Indiana University Press (32)
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One Introduction: Washington, London, and Two Very Separate Wars, 1921–1941

H. P. Willmott Indiana University Press ePub

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION: WASHINGTON, LONDON, AND TWO VERY SEPARATE WARS, 1921–1941

ARMS RACES ARE NOT the cause of rivalries and wars but rather the reflection of conflicting ambition and intent, though inevitably they compound and add to these differences. The First World War was not the product of Anglo-German naval rivalry, though this was one of the major factors that determined Britain’s taking position in the ranks of Germany’s enemies, and most certainly it was a major factor in producing the growing sense of instability within Europe in the decade prior to 1914. But if the naval race was indeed one of the factors that made for war in 1914—although it should be noted that the most dangerous phase of this rivalry would seem to have passed by 1914—then there is the obvious problem of explaining the war in 1939–1941, in that the greater part of the inter-war period, between 1921 and 1936, was marked by a very deliberate policy of naval limitation on the part of the great powers. Admittedly the arrangements that were set in place in various treaties had lapsed by 1937, and a naval race had begun that most certainly was crucially important in terms of Japanese calculations in 1940 and 1941 and indeed was critical in the decision to initiate war in the Pacific. In summer 1941, as the Japanese naval command was obliged to consider the consequences of its own actions and the full implications of the U.S. Congress having passed the Two-Ocean Naval Expansion Act in July 1940, the Imperial Navy, the Kaigun, was caught in a go-now-or-never dilemma, and it, like its sister service, simply could not admit the futility and pointlessness of past endeavors and sacrifices. But, of course, not a few of these endeavors and sacrifices had been military and Asian and most definitely were not naval and Pacific.

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Four Japan and Its “Special Undeclared War”

H. P. Willmott Indiana University Press ePub

CHAPTER FOUR

JAPAN AND ITS “SPECIAL UNDECLARED WAR”

THE PERIOD BETWEEN the two world wars saw a series of conflicts, and the importance of naval power in some of these wars is seldom acknowledged. The Allied intervention in the Russian civil wars and involvement in the Greek-Turkish conflict were based on naval power, but, arguably, in the inter-war period in only one conflict did a navy play a major, indeed significant, role and possess more than en passant importance. The Sino-Japanese conflict, which began in July 1937, saw the major involvement of the Imperial Japanese Navy in two areas of operations with immediate and long-term relevance: a series of coastal operations and landings in southern China, most obviously the occupation of Canton in 1938 and Hainan Island in 1939, and involvement in air operations, and specifically in the strategic bombing campaigns staged in 1939 and 1940.1

The inter-war period was one that saw Japanese forces, and specifically the Imperial Japanese Army, the Nippon Teikoku Rikugun, involved in a series of conflicts that began with intervention in the Russian civil wars in which Rikugun forces reached as far west as Novosibirsk.2 The main focus of Japanese military attention, however, was China, with its interminable civil wars, power struggles, and secessionist problems, and specifically was directed to Manchuria, Inner Mongolia, and northern China after September 1931. In the course of a three-month campaign the local Japanese garrison force, the Kwantung Army, overran three of Manchuria’s four provinces and paved the way for a double development.

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Fourteen The Japanese Situation—and Another, and Final, Dimension

H. P. Willmott Indiana University Press ePub

CHAPTER FOURTEEN

THE JAPANESE SITUATION—AND ANOTHER, AND FINAL, DIMENSION

IN THE PRECEDING CHAPTERS the Japanese situation in terms of shipping, trade, and production has been subjected to examination, for one reason: for more than six decades the American public perception of the Pacific war has been focused primarily upon fleet and amphibious operations; what has been provided here is not a correction to such perspective but an addition, the presentation of matters seldom afforded much in the way of consideration but gathered here to provide balance and perspective. By definition, these short chapters cannot be comprehensive and must serve only as introduction to matters often given little historical consideration. This final chapter is concerned with battles and individuals, for the same reasons and with the same intent.

