4816 Chapters
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Chapter 2 Motivation in the School Reading Curriculum

Timothy V Rasinski Solution Tree Press ePub

Linda B. Gambrell

It is not enough to teach children to become readers and writers; we want children to leave our schools with the continuing desire to read, write, and learn. Our task is to pursue this vision so that it becomes a reality.

—Carol Minnick Santa

In a perfect world, all our students would be highly motivated to read for pleasure and to acquire information; their motivation and excitement for learning to read as kindergarteners and first graders would continue throughout their lives. Unfortunately, this is not the world we live in. Data from the 2005 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) report revealed that 65 percent of fourth graders did not have reading as a favorite activity, 73 percent did not read frequently for enjoyment, and 59 percent did not believe they learned very much when reading books (Perie, Grigg, & Donahue, 2005). Perhaps more important, the NAEP data revealed that students’ intrinsic motivation to read decreased from 2002 to 2005. According to Guthrie, McRae, and Klauda (2007), “These statistics indicate that a substantial majority of grade four students are not intrinsically motivated to read” (p. 237).

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Chapter 6: Adapting a Traditional Textbook Lesson

r4Educated Solutions Solution Tree Press PDF
Adapting a Traditional Textbook Lesson
A small part of even the most reluctant student wants to learn.— Anonymous

Traditional textbook lessons present several concerns. The lesson format generally lends itself to teacher-centered instruction instead of studentcentered instruction. The content of standard textbook lessons rarely includes examples and problems with the cognitive rigor necessary to prepare students for success—whether success is measured by standardized tests or readiness for post–high school education. Such lessons seldom include strategies for building common background, developing vocabulary, providing comprehensibility, and solving authentic problems in an atmosphere ripe for interaction. Therefore, teachers often face the challenge of adapting traditional lessons to meet the needs of English language learners.Figure 6.1 (pages 110–111) represents what a teacher might see in a traditional textbook lesson in which students will explore line graphs.Tell me and I’ll forget, show me and I may remember, involve me and I’ll understand. See All Chapters
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Chapter 11 Transfluency

Ian Jukes Solution Tree Press ePub

The digital generations use technology as an essential
tool to connect to their culture—the use of tools like
smartphones is not optional for kids today


Learning Attribute 8

Many of the digital generations are transfluent—their visual-spatial skills are so highly evolved that they appear to have cultivated a complete physical interface between their digital and real worlds. Meanwhile, many traditional educators, not to mention young teachers, continue to struggle with the place and purpose of digital technologies in the classroom.

Because of digital bombardment, many of the digital generations have become completely comfortable using a wide range of media and are able to seamlessly shift between their digital and nondigital worlds. They have completely internalized the use of digital tools and, as a result, take them for granted. For them, the Internet is a natural, transparent space, fully integrated into their lives. The new digital landscape does not exist in isolation from the physical world. In fact, it has become such an internalized part of their lives that many of the digital generations actually live a hybrid existence that seamlessly integrates communication, information, and entertainment with social media to create a world that many of the older generations struggle to understand. The digital generations are transfluent—they are able to jump back and forth between the real world and the digital world with ease, and they are able to seamlessly fit the two worlds together through the use of their digital devices.

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Part III: The Skill to Teach

Anthony Muhammad Solution Tree Press ePub





Developing a
Responsive Pedagogy

As to methods, there may be a million and then some, but principles are few. The man who grasps principles can successfully select his own methods.

—Ralph Waldo Emerson


Emerson could have been commenting on our school system in the United States when he wrote those words. Certainly, in education there are a million methods, or so it seems. Principles do often seem few and far between—especially in toxic cultures in which educators are stressed and frustrated and leaders put policy above student needs. As we've discussed in earlier chapters, educators in these schools do not have the will to create positive learning environments for students—they can't achieve the skill component because they do not yet have the will component in place. They do not believe that all students can succeed.

We have argued that in order to achieve success for all students, school cultures must move away from toxicity towards a healthy state in which both staff and students flourish. We have described what toxic and healthy school cultures look like and how the adults within these cultures feel and act. We have identified leadership as a critical issue in creating healthy school cultures—at both an administrative and a classroom level. The other component in a healthy school culture is the skill to teach. Once educators in a school have developed the will to lead, they can begin to work on the skill to teach in a way that is responsive to all students.

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5. The Promise of Jewish Education

Claire Elise Katz Indiana University Press ePub

Train up a child in the way he should go and even when he is old he will not depart from it.

—Talmud: Kiddushin 29a

What then does God do in the fourth quarter?—He sits and instructs the school children, as it is said, Whom shall one teach knowledge, and whom shall one make to understand the message? Them that are weaned from the milk.

—Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Avodah Zarah, 3b (see also
Isaiah 28:9)

In his biography of Emmanuel Levinas, Salomon Malka opens the chapter on Levinas’s years as the director of École Normale Israélite Orientale (ENIO) with the following quote:

After Auschwitz, I had the impression that in taking on the directorship of the École Normale Israélite Orientale I was responding to a historical calling. It was my little secret . . . Probably the naïveté of a young man. I am still mindful and proud of it today.1

His confession echoes Theodor Adorno’s warning twenty years earlier in his 1966 radio interview published as “Education after Auschwitz.” Responding to the atrocities of the Holocaust, Adorno opens the essay with the declaration that “the premier demand upon all education is that Auschwitz not happen again.”2 Barbarism is not something that poses merely a threat of a relapse. Adorno insists Auschwitz was the relapse. He describes the only meaningful education as “an education directed toward critical self-reflection.” And, like Levinas, he implores us to turn our attention to young children: “Since according to the findings of depth psychology, all personalities, even those who commit atrocities in later life, are formed in early childhood, education seeking to prevent the repetition must concentrate upon early childhood.”3

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