4622 Chapters
Medium 9780253115560

8. A Few Observations on Collegial Administration

Herman B Wells Indiana University Press ePub

UNIVERSITIES tend to be structural enigmas to the general public and, surprisingly, to a not inconsiderable number of faculty members, students, and staff. Beyond the primary units of departments and schools, lines and areas of authority are familiar to junior and senior administrators, whose business it is to know them, but for others the locations of decision making are often unclear, and the organizational relationships among faculty, administration and governing board are obscure and without parallel in their experience. Since the nature of what is being administered is an essential background for understanding its administration, some comments on the anatomy of a university may be in order.

A university or college has a structural order all its own. That it is typically incorporated by legal charter in a given state does not mean that it has the structure of the typical business corporation. Quite the contrary is the case. A university is an association of professional scholars and learners; its organization and administration would be more nearly analogous to that of the professional association found in a large law firm or in a medical group practice than in the business corporation. For reasons founded in long experience and tradition, the right to hire and fire in a university is quite limited and circumscribed, subject to the direction of the professional staff and to the implementation, if approved, by the trustees. A university does not exist to make profit but rather to teach and to enhance scholarship and learning. A university, of course, is expected in this modern day to make the expertise of its faculty—when needed and when possible to do so—available to solve immediate, emerging problems of society, but problem solving for society is not the first priority of its existence. The university is therefore an organization designed to take the resources made available to it and, rather than hoard them, use them as effectively as possible for achieving its central purpose.

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Medium 9781475824483

Enhancing Math Fact Fluency via Taped Problems in Intact Second- and Fourth-Grade Classrooms

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers PDF

Enhancing Math Fact Fluency via Taped Problems in

Intact Second- and

Fourth-Grade Classrooms

Daniel F. McCleary

Kathleen B. Aspiranti

Christopher H. Skinner

Lisa N. Foster

Elisa Luna

Katrina Murray

Sara J. McCane-Bowling

Amanda Woody

ABSTRACT: Researchers conducted two studies—one in an urban fourth-grade classroom and one in a rural second-grade classroom—designed to evaluate the effects of a taped-problems intervention on addition and multiplication fact fluency. Both studies were initiated by educators, and both employed across-tasks, multiple-baseline designs. Data from the second-grade class suggest that the procedure was effective, but increasing baseline-phase data hindered interpretation.

Data from the fourth-grade class provide clearer support that the intervention increased fluency; however, over time this class’s improvements ceased, and its performance became highly variable. Consequently, the taped-problems intervention was supplemented with an interdependent group-oriented reward, and the class average reached mastery criteria. Between the two studies, most students increased their fluency, and these increases were maintained; however, some students showed no gains. Discussion focuses on limitations and directions for future applied and theoretical research.

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Medium 9781475816761

A History of Sex Education in the United States Since 1900

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Valerie J. Huber

Michael W. Firmin

ABSTRACT: We provide a historical perspective toward the current public school practices of American sex education. The primary time frames include the progressive era (1880–1920), intermediate era (1920–1960), the sexual revolution era (1960s and 1970s), and the modern sex education era (1980s to the present). In each period, we highlight key developments that affect educators’ current decision making as public sex education continues to develop and morph in the context of contemporary society. We show that an apt understanding of sex education’s past is critical for making prudent decisions about its future.

The historical record of sex education in American public schools is relatively short. Developments after 1900 were the emphasis in this study, but a brief examination of events prior to 1900 provided an important foundation. Cultural and moral gatekeepers made sexual experimentation a forbidden activity during early American history, but those gates were forced open by a series of events after the turn of the 20th century.