Excluding the attack by Japanese carrier aircraft on the U.S. Pacific Fleet at Pearl Harbor on 7 December 1941 and the attacks by Allied carrier aircraft on a variety of targets in Japanese waters in the war’s last month (though perhaps the irony should be noted that the last survivor of the Pearl Harbor operation, the heavy cruiser Tone, was sunk at its mooring off Kure by U.S. carrier aircraft on 24 July 1945), during the war in the Pacific there were no fewer than eighteen actions involving warship formations on both sides.1 Of course, there also were actions involving aircraft and warships from opposing sides, the best known of these actions being those in the Bismarck Sea in March 1943 and when the battleship Yamato was sunk southwest of Kyushu in April 1945. Of all these actions perhaps the one that possessed greatest historical symbolism was the action off Cape St. George, which was the last action between warship formations other than in the Surigao Strait in October 1944, but the greater part of historical attention over the lifetime that has elapsed since these actions were fought has been directed to the action fought off Midway Islands and Leyte Gulf. The other four major carrier actions—Coral Sea, Eastern Solomons, Santa Cruz, and Philippine Sea—have generally been afforded en passant consideration: the Coral Sea was but the prelude to Midway, and the Eastern Solomons and Santa Cruz were not battles on which Americans dwell because neither resulted in victory. The second-tier status of the battle of the Philippine Sea is perhaps surprising given the fact that in terms of fleet and light carriers of the two sides this was the largest carrier battle of the war, larger even than Leyte, though the latter had many more warships than Philippine Sea and with escort carriers added to the list is the larger of the two battles in terms of carrier numbers.

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Two Washington and London

H. P. Willmott Indiana University Press ePub

CHAPTER TWO

WASHINGTON AND LONDON

ALLIES ARE NOT NECESSARILY friends, and victory, or defeat, inevitably weakens the links that made for alliances and coalitions: the conflicting interests held in check by common need invariably reassert themselves, often with greater force than previously was the case. the First World War saw the passing of four empires, three of them multi-national empires, and the triumph of what in July 1919 were the five leading naval powers in the world, but those five powers’ wartime cooperation and common cause did not survive such episodes as the “Naval Battle of Paris” and the negotiations that produced the treaties that closed the First World War.

The period between the end of the war and the Washington conference and treaties, between November 1918 and February 1922, was a strange one in regard to naval power, and primarily for one reason. The war resulted in the elimination of three major navies, those of Germany, Russia, and Austria-Hungary, yet it ended with no fewer than three naval races, if not already ongoing then most certainly in the making: between Britain and the United States, between Japan and the United States, and, somewhat muted, between France and Italy. Leaving aside the latter, which never assumed importance or gained momentum in the twenties, the key development was the emergence of the United States as the greatest power in the world and its declared intention to secure for itself “a navy second to none.” To realize such an ambition the U.S. Congress authorized, in the act of 29 August 1916, the construction of no fewer than 162 warships, including 10 battleships, 6 battlecruisers, 10 cruisers, 50 destroyers, and 67 submarines. All of these warships were to be built between 1916 and 1919, and were in addition to a 1915 program that had made provision for 6 battleships, the general intention being that the United States would provide for itself no fewer than 60 battleships and battlecruisers by 1925. In framing its program the U.S. Navy, quite deliberately, had set aside the situation created by general war in Europe in favor of what it considered the “worst-case” possibility that might emerge after this war. What it planned for was the need to guard against either a German-Japanese or an Anglo-Japanese alliance that would be capable of threatening the United States in two oceans and preventing any expansion of American overseas trade. The total of 60 capital ships that were to be acquired by 1925 matched the total that Britain and Japan together might be able to deploy in a war against the United States. The least that could be said about such logic was that it grasped at the exceedingly unlikely in order to justify the manifestly unnecessary.

