Indiana University Press (209)
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9 The Second Front

Jr., Herbert H. Harwood Indiana University Press ePub

The South Penn was surely the most dramatic and expensive element in William Vanderbilt’s war with the Pennsylvania. But as the South Penn’s contractors were blasting through the mountains, he, Franklin Gowen, and General George J. Magee of the Fall Brook Coal Company were also invading Pennsylvania Railroad territory in the even wilder northern part of the state.

The project started off as a joint venture between Vanderbilt and the coal operators in Tioga County, Pennsylvania, particularly General Magee’s huge Fall Brook company and its associated railroads that he had inherited from his family and greatly expanded on his own. (The “General” title came not from any genuine military service but from a political appointment in 1869 as paymaster general for New York State.) Vanderbilt’s railroad was concerned about a reliable steam locomotive fuel supply, and the mine owners needed a cheaper outlet.

The northern Pennsylvania incursion is its own complex story with mostly its own cast of characters, not the least of which was General Magee, who became a close Vanderbilt ally and a South Penn investor. It had almost nothing in common with the South Penn except that it formed the second prong of a two-front Vanderbilt attack into PRR territory in the state and another collaboration with Gowen to help the Reading break out of its eastern Pennsylvania box. Although its full history is a sidestep from the South Penn story, some essentials must be told.

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5 Roller-Coaster Ride

J. Parker Lamb Indiana University Press ePub

The Mobile & Ohio timetable of October 1, 1922, included the same level of passenger service in Meridian as in 1916, namely, Nos. 1–4 plus locals 5 and 6. However, it shows that Pullman transfers had been revived by the Alabama Great Southern to Birmingham and the New Orleans & Northeastern to New Orleans, although there was no sleeping car occupancy leaving the Crescent City, requiring a passenger to ride coach to Meridian and then board the sleeper. Between Birmingham and Mobile, both M&O trains carried sleepers in both directions, although the road had discontinued (presumably due to cost) dining car service on Nos. 1 and 4 and reinstituted meal stops in Cairo, Illinois; Jackson, Tennessee; plus Corinth, Tupelo, and Meridian, Mississippi.

A new approach to passenger relations was clearly evident in M&O’S February 27, 1927, timetable. Gone were Nos. 3 and 4, replaced by the Gulf Coast Special (Nos. 15 and 16), which carried a New Orleans Pullman and a parlor-lounge-dining car. Schedules of the road’s four trains were shortened by over two hours, allowing it to advertise their rides as a “passage through the historic and scenic South in daylight.” The Special continued M&O’S connection with the Montgomery trains (now denoted as Nos. 115 and 116). This timetable also included a note that Nos. 1 and 2 carried a drawing room–sleeper between Memphis and Mobile (via transfer at Tupelo). Conversely, by this time there was only a single local on the main line between Mobile and Saint Louis, consisting of Nos. 7 and 8 between Meridian and Jackson, Tennessee. However, both of these trains also carried a Memphis connection at Tupelo.

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5 The Spoilers

Jr., Herbert H. Harwood Indiana University Press ePub

Vanderbilt may have thought he was moving into the South Penn under deep cover, but it took no time for word to get out that something serious was going on in southern Pennsylvania and that Vanderbilt probably was involved. And when it did, several similar projects miraculously materialized, created by promoters who suddenly showed interest in the long-ignored route. Their real motives probably will never be known; perhaps they were truly legitimate enterprises, perhaps corporate blackmailers hoping to be bought out, or possibly Pennsylvania Railroad surrogates aiming to block him. But what is known is that even as Twombly, Reon Barnes, and the others were in the preliminary process of investigating and negotiating, three companies received state charters to build railroads over the South Penn’s general route.

First to appear was something called the Southern Tier Railroad, chartered in June as a 3-foot gauge line stretching 208 miles between a Western Maryland Railroad connection south of Shippensburg and West Elizabeth, near Pittsburgh. (The company’s name referred to its intended route through Pennsylvania’s “southern tier.”) Its incorporators were Philadelphians with no discernible railroad affiliations. Once created, however, the company did nothing further.1

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7 Illinois Railroad Labor

Simon Cordery Indiana University Press ePub

As Confederate forces were winning the Battle of Chancellorsville and Union troops prepared to lay siege to Vicksburg, a group of disgruntled railroad engineers met secretly in Marshall, Michigan. Unhappy about the treatment they were receiving at the hands of their supervisors, they decided to assert their republican rights and defend themselves from arbitrary rule. They formed the Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers (BLE), a fraternal order fighting for decent working conditions and offering insurance protections. Firemen, conductors, trainmen, and other groups created their own organizations in the 1860s, challenging the conventional belief that capital and labor shared a common interest in the profitable operation of railroad corporations.

