2849 Chapters
Medium 9780253211859

Valuation and Experimental Knowledge (1922)

LARRY A HICKMAN Indiana University Press ePub

Plato long ago called notice to the disadvantage of written discussion as compared with oral. The printed page does not respond to questions addressed it. It will not share in conversation. But there is a disadvantage for the writer as well as for the reader. He is never quite free in discussing the same topic again; he is committed and hence compromised. Even if he can escape the vanity of consistency, it may not be altogether easy to reapproach the subject-matter wholly on its own account. What is written may have called out comments and criticisms which need a reply; thus indirectly one gets called away from the subject to discussion of what one has previously thought and said about it.

These remarks are preliminary to a consideration of the relation of value to judgment, or the problem of knowing values. In the embarrassment of prior committal1 and of various comments and criticisms, mostly unfavorable, I shall do what I can to stick to the subject on its own merits, inevitably repeating some things which I have said before, while modifying and expanding the discussion so as to give heed to the main contentions of my critics. The consistency of what is said here with what was said in the earlier discussion, I shall for the most part leave to the reader to pass upon, in case he takes an interest in that not very interesting topic.

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Medium 9781936763757

Chapter 3 Concept Mapping

James H. Stronge Solution Tree Press ePub

Chapter 3

Concept Mapping

For both young and old learners, the adage that a picture paints a thousand words holds true. A picture—a graph, chart, map, or other pictorial representation—does more readily convey meaning than words can. As suggested by figure 3.1 (page 24), complex concepts—and connections among concepts—are easier to understand when one can see the ideas and their relationships to one another. While this concept map may not be simple, imagine what it would be like to explain the concepts and connections presented here in words alone. Concept maps simplify complex and nuanced concepts.

According to Hattie (2009),

Concept mapping involves the development of graphical representations of the conceptual structure of the content to be learnt…. Concept mapping can assist in synthesizing and identifying the major ideas, themes, and interrelationships—particularly for the learners who do not have these organizing and synthesizing skills. (p. 168)

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Medium 9781932127157

Chapter 5: Motivating the Unmotivated

Crystal Kuykendall Solution Tree Press ePub

All children want to learn and can learn. . . .

—Collins, Tamarkin, and Haley, 1990

The previous chapters provide insight into and information for facilitating changes in the attitudes, behaviors, and structure of our schools. This chapter goes a step further. It examines the lack of motivation—real and perceived—among Black and Hispanic students. Much has been said about this lack of motivation. It is unfortunate, but many youths who exhibit low motivation may fail to reach their full potential not because they do not want to learn, but because it is impossible for them to learn. Many are put in situations in which they cannot learn, or are responding to the behavior and low expectations of those around them. This chapter should excite teachers about the role they can play in motivating Black and Hispanic children.

Black and Hispanic youth will respond positively to a learning environment conducive to school success. When teachers allow the restraints of low expectations, inappropriate curriculum, incongruent teaching styles, ability grouping, and test bias to determine what they do and how they motivate students, they can be sure of at least one thing: neither teacher nor student will be successful. When teachers are not imaginative or inspired, they are less likely to show the creativity and excitement in the classroom that generate excitement in their learners. As schools compete for children’s time and attention with television, movies, mass media, and the Internet, they must reassert their primary responsibility for the development of young people’s intelligence and character.

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Medium 9781935542575

3. The Student as Scribe

Alan November Solution Tree Press ePub

In any given class, can you count on all students to take good notes? Do some students struggle in a frantic attempt to record every detail, or seem to draw a blank when identifying the important information in new material? Darren Kuropatwa, a math teacher from McIntyre Collegiate High School in Winnipeg, Manitoba, has developed a solution to this common classroom problem. In his daily scribe model, students produce shared notes. While all the students can take their own notes, the student scribe collects, organizes, and edits a draft of the notes. Darren works with that student to ensure that the details are accurate, and then moves the approved notes to the class blog for use by all students. The Digital Learning Farm job of student scribe follows this same model.

The student scribe work represents low-hanging fruit for educators and students alike. There is very little technology to learn; student scribes can do their work in Google Docs or any of a wide range of online word processing programs, and teachers need only a simple website where they can post the notes for review. Teachers who don't have a class website can even print and distribute hard copies of the notes to the class. In any form, the process of creating and publishing these shared notes offers students a number of benefits. They become better at synthesizing informationinto ideas, and they learn important skills in collaborating, communicating, organizing, writing, and critical thinking. Best of all, the work can be a lot of fun for the teacher and students alike.

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Medium 9781935543220

Defusing Strategies

Mendler, Allen N.; Mendler, Brian D. Solution Tree Press ePub





When students are behaving in a way that interrupts the teaching and learning process, actions need to be taken to effectively end the problem moment. Using defusing strategies increases the likelihood that the problem will end, while still keeping the teacher in control. In this section, we look at the goals of defusing, basic defusing skills, and a defusing activity with specific statements that will help defuse tension with tough kids in the moment. We will also provide additional steps that may be necessary when dealing with the rest of the class and show you specifically how to follow up with difficult students.

There are five goals that are helpful to keep in mind when defusing a power struggle: (1) treat students with dignity, (2) preserve dignity for yourself, (3) keep the student in class and get back to teaching, (4) become a next-to-last-word person, and (5) teach an alternative to aggression.

It is hard to treat students with dignity when they behave unacceptably. A true professional educator responds to displays of misbehavior with disapproval while still respecting the student. We believe that part of our job is to treat all students with dignity and respect. To do less invites hostility and retaliation. Remember, tough kids have tenure. If they leave feeling humiliated, they will be back to get even tomorrow!

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