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Seven With Friends like These

H. P. Willmott Indiana University Press ePub

CHAPTER SEVEN

WITH FRIENDS LIKE THESE

ANGLO-AMERICAN HISTORIOGRAPHY of the Second World War and the war at sea invariably traces the course and outcome of the two conflicts that together made up the Second World War in terms of the defeat of the German submarine offensive against shipping and the American advance across the southwest and central Pacific to the Japanese home islands. In the European conflict the focus of most historical attention has been on the British Navy, and specifically its escort forces, and the German U-boat service, and in the Pacific upon American carrier and amphibious formations. In a very obvious sense it is right and proper that this should be the case: at sea the European war was largely synonymous with the “Battle of the Atlantic,” whatever that phrase might mean, and in the Pacific the war was decided by fleet actions that ran in tandem with landing operations; the Imperial Japanese Navy and even the American submarine offensive against Japanese shipping have never been afforded consideration and recognition commensurate with that afforded American carrier operations.

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3 The initiative gathers force – LFLP, the second leasehold forestry project

Thierry, B. CABI PDF

Chapter 3

The initiative gathers force – LFLP, the second leasehold forestry project

“A project is a time capsule. It needs to change into a programme if it’s going to be sustainable.”

Mr. Bal Krishna Khanal, first coordinator of the Hills Leasehold Forestry and Forage Development Project

From their houses in the hills, slowly, the village men and women converge. Many appear to be timid, somewhat reluctant. Some of the women fall behind, perhaps in deference to the men, or perhaps out of a sense of ambivalence or uncertainty as to whether they should be participating at all. At the same time, they know that they have a great deal that they would like to talk about and that the others would like to hear. Programme staff and group promoters whom they know and trust have encouraged them to participate. They push on.

The setting for the discussions is informal. There are no microphones, no round tables, no flip charts with coloured markers.

In fact, the setting is outdoors, in their own crop plots, on the grass and under the trees that they visit and use on a daily basis. Later, the discussions will continue during a walk into the forest areas that have been leased to them as part of this government project, as a way of making more palpable the lives that are being spoken about and the changes that are – or are not – taking place. After several hours of walking, talking and observing, themes begin to emerge. Some of them surface again and again, introduced by one participant and enthusiastically elaborated by another and then another. Others speak with a lone voice, but a voice that is so emphatic that it cannot be discounted. How have these people benefited from their newly gained access to land and forestry?

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2: Assessing Structural Quality for Crop Performance and for Agronomy (VESS, VSA, SOILpak, Profil Cultural, SubVESS)

Ball, B.C. CABI PDF

2 

Assessing Structural Quality for Crop

Performance and for Agronomy (VESS,

VSA, SOILpak, Profil Cultural, SubVESS)

Tom Batey,1 Rachel M.L. Guimarães,2* Joséphine Peigné3 and Hubert Boizard4

1

Plant and Soil Science, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, Scotland, UK;

2

­Agronomy Department, Federal University of Technology – Paraná, Brazil;

3

ISARA Lyon, Lyon, France; 4INRA, UPR1158 AgroImpact, Péronne, France

2.1  Introduction

The physical properties of a soil are a key factor in evaluating land quality whether for agronomy or for other purposes. Soil structure is an important component of the physical properties.

Its qualities are transient and may be altered by both anthropic and natural events. For example, cultivation, the passage of harvester and trailer wheels, grazing when the soil is wet and intense rainfall can all alter soil structure. Methods to assess the quality of soil structure are therefore important tools in the management of soils.

Such methods should be cost-effective, widely available and the results easily interpreted.

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7: Evaluating Land Quality for Carbon Storage, Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Nutrient Leaching

Ball, B.C. CABI PDF

7 

Evaluating Land Quality for Carbon

Storage, Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Nutrient Leaching

Joanna M. Cloy,1* Bruce C. Ball1 and T. Graham Shepherd2

1

SRUC, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK; 2BioAgriNomics Ltd,

Palmerston North, New Zealand

7.1  Introduction

Recently the importance of good soil structure in mitigating climate change and environmental contamination has been recognized because soil structure influences the storage of carbon (C) sources and sinks of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and cycling of nutrients, which are key soil system processes. This is because the maintenance of soil structure by aggregation, particle transport and formation of soil habitats operates across many spatial scales to regulate water drainage, water retention, air transfer to roots for favourable gas exchange and mineralization of nutrients for release to crop roots (Kibblewhite et al.,

