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Afterword

Simms, Julia A.; Marzano, Robert J. Solution Tree Press PDF

Afterword

The New Art and Science of Teaching (Marzano, 2017) presents a comprehensive model of teaching that organizes all or most of the instructional strategies available to teachers. The science reference is predicated on the fact that these strategies are founded on decades of research and theory and contribute to effective teaching.

The art component indicates that factors other than research are attributed to student learning, such as which strategies are used together and how teachers use them for express purposes. This analogy can help elucidate this point:

Instructional strategies are best likened to techniques an artist might develop and refine over years of practice. The artist then uses these techniques to create works that are not only unique and complex but elegantly focused. The more skill the artist exhibits with available techniques, the better his or her creations. Likewise, the more skill the classroom teacher has with the instructional strategies that research and theory have uncovered over the decades, the better the teacher will be able to create lessons that optimize student learning. (Marzano, 2017 p.2)

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Appendix D

Simms, Julia A.; Marzano, Robert J. Solution Tree Press PDF

Appendix D

List of Figures and Tables

Visit go.SolutionTree.com/instruction for free reproducible versions of figures and tables with an asterisk.

Figure I.1: The teaching and learning progression .

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Table I.1: Teacher Actions and Student Mental States and Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

Table I.2: Design Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Table I.3: Elements Within the Ten Design Areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

Figure I.2: General format of the self-rating scale .

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Table 1.1: Areas of Inquiry for Reading Research During the Cognitive Revolution . . . . . . . 10

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Appendix B

Simms, Julia A.; Marzano, Robert J. Solution Tree Press PDF

Appendix B

Orthography Exercises

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170

REPRODUCIBLE

Exercise 1: Spelling English Phonemes

1. How many ways are there to spell the /sh/ sound in English?

Most people can easily name several, such as sh (as in ship), ti (as in motion), and ch (as in chef).

However, the same people can read ocean, social, special, tension, session, mission, sure, and conscience even though they didn’t list ce, ci, si, ssi, s, or sci as spellings for the /sh/ sound. They “just know” how to pronounce those words because they’ve seen them in print and read them over and over and over again during the course of their reading lives.

2. How many ways are there to spell the short /ĕ/ sound in English?

Again, most people can list several: e (as in bed), ie (as in friend), and ea (as in bread). But without consciously being aware that the /ĕ/ sound can also appear as ae, ai, ay, ei, u, a, and eo, the same people can still read and properly pronounce aesthetic, said, says, heifer, bury, many, and leopard.

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Appendix C

Simms, Julia A.; Marzano, Robert J. Solution Tree Press PDF

Appendix C

Reading in the Disciplines

Reading in the content areas (particularly social studies, science, and mathematics) requires a nuanced approach to comprehension. This is because experts in different disciplines approach texts differently (Shanahan,

Shanahan, & Misischia, 2006). Knowing how experts in a specific discipline think about and interact with texts can help students better comprehend texts in that content area. Cynthia Shanahan (2017) explains:

Expert readers read within a disciplinary framework. It is not simply a matter of calling on topic knowledge. Rather, expert readers use disciplinary knowledge to guide their reading

—knowledge of the way individuals create, represent, and evaluate information—and this knowledge can guide reading even when topic knowledge is low. (p. 493)

Table C.1 (page 178) summarizes how people typically create, represent, and evaluate information in social studies, science, and mathematics.

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Appendix A

Simms, Julia A.; Marzano, Robert J. Solution Tree Press PDF

Appendix A

Framework Overview

As explained in the introduction, The New Art and Science of Teaching framework involves three overarching categories—(1) feedback, (2) content, and (3) context. These categories contain the ten design areas, each of which is associated with a specific teacher action, desired student mental states and processes, and a design question to help teachers plan units and lessons within those units. The forty-three individual elements of the model reside within the design areas. Figure A.1 (page 166) presents a comprehensive list of the overarching categories, design areas, teacher actions, desired student mental states and processes, design questions, and elements.

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Content

Feedback

Category

When content is new, students understand which parts are important and how the parts fit together.

After teachers present new content, students deepen their understanding and develop fluency in skills and processes.

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