1584 Chapters
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Chapter 1 Number Concepts and Place Value

Juli K. Dixon Solution Tree Press ePub

Number concepts and place value provide the mathematical foundation that all students need for future success in mathematics. Number concepts describe the meaning of numbers and are prerequisite to making sense of operations (addition and subtraction and eventually multiplication and division). Place value involves how numbers are grouped in ones, tens, hundreds, and so on. As you consider these two pillars of mathematics, you will have the opportunity to think about ways in which students develop number sense and build an understanding of place value relationships. You will also learn about student misconceptions, how to facilitate student engagement through meaningful tasks, and ways to address common student errors related to number and place value.

There are several tools that help engage students with meaningful contexts to support their learning of these two concepts. We share these tools throughout the chapter. As you read, it is important to remember that students require time to make sense of number and place value. They benefit from being exposed to a variety of tasks that are conceptually based, grounded in everyday life experiences, and challenging to their present notions about number and place value.

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Chapter 8

Erkens, Cassandra; Schimmer, Tom; Vagle, Nicole Dimich Solution Tree Press PDF



There is growing evidence from international longitudinal studies that clearly suggests noncognitive factors play a critical role in one’s success as a citizen.

—Yong Zhao

While there is no dispute that academic achievement still matters, the focus on noncognitive skills is gaining importance. According to renowned educator and speaker Yong Zhao (2016), “Noncognitive factors such as personality traits, motivation, interpersonal skills, and intrapersonal skills have been found to correlate significantly with educational attainment, workplace productivity, and life earnings”

(p. 4). Social competence—noncognitive skills that include what some refer to as soft skills, social and emotional learning, or global literacy to name a few—now occupies a parallel space in terms of what important outcomes learners are supposed to achieve.

The intent is to create parallel goals of excellence between cognitive skills and social and emotional well-being to help learners in all aspects of their future, not just those related to academics.

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Chapter 6: Parent Involvement

Robert Howell Solution Tree Press ePub

In a perfect world, all children have equal gifts. In a perfect world, all children are healthy and happy. It is not a perfect world. Children need an array of skills, high expectations, and support to be successful. Parents can be Response to Intervention’s greatest ally in this endeavor.

Parents can be challenging. Schools hear from parents who are opinionated, vocal, and determined; schools usually do not hear from parents who are disenfranchised, scared, or indifferent. Both are frustrating. What educators and parents have in common is a desire for children to be successful. While parents are not the educators during the school day, they are the educators during the remaining 16 hours spent at home and in the community. At the district and school levels, an RTI framework must value parent input and engagement. (Throughout this chapter, the word parent implies any caring adult—parent, grandparent, aunt, uncle, or guardian—with a child in the school system who is impacted by Response to Intervention.)

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Part 2 Twelve Grading Strategies that Support Student Learning

Brookhart, Susan M. Solution Tree Press ePub

Individual assignment grades are the “ingredients” on which you base the report card grade. If individual assignment grades are not sound, the final grade won’t be, either. The negative way to say this is “Garbage in, garbage out.” What you should be aiming for is “Good stuff in, good stuff out.” The strategies I will explain in this chapter and the next (outlined in figure 3.2, page 37) will enable you to deliver the good stuff.

Ms. Thomas taught elementary social studies. One day, her students read about different explorers and filled in graphic organizers about the passages they read. They recorded such information as the explorers’ names and dates, where they were from, where they explored, and what they hoped to accomplish (according to the textbook). The principal visited Ms. Thomas’s classroom on a subsequent day and asked some students, “What are you learning?”

“We’re learning this stuff,” one student said, as he pointed to the graphic organizers.

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Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information (INFO)

Richard DuFour Solution Tree Press ePub


When you make an argument for or against something, you try to convince someone that it is right or wrong using reasons and evidence.

Examples: When you make an argument, provide evidence to support your perspective. If your argument is that plants and animals alter their environments to suit their needs, you might provide examples of organisms changing the environment—such as a prairie dog burrowing underground—to support your claim.


A bias is a preference for one thing, outcome, person, or group over another.

Examples: If you are doing an experiment, you might have a bias toward a particular result or outcome. To avoid bias, use objective data sources and set criteria and procedures ahead of time.


Something that is empirical is based on evidence that you can physically see or show.

Examples: When you make a scientific claim, especially about a causal relationship, it is important to use empirical evidence to back it up. When you are defining a design question, make sure it can be tested in an empirical way.

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