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Introduction

Marzano, Robert J.; Heflebower, Tammy Marzano Research ePub

Teaching and Assessing 21st Century Skills is part of a series of books collectively referred to as the Classroom Strategies Series. The purpose of this series is to provide teachers as well as building and district administrators with an in-depth treatment of research-based instructional strategies that can be used in the classroom to enhance student achievement. Many of the strategies addressed in this series have been covered in other works such as The Art and Science of Teaching (Marzano, 2007), Classroom Management That Works (Marzano, 2003), and Classroom Instruction That Works (Marzano, Pickering, & Pollock, 2001). Although those works devoted a chapter or a part of a chapter to particular strategies, the Classroom Strategies Series devotes an entire book to an instructional strategy or set of related strategies.

As the 21st century unfolds, the pace of change in the world is accelerating while education in the United States remains stagnant or, at best, progresses in isolated pockets. Concern over the effects of an inadequate education system on the nation’s economy and innovative potential is growing, and it seems a crisis point is near—a point when the negative aspects of the education system will outweigh the benefits. The consequences of a poorly educated population would be dire, and in order to correct this trajectory, every level of the education system will have to undergo massive changes. Teachers and administrators must lead this cultural shift, which is perhaps as important and massive as the industrial revolution. In Teaching and Assessing 21st Century Skills, we present a model of instruction and assessment based on a combination of cognitive skills (skills students will need to succeed academically) and conative skills (skills students will need to succeed interpersonally) necessary for the 21st century.

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Medium 9781936764167

Chapter 2 Implementing the Common Core State Standards for Reading

Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy Solution Tree Press ePub

KEY QUESTIONS

• To what extent does your team understand the Reading standards: What is familiar? What is new? What may be challenging for students? What may be challenging for teachers?

• Examine current texts being used in grades K–2 and assess them qualitatively and for reader and task demands. Which ones work? Which ones should be used in another grade or eliminated altogether?

• How do K–2 teachers at your school teach the foundational reading skills?

Tom Allen’s kindergarten students are learning about transportation and text structures. Mr. Allen introduces Truck (Crews, 1980), a wordless book that describes a truck as it travels from a loading dock through the city to make a delivery of bicycles. Some words are included as part of the illustrations. However, words are not used to provide the main information of the text. Mr. Allen is using this informational text to develop his students’ understanding of text structure and beginning, middle, and end. The students must use their visual analysis skills, as the illustrations are crucial to detecting the story structure. “It is giving me a great way to introduce a sequence of events, before they even realize it. I want them to develop their understanding that things occur in a specific order,” Mr. Allen says.

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Medium 9781626561786

Chapter 5: Empowering the Soul: Developing Yourself

Robert E. Quinn Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

Empowering the Soul: Developing Yourself

Educational institutions are full of divisive structures, of course, but blaming them for our brokenness perpetuates the myth that the outer world is more powerful than the inner. The external structures of education would not have the power to divide us as deeply as they do if they were not rooted in one of the most compelling features of our inner landscape—fear …. Fear is what distances us from our colleagues, our students, our subjects, ourselves. Fear shuts down those “experiments with truth” that allow us to weave a wider web of connectedness—and thus shuts down our own capacity to teach as well.

—Parker Palmer            
The Courage to Teach

LAURIE IS A HIGH SCHOOL ENGLISH TEACHER WITH 18 YEARS OF experience. She began her career in a rural community and now teaches in a suburban school district. In many ways she personifies the epigraph by Palmer. She does not give away her power. She is not divided from her subject, her students, or herself. And her focus is on the relationship between teaching and learning and on weaving “a wider web of connectedness.”1

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Medium 9781934009079

Chapter 5: Dealing With Power Struggles

Allen Mendler Solution Tree Press ePub

Prevention is the most effective form of discipline. We have found over and over that those teachers who attend to the basic needs that drive behavior, and build their classrooms in need-satisfying ways, have fewer discipline problems throughout the year. Even in the best of circumstances, there are children who test the limits, and are uncooperative and unmoved, despite your best efforts. In most instances, when rules are broken, the best way of responding is with privacy, eye contact, and proximity (P.E.P.). If the teacher is close, quiet, and direct, most children will readily accept a consequence. When a child will not, however, I have found de-escalation the best way of dealing with this.

While there are no ready-made steps or exact sequences by which to measure your response, a sequence similar to the following may help you frame a reasonably comfortable way of dealing with these moments. Most of us can become easily unnerved and quickly angered when children challenge our authority in front of the class. These “What are you going to do about it?” moments can be tense and uncertain. We all need short-term, effective, and dignified things to say and do when a student becomes challenging or simply refuses to accept a reasonable consequence.

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Medium 9781936763931

5 Differentiating Instruction Through Pluralized Teaching Strategies

Gregory, Gayle; Kaufeldt, Martha; Mattos, Mike Solution Tree Press ePub

So far, we’ve set up how to create a brain-friendly classroom, how to reach each learner in that classroom, and the essential elements of a core curriculum. Now, we dive headfirst into daily differentiation. In this chapter, we are going to explore a range of teaching strategies that educators can use to expand their instructional repertoire and develop a toolbox of techniques for addressing a broad spectrum of student learning preferences. For every concept, skill, standard, and task you are planning to teach, consider how you might present it in several different ways—or think of the pluralized implications for each strategy. Pluralized instruction is the manifestation of a teacher’s instructional intelligence. Dynamic, successful teachers recognize, and are sensitive to, the wide variety of diverse learners in every classroom, and they routinely orchestrate instructional variety as a way to promote learner engagement, interest, curiosity, and mastery. Pluralized teaching incorporates a broad spectrum of multimodal instructional strategies and a variety of novel learning experiences to teach every concept, skill, and standard. Daily differentiation asks teachers to routinely orchestrate instructional variety as a way to promote learner engagement, interest, and curiosity. Therefore, pluralized instruction offers many opportunities for teachers to consider every student’s learning preferences, interests, multicultural backgrounds, developmental readiness, prior knowledge, and mindsets.

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