working-class culture. Indeed, cultural continuity and change were mutually inclusive processes. Hispanos and Mexican immigrants adjusted themselves to the new conditions of industrial life. Moreover, their contact with Euro-American institutions—especially schools—slowly transformed Hispanos and Mexicans into what I argue was Mexican railroad-worker culture or traquero culture. Traqueros themselves gave shape and meaning to their lives on a daily basis. With picks, shovels, frying pans, and diapers, traqueros (both men and women) built their lives. Along with the thousands of miles of track that they laid and repaired, they also constructed their own world and made it their own. Cultural change came about largely because the Hispano and Mexican immigrants did not control the formal institutions

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“Fannie Marchman’s Journey from Atlanta, Georgia to Jefferson, Texas”

Kenneth L. Untiedt, editor University of North Texas Press PDF




HORSE AND WAGON, IN 1869 AND BEYOND by Ellen Pearson

Fannie Franks was born to Amanda and George Fowler on

Amanda’s mother’s plantation, near Holly Springs, Mississippi, on the 19th day of September, 1851. One year after the family returned to their own home in Holly Springs, George Franks went to New York City to buy goods for his store. He died there of pneumonia. Fannie and her mother moved back to the plantation.

Fannie’s mother died when she was three years old. Fannie’s only memories of her mother were, first, after the little girl had got into a hive of bees, looking up at a mirror and seeing her mother searching her “light curls” for the remaining bees and, second, of

Amanda’s sister taking Fannie to her mother’s bed, when she was dying. Amanda’s brother, Mitchell Fowler, and his wife took the girl to a suburb of Atlanta, Georgia, and raised her graciously and generously.

Fannie met her husband-to-be, William Riley Marchman, at her school, called Pantherville, ten miles from Atlanta. “Mr.

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“Eating Up Route 66: Foodways of Motorists Crossing the Texas Panhandle”

Kenneth L. Untiedt, editor University of North Texas Press PDF




From the mid-1920s to the mid-1960s, U.S. Highway 66 served as a major thoroughfare for motorists traveling between the Midwest and the Pacific coast. In the mid-1920s, the U.S. Bureau of

Roads began designating highways in the forty-eight states with identifying numbers. In 1926, the agency gave number 66 to a combination of roads that started at Chicago and passed through

St. Louis, Oklahoma City, Amarillo, and Albuquerque to reach Los

Angeles, over 2,400 miles away. In Texas the roads that became

Route 66 were dirt tracks parallel to the Rock Island Railroad across the Panhandle.

Few highways in America gave travelers such geographical and cultural diversity as Route 66. From the cornfields of Illinois, drivers went through the Ozarks in Missouri before entering the oil fields and red hills of Oklahoma. They then crossed the treeless plains in the Texas Panhandle before driving through the deserts and Indian country of New Mexico and Arizona. In their unairconditioned cars they proceeded through the Mojave Desert, passed by orange groves in southern California, and reached the

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“Legends of the Trail”

Kenneth L. Untiedt, editor University of North Texas Press PDF

LEGENDS OF THE TRAIL by Francis E. Abernethy

[A legend is a traditional prose narrative that has a historical setting and real people as characters. It deals with extraordinary happenings, even supernatural events, in a realistic way. Legends are folk history which document heroic or dramatic events of a culture’s life.—Abernethy]

The following happened in August of 1886 on the Camino

Real de los Tejas, where the Trail crosses Onion Creek southwest of Austin.

1886 was the drouthiest year in over a generation, and the wells had dried up, and the black land on Tobe Pickett’s farm had cracks in it wide enough to swallow a jackrabbit. María, who with her husband Pablo were Tobe’s hired help, walked alongside a great wide crack on her way to cut prickly pear for the hogs. As she looked into the depths of the crack, thinking to see a trapped jackrabbit, her eyes caught the gleam of old metal. A closer look revealed a crack’s-width view of a large chest with an iron chain around it.

María had found the chest of gold the Spaniards had buried on the Camino Real when they were attacked by bandits a hundred years earlier—before Spaniards became Mexicans. María marked the spot and told her husband, and they waited and planned how they would get the chest out when nobody could see them.