2008; Ball et al., 2013a). For the functions being considered, the most important aspect of soil structure is the soil pore network, which determines the movement of gases, liquids and associated solutes, as well as particulates and organisms, through the soil matrix (Haygarth and Ritz, 2009;

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9: The Expanding Discipline and Role of Visual Soil Evaluation

Ball, B.C. CABI PDF

9 

1

The Expanding Discipline and Role of Visual Soil Evaluation

Bruce C. Ball1* and Lars J. Munkholm2

SRUC, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK; 2Aarhus University, Tjele, Denmark

9.1  Introduction

Drawing on the conclusions of previous chapters, our objective here is to show that methods of visual soil evaluation (VSE) are key aids to the management of soils. They can identify and quantify soil degradation, particularly compaction. These methods can be used to monitor soil quality and thus to maintain its cropping potential. We also identify the future roles of VSE in soils and the environment and suggest improvements in the methods to support these roles.

The prominence of the role of soils for food security and environmental sustainability is likely to increase as the area of land available shrinks and the quality of what is left decreases. Soil is basically a non-renewable resource and, with limited scope to bring new land into cultivation, degradation needs to be decreased or negated by conservation and by restoration of prior degraded land (Lal, 2013). New technologies such as genetic modification are restricted in their ability to increase crop yields by limitations in soil water and/or nitrogen supply (Sinclair and Rufty, 2012) and the constraints of photosynthetic efficiency.

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4 Impacts of leasehold forestry

Thierry, B. CABI PDF

Chapter 4

Impacts of leasehold forestry

The experience of leasehold forestry has shown a number of impressive results in terms of the conditions of the forests as well as the lives and livelihoods of the poorest segments of society that use them.

During the past 20 years, numerous studies and evaluations have been conducted throughout the different phases of the programme in order to understand what differences, if any, the programme was making. To measure change taking place in such a holistic and evolving approach is quite a challenge. Few programmes attempt to span improvements in tenure, natural resources management, agroforestry production, livestock development, inclusion and empowerment, microfinance, livelihoods development and well-being – all of the elements necessary to address the needs of marginal forest users. Monitoring and evaluation of such a breadth of activity can be daunting, especially when wider changes are taking place in the community.

Despite these challenges, key findings did emerge in the different dimensions of leasehold forestry outcomes (more immediate results, such as changes in forest management practice) and impacts (livelihoods and poverty reduction, environmental change and social effects). The findings come from past studies, project monitoring and evaluation reports, as well as the findings of a recent independent impact study that was commissioned by the government 7. The independent study placed a special emphasis on comparing a robust representative and stratified random sample of

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Cabi (198)
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18: Rodent Control and Island Conservation

Buckle, A.P.; Smith, R.H. CABI PDF

18 

Rodent Control and Island Conservation

1

G. Howald,1 J. Ross,2 and A.P. Buckle3

Island Conservation, Santa Cruz, California, USA; 2Faculty of

Agriculture and Life Sciences, Lincoln University,

Lincoln, New Zealand; 3School of Biological Sciences,

University of Reading, Reading, UK

Introduction

On 15 June 1918, the SS Mokambo ran aground on Lord Howe Island in the south-west Pacific (Long, 2003). There was little loss of life; that came later. The ship was infested with ship rats, Rattus rattus, and these went ashore with the human survivors while the ship was temporarily beached. In the years that followed, rat predation resulted in the extinction of at least five species of the island’s endemic birds, including the Robust white-eye (Zosterops

­ strenuus) and Lord Howe Island thrush

­(Turdus poliocephalus vinitinctus), and the serious decline of the populations of many others. A variety of other taxa was also affected, including molluscs, insects and

