Results for: “Education”
|Paul Budra||Indiana University Press||ePub|
C. W. MARSHALL AND TIFFANY POTTER
There is a widespread sense that popular media are consumed by people with inadequate education and no ideas of their own: “the young, the ignorant, and the idle.” Social conservatives argue for the “danger” of media that engage in “scandal” and “smuttiness” that “in effect degrade human nature.” Given, however, that the first quotation is from Samuel Johnson’s 1750 discussion of the new genre of the English novel, and the second from Jeremy Collier’s 1698 attack on popular theatrical productions,1 modern objections to television’s supposed frivolousness seem rather benign. Every new art form seems to struggle first with early perceptions of its failure to live up to the standards of existing forms, and then with arguments that excessive attention to such forms will contribute to the lowering of intellectual and social standards.
As J. Paul Hunter notes of the early novel, “[L]iterary protectionists had, early on, begun to worry about competition from the popular culture that novels represented” (26). That protectionism continues with a vengeance in many academic institutions. This chapter will argue that television occupies a similar place in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries: a narrative experience shared by people of all classes and domestic geographies (and often international ones too, in the case of American television). Janet Wasko is right when she asserts that television is “a storyteller, if not THE storyteller for [our] society. . . . television inevitably is a fund of values, ideals, morals, and ethical standards. In other words, television is an ideological source that cannot be overlooked in modern societies” (3). Less convincing, however, is her repetition of old arguments that offer justification of the medium as a stepping-stone to ostensibly real literature: “Despite disparaging comments about television’s impact on print culture, some would point out that TV may serve as a catalyst for reading, as viewers may follow up on TV programs by getting books on the same subjects or reading authors whose work was adapted for the programs” (4). This perspective on television (“The more you know . . .”) denies television’s centrality as cultural discourse, rendering it secondary to print even in the introduction to a book titled A Companion to Television. Our interest in this chapter is not to pursue the reductive question “Is television literature?” It is, rather, to establish that methodologies of literary studies can be used to illuminate televisual narrative, and thus that television is a mode that contributes powerfully to the long history of the description and recreation of culture for audience consumption.See All Chapters
|Teacher Education and Practice||Rowman & Littlefield Publishers||ePub|
Teaching Science toEnglish Language Learners
A Study of Preservice Teacher Preparation
Trish Stoddart and Eduardo Mosqueda
ABSTRACT: English language learner (ELL) students are the fastest-growing group in the K–6 student population and among the lowest achieving in STEM subjects. They are also the least likely to be taught by a qualified science teacher. The majority of K–6 teachers do not feel prepared to teach ELL students, and many preservice teacher education programs do not provide adequate preparation in effective teaching methods for ELL students. The authors describe the findings of research on the ESTELL project, which developed and implemented a teacher education program to prepare preservice teachers to teach science to K–6 ELL students. The findings demonstrate that an ELL-focused science methods course and student teaching practicum can significantly increase novice teachers’ knowledge of and confidence in using effective ELL science teaching methods.See All Chapters
|Tom Hierck||Solution Tree Press|
CONNECTION TO THE
Key 7: Connection to the Schoolwide System
Systems are in place to ensure that all other keys align with schoolwide expectations. The systems are secure enough to withstand staff changes, yet flexible enough to accommodate changes in situations and circumstances as they arise.
The previous chapters have covered a lot of ground and presented many opportunities for teachers to create positive learning environments in their classrooms.
Here is what we have examined thus far.
Teachers should set and support high expectations for student behavior and articulate a focused set of common expectations.
Teachers should deliver targeted instruction to all students.
Teachers should positively reinforce and recognize appropriate behaviors when displayed by students.
Teachers should use data as evidence for adjusting, modifying, or reteaching specific skills. The focus is on learning, not earning.See All Chapters
|James A Bellanca||Solution Tree Press||ePub|
A growing number of voices within and outside the educational establishment are calling for an enhanced emphasis on “21st century outcomes”1 that include “the knowledge, skill and expertise students should master to succeed in work and life in the 21st century” (Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2009, p. 2). This call for a comprehensive focus on 21st century outcomes raises two important and practical questions for educators to ask:
1. How might we effectively infuse these outcomes into an already over-crowded curriculum?
2. Which current educational practices and school structures are likely to support the attainment of 21st century outcomes, and which may inhibit it?
To answer, we propose a framework for supporting 21st century learning that presents a systemic approach to educational reform, adapted from one found in Schooling by Design (Wiggins & McTighe, 2007). Figure 7.1 (page 150) shows a graphic representation of this framework, with essential questions linked to its five major, interrelated components: (1) the mission of schooling, (2) principles of learning, (3) a curriculum and assessment system, (4) instructional programs and practices, and (5) systemic support factors. We will examine each of these components and suggest ways that schools and districts can transform themselves to implement a viable approach to teaching and learning that results in 21st century skills acquisition for all students.See All Chapters
|Bruce Frey||O'Reilly Media||ePub|
Many of us instinctively trust that things that have been around a long time are likely to be around a lot longer, and things that haven't, aren't. The formalization of this heuristic is known as Gott's Principle, and the math is easy to do.
Physicist J. Richard Gott III has so far correctly predicted when the Berlin Wall would fall and calculated the duration of 44 Broadway shows.1 Controversially, he has predicted that the human race will probably exist between 5,100 and 7.8 million more years, but no longer. He argues that this is a good reason to create self-sustaining space colonies: if the human race puts some eggs in other nests, we might extend the life span of our species in case of an asteroid strike or nuclear war on the home planet.2
Gott believes that his simple calculations can be extended to almost anything at all, within certain parameters. To predict how long something will be around by using these calculations, all you need to know is how long it has been around already.See All Chapters