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“Watch the Fords Go By: The Automobile Comes to Old Bell County”

Kenneth L. Untiedt, editor University of North Texas Press PDF



TO OLD BELL COUNTY by Kenneth W. Davis

Richard Lee Strout and E. B. White gave verbal immortality to

Henry Ford’s tin lizzie in an essay which once helped freshmen struggling to become literate learn how to string colorful anecdotes together to make sense. Their celebrated essay, “Farewell,

My Lovely,” focused primarily on the wonder of Ford’s inventive genius, the Model T—that vehicle which revolutionized twentiethcentury America. In old Bell County, the arrival of mechanized transportation brought Model T Fords, Saxons, Maxwells, Buicks,

Cadillacs, and a host of other brands now perished, gone with the exhaust fumes and the dust of unpaved roads. Among these many kinds of automobiles there were some which attained the status of folk objects for their stamina, their contrariness, their comfort, or for their near-epic feats of whatever sort. To a Texas folklorist, the antics of the people who herded these snorting mechanical behemoths over those dirt roads of old Bell County are even more interesting than the legends about good mud cars, fast road cars, splendid courting vehicles, and those which doubled as runabouts hauling feed and seed.

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Solution Tree Press (19)
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Medium 9781935543060

2 - Creating a Brain-Compatible Environment

Gayle Gregory Solution Tree Press ePub

Creating a Brain-Compatible Environment

One thing that brain research tells us—loud and clear—is that the way we raise and teach our children not only helps shape their brains, but can also influence or even alter the way genes play out their roles. This promising news also means, however, that we have a serious obligation to attend to factors over which we have some control—namely, most things that happen to children at home and at school throughout their growing-up years.

—Jane M. Healy

To effectively implement differentiation strategies, teachers must design and orchestrate a brain-compatible environment. We believe that educators can interpret and apply some basic tenets from neuroscience research to create classrooms that are in line with how natural learning occurs. In this chapter, we offer a variety of simple suggestions that can help transform any classroom into a place where students feel safe, secure, challenged, motivated, successful, included, and independent. As previously discussed, it will be important to determine each student's sweet spot related to a learning environment that is perfect for him or her. For instance, some learners have seating preferences; other students have lighting or sound preferences. Our challenge as educators is to provide the general ambiance with options/nuances to better satisfy each learner's needs.

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Chapter 6: Adapting a Traditional Textbook Lesson

r4Educated Solutions Solution Tree Press ePub


Adapting a Traditional Textbook Lesson

A small part of even the most reluctant student wants to learn.


Traditional textbook lessons present several concerns. The lesson format generally lends itself to teacher-centered instruction instead of student-centered instruction. The content of standard textbook lessons rarely includes examples and problems with the cognitive rigor necessary to prepare students for success—whether success is measured by standardized tests or readiness for post–high school education. Such lessons seldom include strategies for building common background, developing vocabulary, providing comprehensibility, and solving authentic problems in an atmosphere ripe for interaction. Therefore, teachers are often faced with the challenge of adapting traditional lessons to meet the needs of English language learners.


Tell me and I’ll forget, show me and I may remember, involve me and I’ll understand.

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Appendix D: Reproducibles for Lesson on Three-Dimensional Figures

r4Educated Solutions Solution Tree Press ePub

Appendix D

Reproducibles for Lesson on Three-Dimensional Figures

Who Am I?

Making Math Accessible to ELLs (K–2) © 2010 r4 Educated Solutions • Visit to download this page.

Cooperative Grouping Guide Cards

Making Math Accessible to ELLs (K–2) © 2010 r4 Educated Solutions • Visit to download this page.

Vocabulary Organizer

Making Math Accessible to ELLs (K–2) © 2010 r4 Educated Solutions • Visit to download this page.

Three-Dimensional Geometric Figures Cards

Making Math Accessible to ELLs (K–2) © 2010 r4 Educated Solutions • Visit to download this page.

Three-Dimensional Geometric Figures

Making Math Accessible to ELLs (K–2) © 2010 r4 Educated Solutions • Visit to download this page.