­ amphibians. Another recent event was the devastation caused by the arrival of roof rats on Big South Cape Island, New Zealand, in the early 1960s, when several endemic birds species were quickly extirpated (Thomas and Taylor, 2002). We know of these extinctions because they occurred when accurate faunal records were available. However, such events have occurred in all of the world’s oceans for thousands of years, resulting in the extinction of many species, which we now only know from the fossil record, or not at all. The immense impact of alien rodents on the faunas of oceanic islands

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4: Rodents as Carriers of Disease

Buckle, A.P.; Smith, R.H. CABI PDF

4 

Rodents as Carriers of Disease

S.A. Battersby

Robens Centre for Public and Environmental Health and Environmental

Regulatory Research Group, University of Surrey, Guildford, UK

Introduction

In the human mind, it seems, rodents have always been associated with disease. This no doubt is because of the association, over the centuries, of rats with bubonic plague and the ‘Black Death’, which was one of the deadliest pandemics in human history and peaked in Europe in the mid14th century. The Black Death is widely thought to have been an outbreak of ­bubonic plague that transmuted into the pneumonic form. This disease led to the death of nearly a third of the human population, and in some parts of the world it is still causing illness and death (Keeling and

Gilligan, 2000). As a result, the disease left an indelible mark on the development and social history of Europe. Its effects can be seen in literary references, including the poem by Robert Browning of the Pied

Piper of Hameln, which came from a much older legend in Germany concerning the disappearance or death of a great many children from the town. Although not as closely associated with plague as rats, the house mouse is still an unwelcome pest in any household, and it carries with it the social stigma of lack of hygiene, lack of cleanliness and squalor and, as this chapter shows, is more than just a ‘nuisance’.

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6: Control Methods: Chemical

Buckle, A.P.; Smith, R.H. CABI PDF

6 

1

Control Methods: Chemical

A.P. Buckle1 and C.T. Eason2

School of Biological Sciences, University of Reading, Reading,

UK; 2Centre of Wildlife Management and Conservation,

Lincoln University, Lincoln, New Zealand

Introduction

The benefits of non-chemical methods of

­rodent control are increasingly recognized

(Chapter 5). In particular, the role of environmental characteristics, and their possible modification, in the prevention of rodent infestation is well established (Lambert et al.,

2008). Nonetheless, lethal chemical agents – rodenticides – are presently the mainstay of all practical rodent-control programmes that involve the removal of extant infestations. This is true in both urban and agricultural environments and in conservation

(Chapter 18), and this situation will r­ emain for the foreseeable future. The reasons for this are the great strides towards the i­ ncreased safety of rodenticides made with the introduction of the anticoagulants  in the  early

1950s, and the excellent cost-effectiveness of currently available compounds (Hadler and Buckle, 1992).

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7: The Laboratory Evaluation of Rodenticides

Buckle, A.P.; Smith, R.H. CABI PDF

7 

The Laboratory Evaluation of Rodenticides

C.V. Prescott and R.A. Johnson

School of Biological Sciences, University of Reading, Reading, UK

Introduction

Rodenticides are chemical substances used for killing rodent pests (generally through ingestion). The most important features of a rodenticide that contribute to its performance are its toxicity and palatability, both of which are largely assessed in the laboratory.

Much of the considerable effort involving the laboratory evaluation of rodenticides is aimed at meeting the increasing demands of various regulatory bodies. The cornerstone of rodenticide regulation is registration, and the basic data requirements needed to achieve registration (i.e. specifications, efficacy and toxicology) are now largely standardized. Rodenticide registration in any particular country varies in complexity depending on the facilities and expertise available. In most developed countries, comprehensive registration schemes are enforced and this is reflected in the availability of appropriate documentation. In the

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2: Commensal Rodents

Buckle, A.P.; Smith, R.H. CABI PDF

2 

Commensal Rodents

M. Lund

Formerly of Danish Pest Infestation Laboratory,

Institute of Integrated Pest Management, Slagelse, Denmark

Introduction and Economic Importance

The damage caused by field rodents may sometimes be estimated roughly for local districts where a measurable proportion of various crops is destroyed by the rodents