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Medium 9781475811568

Spirituality, School Leadership, and Islam

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

ANISH SAYANI

ABSTRACT: This article begins with two nonfiction narratives that are used throughout the article to defend and nuance the rationale for educational leaders to create dialogical spaces in schools for students to explore their spiritualities. The reasons for the inclusion of spirituality in schools are clustered into four categories for the sake of coherence: (1) moral vision, (2) linked aims and purposes, (3) meaning system, and (4) presence. It is argued that spirituality for some is inextricably connected to religion, which can pose a problem for educators and educational leaders, especially if the religion, such as Islam, is incorrectly associated with violence and terrorism. Finally misconceptions of Islam are addressed and ways are suggested that educational leaders can engage both Muslim and non-Muslim students in a meaningful dialogue about a spirituality rooted in Islam.

Two years ago, my wife, son, and I took 19 grade 12 students on a 3-day leadership retreat to Azure Lake (a picturesque log-cabin campground outside of Vancouver, British Columbia). After an evening canoeing on the placid waters of Azure Lake, all 22 of us relaxed in the cozy “staff house” cabin. Fragments of conversations hung in spaces that occupied stories from previous nights and previous peoples. Some of my students were in pajamas; others were still in their fleeces and hiking boots. I was dizzy from the carousel of conversations around me. Jennifer resurrected our early morning examination of Alfred Adler's four goals of misbehavior. Stephanie's words of delight for this evening's chicken fajitas collided with Aliya's bilious critique of Britney Spears. Aleem's erudite commentary on the fragile balance between rights and freedoms after September 11 comingled with Lauren's trepidation of leading the group during tomorrow's first morning activity. Words of all dimensions rained/reigned around us. I requested silence. When all we heard was the crackle of the fire, I began, “To end this day, which I must say has been filled with so many personal epiphanies and life's graces, I would like each one of you to share something—anything—that holds some sort of meaning or significance for you. It can be a hope, a request, a wish, a prayer, a story … whatever your heart wants to say. I request that the first person who starts the sharing light his or her candle from the fire; the second person will then light his or her candle from the first person who spoke. We will continue this process until everyone has had a chance to talk.” During the next 2 hours, the space that we shared was pregnant with raw emotions: secrets revealed, hurts exposed, caring manifest, love transparent, and trust apparent. Tears and defenses fell together. Indelibly etched in the hearts of each in that room was the disquietude and inchoateness of absolute acceptance. Acceptance as intense as the armor of nakedness, acceptance of vulnerability. We ended the night by placing a personal scroll beside each person's candle. In respected silence, each individual gifted a unique message of hope to every member in that room. The messages were inscribed anonymously on each person's scroll. After the scroll ceremony, I summoned everyone to bed; it was, after all, approaching 10:30 p.m. My words dissipated before they were airborne. There was, in that room, a sanctity borne from something very deep within us all. Something ineffable had transfixed all my students. They refused to move. As one of my students later wrote, “We couldn't move.” We all sat there in silence for several minutes. I bit my tongue; I swallowed my natural propensity to ask questions and offer analysis. Zara fractured the silence. “That was way spiritual, man!” She started an avalanche of words. Heartfelt musings attempting to describe the “other-worldliness” of their experiences swelled well past midnight. The next day, I asked my students to write down some of their musings.

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Medium 9781475836738

Leadership for Cultural and Language Diversity in the Context of Schools for the Deaf

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

CATHERINE O’BRIEN

KERRY K. ROBINSON

Cultural Leadership in Schools for the Deaf

Leadership for Cultural and Language Diversity in the Context of Schools for the Deaf

ABSTRACT: This study examined the variation in cultural competence among leaders in four different residential schools for the Deaf across the United States. The study explored where leaders fell on the cultural continuum, and how this was reflected in the schools in the way each perceived and validated Deaf culture as well as other cultures present in the schools. This qualitative multi-case ethnographic methodology utilized interviews as primary data sources which were video-taped in order to accurately transcribe them and to score concepts and themes for analysis by grounded theory methodology. The findings highlighted the complexities of culture and the ways that administrators embraced or knowingly or unknowingly overlooked the cultures that the students brought to the schools. Finally, the leadership decisions made by administrators were also tied to their own cultural proficiency.

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