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Appendix F

Sharroky Hollie, Foreword by Eugenia Mora-Flores, Ph.D. Shell Education PDF

Resources for Teachers



Suggested Writing Activities

Acrostics: Poems created by writing a name or concept down the left side of a page. For each letter, write a word or phrase that describes the name or concept to you.

Alternative Endings: Students develop a new ending for a written or oral story.

Brainstorming: Students are given a topic that they discuss with peers in a small group. They use the language that is most comfortable for them. As ideas arise, students record the ideas in standard-language form. The teacher facilitates a whole‑group discussion of the topic, using standard language.

Character Portraits: Concentrating on the roles of specific characters, students create pictures of the characters and describe how they fit into the story.

Character Profiles: Students develop a short description of a character, using nonstandard language and/or standard language.

Culture Bits: Short bits of cultural information are provided to students at the beginning, the middle, or the end of class.

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6 Differentiating in Response to Student Interest

David A. Sousa Solution Tree Press ePub

The priority among most teachers seems to be to cover as much information as possible without regard to whether students are becoming interested in learning. . . . Despite our relatively heavy investment in education as a nation, we still do not seem to realize that teaching which does not consider the students’ priorities is useless. It is wasteful to teach someone who is not interested and so is not motivated. . . . It is not enough for information to be clear and rational; it also has to be interesting. Learning has to be engaging and rewarding for students to learn.

—Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, Kevin Rathunde, and Samuel Whalen, Talented
Teenagers: The Roots of Success and Failure

At a time in our educational history when teaching seems equated with preparation for standardized tests, it would be easy to conclude that student interests have no place in the classroom, unless a student happens to be interested in some portion of the prescribed agenda. Research, our own personal experience, and classroom observation indicate, however, that student interests are anything but tangential to learning. They are conduits to motivation, relevance, and understanding. They even affect whether a struggling student will remain in school or become one of the increasing number of dropouts. A 2006 study asked nearly five hundred adolescents in twenty-five different cities, suburbs, and small towns why they left school (Bridgeland, DiIulio, & Morison, 2006). Although there are numerous reasons why students decide to drop out of school, 47 percent of the students surveyed said the main and most frequently cited reason they dropped out of school was that they did not find their classes interesting (see fig. 6.1, page 112). That is one powerful message from students to educators that cannot be ignored. And yet, many teachers do largely ignore student interests, failing to link what students care about with the curriculum they feel responsible to teach.

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Chapter 4: Response Strategies

Robert J. Marzano Marzano Research ePub

Every question a teacher asks is designed to elicit a response from students. The process by which students respond should not be left up to chance or expediency. Rather, teachers should provide structured activities that maximize the usefulness of students’ responses. Teachers can think of response strategies as falling into two categories: (1) strategies to be used when students respond individually and (2) strategies to be used when students respond in groups. Additionally, teachers can use specific strategies to help facilitate productive collaborative work among students.

Individual students often respond to questions that are posed during whole-group discussions or activities. Specific response strategies can allow teachers to call on multiple students for each question, give students the chance to rehearse their responses before being called on, ask students to defend their responses, call on students randomly, ask students to record their responses, or allow students to challenge each other’s responses. Strategies for individual student responses include chaining and voting, paired response, peer instruction, random names, short written responses, and accuracy checks.

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Appendix B Standards for Mathematical Practice

Kanold, Timothy D. Solution Tree Press ePub


Source: NGA & CCSSO, 2010, pp. 6–8. © Copyright 2010. National Governors Association Center for Best Practices and Council of Chief State School Officers. All rights reserved. Used with permission.

The Standards for Mathematical Practice describe varieties of expertise that mathematics educators at all levels should seek to develop in their students. These practices rest on important “processes and proficiencies” with longstanding importance in mathematics education. The first of these are the NCTM process standards of problem solving, reasoning and proof, communication, representation, and connections. The second are the strands of mathematical proficiency specified in the National Research Council’s report Adding It Up: adaptive reasoning, strategic competence, conceptual understanding (comprehension of mathematical concepts, operations and relations), procedural fluency (skill in carrying out procedures flexibly, accurately, efficiently and appropriately), and productive disposition (habitual inclination to see mathematics as sensible, useful, and worthwhile, coupled with a belief in diligence and one’s own efficacy).

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3 Voice of the Gutter: Comics in the Academy / Tanis MacDonald

Paul Budra Indiana University Press ePub



In none of the books on comics I have looked into . . . have I come on any real attempt to understand comic books: to define the form, midway between icon and story; to distinguish the subtypes. . . . It would not take someone with the talents of an Aristotle, but merely with his method, to ask the rewarding questions about this kind of literature that he once asked about an equally popular and bloody genre: what are its causes and its natural form?



[C]omics are a wandering variable, and can be approached from many perspectives. The restless, polysemiotic character of the form allows for the continual rewriting of its grammar; each succeeding page need not function in the exact same way as its predecessor. The relationship between the various elements of comics (images, words, symbols) resists easy formulation. The critical reading of comics . . . involves a tug-of-war between conflicting impulses: on the one hand, the nigh-on irresistible urge to codify the workings of the form; on the other, a continual delight in the form’s ability to frustrate any airtight analytical scheme.

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