(see Singleton et al., 1999). Commensal rodent damage is more difficult to assess, primarily because so many different items can be involved and rats and mice can invade almost any type of structure. In certain parts of the world, damage may begin with the crop in the field, as with the house mouse in

Australia’s wheat-growing areas and the roof rat on sugarcane, rice, wheat, coconuts, cocoa and other tropical crops (Table 2.1). In industrially developed countries with an overproduction of most crops and adequate storage facilities, commensal rodents are controlled primarily for hygienic and public health reasons, and only secondarily because of the damage inflicted on stored crops or other food and materials. The opposite is true for most countries in subtropical or tropical regions. Here, food shortage is often a recurring threat to human populations and the damage caused by commensal rodents to stored crops – or in certain situations to field crops – can make the difference between life and death

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Cab International (154)
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6 Weather Variability, Ecological Processes, and Optimization of Soil Micro-environment for Rangeland Restoration

Monaco, T.A., Editor CAB International PDF

6

Weather Variability, Ecological

Processes, and Optimization of

Soil Micro-environment for

Rangeland Restoration

Stuart P. Hardegree, Jaepil Cho, and

Jeanne M. Schneider

US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, USA

Introduction

Precipitation, solar radiation, wind speed, air temperature, and humidity are principal drivers controlling energy and water flux in plant communities. Climate is defined as the long-term average representation of these variables, and their seasonal pattern.

Rangelands are generally characterized by an arid or semi-arid climate with plant communities dominated by grassland, shrubsteppe, and savanna vegetation. Gross climatic variability generally determines the suitability of both native and introduced plant materials for rangeland restoration and rehabilitation (Shown et al., 1969; Shiflet,

1994; Barbour and Billings, 2000; Vogel et al., 2005; USDA, 2006). Unfortunately, the micro-environmental requirements for germination, emergence, and seedling establishment are much more restrictive than the longer term climatic requirements for maintenance of mature plant communities

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5 Invasive Plant Impacts on Soil Properties, Nutrient Cycling, and Microbial Communities

Monaco, T.A., Editor CAB International PDF

5

Invasive Plant Impacts on Soil

Properties, Nutrient Cycling, and

Microbial Communities

Thomas A. Grant III and Mark W. Paschke

Department of Forest, Rangeland, and Watershed Stewardship,

Colorado State University, USA

Introduction

Prior to the 19th century biological invasions were probably infrequent, natural events that contributed to a diverse and ever evolving patchwork of species and ecosystems. The dramatic increase in the human population and our influence over the earth’s biotic and abiotic systems has created a world that is dominated by the effects of humans (Vitousek et al., 1997). In general, humans have rapidly increased the movement of flora and fauna across what were once natural barriers to migration or survival and the consequences are now termed ‘biological invasions’ (Elton, 1958).

All organisms influence and modify their environment, whether through competitive interactions that alter species composition, the addition or removal of resources, or the transformation of habitat and large-scale ecosystem processes. To successfully manage invasive species, it is critical that we understand how these species interact and modify their novel environment and use this knowledge to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of management practices. This chapter will specifically address the impacts of invasive plants on the soil, including the physical and chemical composition of soil, litter decomposition and biogeochemical cycling of nutrients, and soil microbial communities. The primary emphasis will focus on the impacts of invasive species on these systems and utilizing this knowledge

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7 The Effects of Plant-Soil Feedbacks on Invasive Plants: Mechanisms and Potential Management Options

Monaco, T.A., Editor CAB International PDF

7

The Effects of Plant–Soil

Feedbacks on Invasive Plants:

Mechanisms and Potential

Management Options

Valerie T. Eviner1 and Christine V. Hawkes2

1

2

Department of Plant Sciences, University of California, USA

Section of Integrative Biology, The University of Texas, USA

Introduction

There are countless examples of management projects that have attempted to decrease or eradicate invasive species at a site, only to have them rapidly recolonize within a few years. While this is often attributed to reinvasion through propagules remaining at the site, or high propagule pressure from the surrounding landscape (Leung et al., 2004;

Lockwood et al., 2005), this also may be due to invasive species changing site conditions to favor conspecifics over native species.