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1 - Using Educational Neuroscience to Differentiate Instruction

Gayle Gregory Solution Tree Press ePub


Using Educational
Neuroscience to
Differentiate Instruction

The argument can be made that schools are again in a time of transition—a period in which it again seems evident that one-size-fits-all approaches to curriculum and instruction are a misfit for too many students, a period in which teachers are once more trying to understand what it means to calibrate instruction based on the varying needs of an increasingly diverse student population.

—Carol Ann Tomlinson

For centuries, teachers have been challenged to address the diverse needs of all learners. As educational neuroscience becomes available to us, we can begin to understand how our students’ unique brains are developing. We can use the emerging information about how learning and memory take place to inform our instructional practices on a daily basis in the classroom. Differentiation and educational neuroscience go hand in hand!

Differentiation in the General Education Classroom

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Chapter 3: Providing Linguistic Supports for English Language Learners

r4Educated Solutions Solution Tree Press ePub


Providing Linguistic Supports for English Language Learners

Mathematics knows no race or geographic boundaries; for mathematics, the cultural world is one country.

—David Hilbert

The following example in figure 3.1 is what a student at the beginning level of language proficiency might read and comprehend. The blanks indicate words that the student likely would not be able to read or understand. Take a moment to try to solve the problem, thinking about what you can determine from the information given. Then do the same with the problem for each level that follows.

Figure 3.1: Comprehension at beginning proficiency.

A bit frustrating, isn’t it? The student can understand nothing except that there are multiple sketches of a butterfly, a grasshopper, and an ant. Even if the student has the mathematics background in his or her primary language, he or she cannot determine enough information to solve the problem.

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Indiana University Press (209)
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Medium 9780253019066

1 Preliminaries

Simon Cordery Indiana University Press ePub

The topography of Illinois is particularly conducive to railroading. Trains move best over flat land, and the state has few hills of any size and nothing that could be mistaken for a mountain. Its 56,400 square miles vary from a low of 279 feet above sea level to the 1,235 feet of Charles Mound on the Wisconsin border near Galena. The glaciated north boasted extensive prairies dotted with stands of timber, while in the heavily wooded south, coal deposits lay concealed beneath the surface. The hilliest section of the state is in the northwest. Here the lead-mining region of Galena escaped the graze of the glaciers, as did Calhoun County in the south. The south offered numerous engineering trials, especially around Cairo, strategically placed at the confluence of the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers but swampy and subject to frequent flooding, while much of far-southern Illinois was viewed as “a hilly extension of the Ozark highland.”1 The state’s rivers provided obstacles to emigrants and challenges to bridge builders, while bluffs at Peoria and Alton restricted railroad development at those two important towns. Generally, however, the gentle prairies presented few insurmountable or even challenging hindrances except distance: Illinois is larger than England, birthplace of the railroad industry.

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14 A School Band on the Railroad Tracks

RushJr. Loving Indiana University Press ePub

While McClellan and the others had been creating Amtrak, Judge John P. Fullam, who was presiding over the Penn Central bankruptcy, had named four trustees, three to serve part-time as the equivalent of directors. The fourth was Jervis Langdon Jr., who became the chief trustee and served full-time. A former president of the Baltimore and Ohio, Langdon, 65, had flown the Hump with the Flying Tigers during World War II and continued to pilot his own airplane. He was a tall man with a rocklike face that was softening with age. His looks and demeanor seemed soft, but that was misleading, for his cold, alert eyes told the real story about Langdon, who was well versed in the subtleties of corporate politics.

Langdon was a great-nephew of Mark Twain, who wrote Tom Sawyer in an outbuilding at the family farm—where Langdon himself still lived—outside Elmira, New York. Langdon was the ideal choice because—although no operating man—he knew how to scrutinize operations, and he understood the art of diplomacy and compromise. The latter skills would be mandatory, since working with Washington and the labor unions would be key to Penn Central’s survival. He knew the railroad business from the viewpoint of a strategist.