A period of often dramatic conflict on the railroads followed formation of the brotherhoods. Wage cuts and layoffs led to strikes but owners and managers fought back. The proud industrial peace of the railroads was shattered by walkouts and murders. Financial panics and technological change led to violence and confrontation in Illinois, most notably in 1877, 1888, and 1894. These were the visible manifestations of a seemingly limitless well of unhappiness and subterranean conflict. But the railroads could bring the nation’s economic activity to a virtual standstill, hastening the quest for alternatives. Worse for the industry, federal regulators responded to public complaints about monopoly power by restricting managerial autonomy. The peace of pioneer railroading had been shattered.

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17 Merging Railroads over Bourbon

RushJr. Loving Indiana University Press ePub

Claude Brinegar had been wasting no time. Just a few months after the 45-Day Report, knowing that the new bill would require an even more detailed study of the problem by DOT, he had put to work a team of analysts, Jim McClellan among them. Viewing his brief March report to Congress as merely the forerunner of more advice and counsel, Brinegar wanted a document that would outline the kind of rail system that the region between the Mississippi and the Mid-Atlantic and New England needed. The secretary intended that it become a blueprint for resolving the crisis, and that is what the new law was to require of him. “Brinegar had us solving a problem,” said the Federal Railway Administration’s Bill Loftus. “We were searching for the solution, but Brinegar wanted a nongovernment solution.”

The network that would result had to be solvent and strong enough to provide dependable service to the region’s shippers. Early in their study the FRA staff agreed that they must look at all the railroads in the region, healthy as well as sick. Unquestionably, a lot of blood would flow. For instance, a line that wound past the estates of northern Baltimore and through the Amish farms of southern Pennsylvania had carried for decades the Pennsy’s sleepers and express trains bound from Washington to Harrisburg, Buffalo, Pittsburgh, and points west. Now it bore not one passenger train and barely any freight. Just to the west lay the tracks of the Western Maryland Railway, which paralleled the Pennsylvania almost all the way to York and carried at least five times the tonnage that moved over the Pennsy line.

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Solution Tree Press (19)
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Medium 9781935543060

2 - Creating a Brain-Compatible Environment

Gayle Gregory Solution Tree Press ePub

Creating a Brain-Compatible Environment

One thing that brain research tells us—loud and clear—is that the way we raise and teach our children not only helps shape their brains, but can also influence or even alter the way genes play out their roles. This promising news also means, however, that we have a serious obligation to attend to factors over which we have some control—namely, most things that happen to children at home and at school throughout their growing-up years.

—Jane M. Healy

To effectively implement differentiation strategies, teachers must design and orchestrate a brain-compatible environment. We believe that educators can interpret and apply some basic tenets from neuroscience research to create classrooms that are in line with how natural learning occurs. In this chapter, we offer a variety of simple suggestions that can help transform any classroom into a place where students feel safe, secure, challenged, motivated, successful, included, and independent. As previously discussed, it will be important to determine each student's sweet spot related to a learning environment that is perfect for him or her. For instance, some learners have seating preferences; other students have lighting or sound preferences. Our challenge as educators is to provide the general ambiance with options/nuances to better satisfy each learner's needs.

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7 - Think Big, Start Small

Gayle Gregory Solution Tree Press ePub

Think Big, Start Small

Think big, start small, act now.

—Barnabas Suebu

Good teachers take all they know about the brain, researched best practices, and student differences and creatively plan multiple opportunities for students to be successful. In addition, educators must acknowledge the differences in learners of the 21st century. With the daily use of technology, students’ brains are wiring in new and unique ways. By considering some of the major differences, we may be able to understand how this generation is changing how school must be done. In his book Grown Up Digital, Don Tapscott (2009) summarizes eight differentiating characteristics of our students:

1. They want freedom in everything they do, from freedom of choice to freedom of expression.

2. They love to customize, personalize.

3. They are the new scrutinizers.

4. They look for corporate integrity and openness when deciding what to buy and where to work.

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Chapter 4: Providing Cognitive Supports for English Language Learners

r4Educated Solutions Solution Tree Press ePub

4

Providing Cognitive Supports for English Language Learners

The true spirit of delight, the exaltation, the sense of being more than Man, which is the touchstone of the highest excellence, is to be found in mathematics as surely as in poetry.