Many studies have documented that invasive plants can impact numerous soil properties and processes (Leffler and Ryel, Chapter 4, this volume; Ehrenfeld, 2010), and that invader impacts on soil can influence competitive dynamics between plant species, often favoring the invaders (Callaway and

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3 Land-use Legacy Effects of Cultivation on Ecological Processes

Monaco, T.A., Editor CAB International PDF

3

Land-use Legacy Effects of

Cultivation on Ecological

Processes

Lesley R. Morris

US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Utah

State University, USA

Introduction

Land-use legacies are long-lasting changes in ecosystems following human utilization of resources. Cultivation for crop production is known worldwide for creating land-use legacies that can persist for decades, centuries, and even millennia (Foster et al.,

2003; McLauchlan, 2006). These legacies are important because they represent fundamental changes in basic ecosystem processes such as plant species reproduction and colonization, soil nutrient cycling and availability, and soil water movement and availability. When these basic processes are interrupted, old fields can become more difficult to manage and potentially impossible to restore to the pre-disturbance native plant community. Cultivation (plowing, seeding, and harvesting a crop annually) involves both soil disturbance and the sowing and harvesting of the intended crop.

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4 Resource Pool Dynamics: Conditions That Regulate Species Interactions and Dominance

Monaco, T.A., Editor CAB International PDF

4

Resource Pool Dynamics:

Conditions That Regulate Species

Interactions and Dominance

A. Joshua Leffler1 and Ronald J. Ryel2

1

US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, USA

Department of Wildland Resources and the Ecology Center, Utah

State University, USA

2

Introduction

A primary obstacle in the restoration of native plant communities dominated by invasive exotic species is the limited capacity managers have to influence ecological processes that perpetuate the undesired condition. Although much attention has been given to understanding how disturbances lead to invasion (Sher and Hyatt,

1999; Davis et al., 2000; Davis and Pelsor,

2001), the physiological and morphological differences between invasive and noninvasive plant species (Pyšek and Richardson, 2007), the existence of multiple stable ecosystem states and the transitions among them (Sutherland, 1974; Westoby et al.,

1989; Briske et al., 2003), and feedbacks that keep invasive plants entrenched on the landscape (Schlesinger et al., 1990;

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Berrett Koehler Publishers (22)
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9 Security and Privacy in an Era of Ubiquitous Connectivity

Wadhwa, Vivek; Salkever, Alex Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

In an episode of the popular TV series Homeland, Vice President William Walden is killed by a terrorist who hacked into Walden’s heart pacemaker. The hacker raises Walden’s heart rate, pushing him into a serious, inevitable cardiac arrest. Walden’s pacemaker had been connected to the Internet so that his doctors could monitor his health. That was the fatal mistake. Viewers watched in shock and disbelief, but this assassination plot seemingly out of science fiction was actually not that far-fetched.

These days, many complicated, critically important medical devices include onboard computers and wireless connectivity. Insulin pumps, glucose monitors, and defibrillators have all joined the Internet of Things. Every year at security conferences, hackers are demonstrating new ways to compromise the devices we rely on to keep us alive. Former Vice President Dick Cheney famously asked his doctors to disable the wireless connectivity of the pacemaker embedded in his chest. “It seemed to me to be a bad idea for the vice president to have a device that maybe somebody on a rope line or in the next hotel room or downstairs might be able to get into—hack into,” Cheney’s cardiologist, Jonathan Reiner of George Washington University Hospital in Washington, D.C., told 60 Minutes in an interview in October 2013.1

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5 The Amazing and Scary Rise of Artificial Intelligence

Wadhwa, Vivek; Salkever, Alex Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

Many of us with iPhones talk to Siri, the iPhone’s artificially intelligent assistant. Siri can answer many basic questions asked verbally in plain English. She (or, optionally, he) can, for example, tell you today’s date; when the next San Francisco Giant’s baseball game will take place; and where the nearest pizza restaurant is located. But, though Siri appears clever, she has obvious weaknesses. Unless you tell her the name of your mother or indicate the relationship specifically in Apple’s contact app, Siri will have no idea who your mother is, and so can’t respond to your request to call your mother. That’s hardly intelligent for someone who reads, and could potentially comprehend, every e-mail I send, every phone call I make, and every text I send. Siri also cannot tell you the best route to take in order to arrive home faster and avoid traffic.