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6   Observations

Lawrence A. Brough Indiana University Press ePub

The cars Niles built were used in a variety of service modes: city, suburban, and interurban, as well as freight. In some cases they were called upon to run almost constantly, particularly in city and suburban service, but in others only at night, which became the rule for freight service when cities balked at having them on the streets in daylight. The Grand Rapids, Grand Haven & Muskegon Railway, for example, ran its Niles passenger cars as a boat train that met, in Grand Haven, boats from Chicago and carried the passengers and their baggage to Muskegon. Their freight motors, in season, carried large quantities of fresh fruit from western Michigan to Grand Haven for shipment to Chicago.

Although Niles produced an extensive catalog of car body designs, there is no evidence that Niles had a significant design department. Rather, throughout its existence it was, to a great extent, a contract builder of railway car bodies, and the Niles catalog features numerous cars known to have been designed by others. Niles did not participate in the Master Car Builders organization but preferred to remain independent. Trucks, brakes, and hardware were purchased from other manufacturers and the catalog featured Baldwin trucks. In some cases the cars were designed by the railway companies themselves. Many of the larger traction systems maintained well-staffed engineering departments that were perfectly equipped to design cars and had a better understanding of the requirements for their systems than an independent designer might have had. Additionally, there were several well-known and respected engineering firms that railway companies called upon to design power plants, track, and cars—firms such as J. G. White & Company, Ford Bacon & Davis, and premier among them, Stone & Webster Incorporated, all of New York.

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8 Railway People

William D. Middleton Indiana University Press ePub

Enginemen. Locomotive engineman on Suwon narrow gauge, South Korea, April 1972.



A vendor makes a sale as passengers board a Chiese State Railway train.

Enginemen. Engine crew of Yugoslavian 2-6-2 Prairie type No. 01-101 ready to depart with train 2118 from Belgrade for Vel. Plana in August 1960.

Trainmen. Trainman on Korea’s Yeosu-Seoul train 62 on Chokka line, South Korea, October 1972.

Train Staff. Train hostesses celebrate the opening of Korean National Railway electrification, Cheongryangri, South Korea, June 30, 1972.

Dining car staff on Shinkansen buffet car, Japan, August 1972.

Train Staff. Cooks take a break on diner 169 on Chengdu-Xian train, China, November 1981.

Waitress at work on diner 169 on Chengdu-Xian train, China, November 1981.

Train Staff. Postman at work at Anyang, China, on Chengdu-Xian train 169, November 1981.

Train attendant waits by his car during a stop on train 114 at Xian, China, en route to Guangzhou, April 1983.

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4 Entrepreneur Extraordinaire

J. Parker Lamb Indiana University Press ePub

While the early history of the GM&N was developing to the west of Meridian, another of its citizens would follow the path of William H. Hardy, developer of the New Orleans & Northeastern. Sam A. Neville entered the city’s rail scene as an archenemy of the traffic monopoly by the Queen & Crescent combine. Neville was born in Kemper County (immediately north of Meridian) in 1870, and his family moved to Meridian when he was seventeen. He later became associated with a number of businesses with a wide range of products, from caskets to pickles. By 1906 he was a partner in the Meyer-Neville Hardware Co., located on Front Street, which was adjacent to rail lines in the downtown area. After a fire destroyed the building, Neville soon became an officer of the Millbrook Lumber Co. and was also chosen to be president of the Meridian Board of Trade and Cotton Exchange. Such local groups were the ancestors of today’s Chambers of Commerce.

His position with the Board of Trade eventually fueled Neville’s desire to expand Meridian’s rail service to include a competitor to the Q&C. However, this would not be an easy task, since the most valuable corridors were already under Q&C control. His first rail venture began with the April 1911 charter for the Meridian & Deep Water Railroad, an attempt to tap into the thriving north–south boat traffic on the Tombigbee River, which lay only 50 miles eastward in Alabama. Construction began on Meridian’s east side, with rails extending from M&O’S Bonita Branch. Soon there was widespread concern within Meridian that the construction would damage the Bonita Lakes, the city’s main water supply, and the resulting public outcry caused Neville to halt the grading. Interestingly, evidence of this early construction is still visible today along the hiking trail at the lakes and at the picnic island formed by one of the early cuts.

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