—Bertrand Russell

In chapter 2, we looked at factors that affect language acquisition. Since the factor over which educators have the most control is the quality of instruction, we will continue to emphasize the importance of the role of the mathematics teacher as we look at increasing student understanding, participating, and communicating. In much the same way that we examined how to provide linguistic supports for language acquisition in chapter 3, here we will examine how to provide cognitive supports for the development of the skills, conceptual understanding, and thought processes that lead to mathematical proficiency.

When students encounter a word problem, they must not only read the text but also decode the mathematics involved. They must determine relevant concepts, including whether there is extraneous information, and decide which operations to use on any numbers.

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Chapter 6: Adapting a Traditional Textbook Lesson

r4Educated Solutions Solution Tree Press ePub

6

Adapting a Traditional Textbook Lesson

A small part of even the most reluctant student wants to learn.

—Anonymous

Traditional textbook lessons present several concerns. The lesson format generally lends itself to teacher-centered instruction instead of student-centered instruction. The content of standard textbook lessons rarely includes examples and problems with the cognitive rigor necessary to prepare students for success—whether success is measured by standardized tests or readiness for post–high school education. Such lessons seldom include strategies for building common background, developing vocabulary, providing comprehensibility, and solving authentic problems in an atmosphere ripe for interaction. Therefore, teachers are often faced with the challenge of adapting traditional lessons to meet the needs of English language learners.

 

Tell me and I’ll forget, show me and I may remember, involve me and I’ll understand.

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Appendix D: Reproducibles for Lesson on Three-Dimensional Figures

r4Educated Solutions Solution Tree Press ePub

Appendix D

Reproducibles for Lesson on Three-Dimensional Figures

Who Am I?

Making Math Accessible to ELLs (K–2) © 2010 r4 Educated Solutions • solution-tree.com Visit go.solution-tree.com/ELL to download this page.

Cooperative Grouping Guide Cards

Making Math Accessible to ELLs (K–2) © 2010 r4 Educated Solutions • solution-tree.com Visit go.solution-tree.com/ELL to download this page.

Vocabulary Organizer

Making Math Accessible to ELLs (K–2) © 2010 r4 Educated Solutions • solution-tree.com Visit go.solution-tree.com/ELL to download this page.

Three-Dimensional Geometric Figures Cards

Making Math Accessible to ELLs (K–2) © 2010 r4 Educated Solutions • solution-tree.com Visit go.solution-tree.com/ELL to download this page.

Three-Dimensional Geometric Figures

Making Math Accessible to ELLs (K–2) © 2010 r4 Educated Solutions • solution-tree.com Visit go.solution-tree.com/ELL to download this page.

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University Of North Texas Press (30)
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Medium 9781574412383

“Farm and Ranch Entrances in West Texas”

Kenneth L. Untiedt, editor University of North Texas Press PDF

FARM AND RANCH ENTRANCES

IN WEST TEXAS by Mary Harris

In Elmer Kelton’s novel The Man Who Rode Midnight, the grandson of the old-time rancher and protagonist Wes Hendrix thinks about city folks moving to the country and pretending that they are ranchers. Kelton writes:

Along the road, especially near to town, Jim Ed saw perhaps twenty fancy gateways of stone and steel and brick, bearing names like Angora Acres and

Rancho Restful and The Poor Farm. He looked twice at a sign that declared Heavenly Days Ranch.

These were the harbingers of an urban invasion, ten- and twenty- and fifty-acre ranchettes, homesites for city folk who wanted to play at the rustic life without suffering its discomforts.1

The novelist’s references to “fancy gateways,” and what he later refers to as an “entrance gate” or a “decorative arch,” are called in this paper “decorative entrances.” These decorative entrances are those highway and county road structures that announce to the passer that here is access to a Charolais ranch or a cotton farm, or as Kelton writes, smaller places where the people want “to play at the rustic life.”2

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“Red River Bridge War”

Kenneth L. Untiedt, editor University of North Texas Press PDF

RED RIVER BRIDGE WAR by Jerry B. Lincecum

On Thursday, December 6, 1995, the old three-truss bridge spanning the Red River north of Denison was destroyed with 750 pounds of dynamite strategically placed by the Texas Department of Transportation. The blasting of this structure, which in 1931 became the most famous public free bridge across Red River between Texas and Oklahoma, marked the end of an era. However, few people know about the heated controversy it provoked six decades earlier.