That’s OK. Siri is undeniably useful despite her limitations. No longer do I need to tap into a keyboard to find the nearest service station or to recall what date Mother’s Day falls on. And Siri can remember all the pizza restaurants in Oakland, recall the winning and losing pitcher in any of last night’s baseball games, and tell me when the next episode of my favorite TV show will air.

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11 Designer Genes, the Bacteria in Our Guts, and Precision Medicine

Wadhwa, Vivek; Salkever, Alex Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

In the near future, we will routinely have our genetic material analyzed; late in the next decade, we will be able to download and “print” at home medicines, tissues, and bacteria custom designed to suit our DNA and keep us healthy. In short, we will all be biohackers and amateur geneticists, able to understand how our genes work and how to fix them. That’s because these technologies are moving along the exponential technology curve.

Scientists published the first draft analysis of the human genome in 2001. The effort to sequence a human genome was a long and costly one. Started by the government-funded Human Genome Project and later augmented by Celera Genomics and its noted scientist CEO, Craig Venter, the sequencing spanned more than a decade and cost nearly $3 billion. Today, numerous companies are able to completely sequence your DNA for around $1,000, in less than three days. There are even venture-backed companies, such as 23andMe, that sequence parts of human DNA for consumers, without any doctor participation or prescription, for as little as $199.

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6 Remaking Education with Avatars and A.I.

Wadhwa, Vivek; Salkever, Alex Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

Let’s imagine that I am a fourteen-year-old boy. (Some of us never really grow up!) I am sitting in class, feeling sleepy (as always). My eyes droop. It’s after lunch, and I would dearly like to take a nap, but naps are not in the curriculum. The teacher rambles on. Or the video rambles on. Or the pages of the book I am trying to read float together. I am fighting to retain the information, drifting in and out. What did I just learn? I don’t entirely remember. This lesson is boring. Or it’s too hard to comprehend. Or it’s taught in a way that seems strange to me. I want to learn, but I know that I won’t remember half of this information. Worst of all, I can’t hit the replay button. Now the bell rings, and my time has gone. The information has gone. I’m going to flunk the class, or I’ll have to spend a lot of time catching up on my own.

This isn’t purely imaginary; it is the reality that students in schools everywhere around the world live daily. There are few institutions as inefficient and broken as the traditional education systems of the world, because we treat education as an industrial good, a unit of knowledge served up to the masses in a one-size-fits-all box. We have made some attempts at personalization, but they have remained marginal at best.

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12 Your Own Private Driver: Self-Driving Cars, Trucks, and Planes

Wadhwa, Vivek; Salkever, Alex Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

In a popular children’s book called If I Built a Car, a fanciful fledgling engineer (who is probably about ten) waxes enthusiastically about designing a car that houses an onboard swimming pool, makes milk shakes, and can both fly and dive under water.1 Of course, the car has a robot driver that can take over if the humans need a snooze.

We aren’t getting cars that can make milk shakes or are big enough to house a decent sized swimming pool, and flying cars remain a couple of decades away. But our robot drivers are here.

There are debates in mainstream media over whether driverless cars will ever be adopted and whether we can trust our lives to a machine. A survey by the American Automobile Association in March 2016 revealed that three out of four U.S. drivers would feel “afraid” to ride in self-driving cars, and that just one in five would entrust his or her life to a driverless vehicle.2

When I first encountered the Google car in Mountain View, back in 2014, I had the same doubts. If I had taken the survey, I would have been in the three out of four who are afraid. And then, in July 2016, I took delivery of a new Tesla that had some of these self-driving capabilities.

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