This bridge was involved in a war—the Red River Bridge War of 1931. The magnificent new bridge was completed in April of

1931, through the joint efforts of Texas and Oklahoma, after their offer to purchase the Colbert Toll Bridge and two others was rejected by the toll bridge company. But its use was blocked by an injunction obtained by the Red River Bridge Company in Federal

Court in Houston. Soon the controversy led to a confrontation involving the governors of both states.

First some background history. Colbert’s Crossing had its beginnings at least as early as 1853, when B. F. Colbert obtained from the Chickasaw Indian Tribe a charter for a ferry across Red

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“Wagon Train Experience”

Kenneth L. Untiedt, editor University of North Texas Press PDF

WAGON TRAIN EXPERIENCE by Carol Hanson

Nineteen-eighty-six was the Sesquicentennial of Texas—a mouthful to be sure—but a year in which our State attempted in a variety of ways to celebrate, memorialize, discuss, and make all sorts of tributes to all our Texas ancestors and the history of all that’s

“Texan.” One of the more unique events of the year was the

Sesquicentennial Wagon Train that began on January 2 in Sulphur

Springs and wandered around the entire state for six months until it pulled into the Fort Worth Stockyards on July 3 to celebrate the

Fourth of July there. It was my privilege to have the experience of riding a few days on the Wagon Train in May of that year, along with two of my brothers—who thoroughly enjoyed it as well. This is my account of our short journey.

I had contacted the Wagon Train Association in mid-March of

1986 to inquire as to the possibility of our traveling with the train.

Since we had no wagon, horses or other appropriate animals, we were at the mercy of whatever arrangements were available to the general public. But the Association wanted to involve as many citizens of Texas who wanted to be there, so they had a wagon set aside specifically for folks like ourselves who just wanted a chance to experience the ride for a short time. Our confirmation, postmarked “No Trees, Texas,” came about ten days later, saying that we could meet them in Tahoka.

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“The Passage of Scotland’s Four/El Pasaje de los Cuatro de Escocia”

Kenneth L. Untiedt, editor University of North Texas Press PDF

THE PASSAGE OF SCOTLAND’S FOUR/

EL PASAJE DE LOS CUATRO DE ESCOCIA by Consuelo L. Samarripa

De lejos, muy lejos de aqui, far from the land of the Gaelic accent, came the vessels across the challenging waters of the Atlantic to

America’s different ports of entry. The vessels carried immigrants whose uncharted destinies would be remembered for many generations en la tierra de el nopa, de el mesquite, and mammoth trees draped with Spanish moss. We, Tejanos, just like them, have had our own fight for freedom and liberty. We will remember the passage of Scotland’s four, el pasaje de los cuatro de Escocia.

Pues quiza algunos Tejanos le llamavan Valentine. Most often he was called Richard W. Ballentine (1814–1836).1 The surname

Ballantyne is from Sept of the Clan Campbell; their Argyll motto is

“Ne obliviscaris,” Roman Latin meaning “Forget not.” Ballentine was a twenty-two-year-old Scottish lad whose family had established residency in Marengo County, Alabama. He was recruited to serve with “The Mobile Greys” for Texas.2 Some Greys traveled by land and others by sea. In December 1835, the schooner named

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4. Labor Struggles

Jeffrey Marcos Garcilazo University of North Texas Press PDF

Chapter 4

Labor Struggles

O

n April 24, 1903, a dramatic scene took place on Main

Street in Los Angeles when more than thirty Mexican women

(primarily the wives of strikers) confronted several dozen esquiroles (scabs) imported from El Paso by the Pacific Electric Railway

Company (pe). Owned by Henry Huntington, the pe attempted to replace striking “cholo” laborers represented by a new Mexican union, La Union Federal Mexicana (ufm). Huntington arranged for police to arrest any picketing Mexicans. The mexicanas harangued the esquiroles to join the strike and marched boldly onto the grade site and wrestled shovels, picks and tamping irons away from the hands of the strikebreakers.1 The Los Angeles Times referred to the mexicanas as “Amazons” from various parts of “Sonoratown,” the principal Mexican settlement.2 Onlookers, mostly Mexicans and

Anglos, stepped over and around railroad ties, rails, wheelbarrows and mounds of dirt as they strained to watch the commotion. Within moments some esquiroles joined the strikers and others fled while a few others argued with the women and the striking traqueros and futilely tried to defend their actions.

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