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Medium 9781936764709

Appendix B: Sources to Develop Performance Indicators for the 4Cs

Jay McTighe Solution Tree Press ePub

Following are examples and resources for developing performance indicators, continua, and rubrics. This list is designed to be illustrative, not exclusionary or comprehensive. Many resources exist to support this work, and we encourage departments, schools, and districts to find sources relevant and useful to them. We’ve compiled these resources as merely a sample of the great work being done in these areas. (Visit go.solution-tree.com/leadership to access materials related to this book.)

Please remember to acknowledge the work of others, and cite all sources used in your processes!

• EdLeader21’s 4Cs rubrics: www.edleader21.com/order.php

Department of Defense Education Activity’s reflection and evaluation rubrics (also includes other 21st century skills): https://content.dodea.edu/VS/21st_century/web/21/21_skills_reflection_evaluation_rubrics.html

National Education Association’s Preparing 21st Century Students for a Global Society guide (includes links to resources for most 21st century skills as well): www.nea.org/assets/docs/A-Guide-to-Four-Cs.pdf

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Medium 9781936764228

Chapter 3: Implementing the Common Core State Standards for Writing

Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy Solution Tree Press ePub

Seventh-grade English teacher Stephanie Tarpley asks, “Can social media affect social change? There has been lots of attention given to various charitable organizations and social causes that use social media like Facebook and Twitter, but does it have any long-lasting effects, or is it lots of hype for a short while?”

To what extent does your team understand the Writing standards: What is the essence of each standard? What teacher actions facilitate the standards in practice? What evidence will we accept that students are learning this standard?

How do the three major text types influence the writing assignments students complete and the genres they must learn?

How is technology used to allow students to produce and publish their writing such that they can interact and collaborate with others?

Using informational articles and persuasive essays, Ms. Tarpley and her students explore how social media may or may not be affecting charitable organizations and social causes. Inspired by materials from YCteen, a youth journalism organization, Ms. Tarpley assembles several short readings on the topic for her students to form a foundation of understanding. She uses Malcolm Gladwell’s (2010) essay, “Small Change: Why the Revolution Will Not Be Tweeted” to build her own background knowledge, and identifies arguments he uses in the article to develop the unit. Following the author’s lead, she located first-person accounts of sit-ins conducted across the American South during the civil rights movement and contrasted these with newspaper accounts of the same events. In addition, they viewed several Twitter feeds about the Arab Spring protests of 2011 and contrasted these with contemporary broadcast media reports. As part of this unit, students wrote daily. Sometimes they wrote short, informal exit slips that summarized the main points of a reading and discussion. But as students began to understand the complexities of the issue, they started to formulate their own arguments. Over the two-week unit, each student wrote a longer essay addressing the question Ms. Tarpley first posed to them. They cited evidence from the readings, Twitter feeds, and broadcasts to support their claims.

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Medium 9781936763313

Epilogue The Promise and Possibility of Improved Mathematics Learning

Chris Weber Solution Tree Press ePub

Let’s imagine and design an improved approach to application-based mathematics—to all students learning mathematics deeply and at high levels. What if there were no standards? What if there were no high-stakes testing programs? How would we design units of mathematics instruction? How would we teach? How would we use assessment to inform our future supports and to communicate to students where they are and what they need to do?

We would start by nurturing a growth mindset among staff and students (Dweck, 2008). We would ensure positive and high expectations for students’ abilities to learn at high levels. We would truly believe in our ability to ensure that all students learn at high levels. We would trust our colleagues because no single teacher can meet all the needs of a student. We would nurture staff capacities and collaboration. A sense of collective responsibility is critical for all students learning mathematics.

For decades, we have not had a viable mathematics curriculum (Gonzales et al., 2008; Marzano, 2003; Schmidt, McKnight, Cogan, Jakwerth, & Houang, 1999). When the amount of content that teachers are attempting to cover is not viable or doable, some students fall behind, some students become frustrated, some fail, and many lack opportunities to learn deeply, so that they can apply and retain knowledge. We must prioritize the most essential mathematics topics that students will need to apply in real-world situations. Students must understand these conceptually and procedurally so that they are ready for the next grade level or course, and ultimately, for college or a skilled career. We must also ensure that all staff members have a common interpretation of what it will look and sound like when students demonstrate mastery of the prioritized topics. What is the level of rigor, and what is the format in which students will demonstrate mastery? This amount of focus will lead to clearly articulated sequences of content progressions, both horizontally (within a school year) and vertically (from year to year). In designing a successful, robust, and balanced mathematics program, clarifying and concentrating instruction is foundational.

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Medium 9781947604117

Chapter 8

Kajitani, Alex Solution Tree Press PDF


It’s About Time

Close the Achievement Gap

With Struggling Students

The achievement gap is a popular buzzword for students performing below, often far below, their expected grade-level proficiency. However, for these students, the achievement gap is not a buzzword—it is a devastating disadvantage that, if left unaddressed, can severely undermine their opportunity to live successful lives. This affects everyone. A report from McKinsey & Company states this gap “represents hundreds of billions of dollars in unrealized economic gains” in the United States alone (Auguste, Hancock, & Laboissiere, 2009).

I once had an eighth-grade student who I will call Eduardo. Eduardo’s classmates constantly poked fun at him for his inability to do simple things, such as add and subtract or tie his shoes. His grades were very low in all his classes, and for as long as he or his mother could remember, he consistently failed in most subjects yet continued to advance to the next grade level year after year.

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Medium 9781936764587

Chapter 5. Interdisciplinary Global Issues: A Curriculum for the 21st Century Learner

Heidi Hayes Jacobs Solution Tree Press ePub

Imagine a geography class with a group of eager students in ancient Babylon. The year is 600 BCE, where the Imago Mundi, one of the first maps of the world carved on a thick stone tablet, is the focus of the lesson. Babylon is in the center of the map, located on the Euphrates River, and the adjacent land area shows Assyria and Armenia. Encapsulating the land is Oceanus, translated as the bitter river, a reference to some sampled saltiness. There are seven islands in Oceanus that form a seven-pointed star (Unger, 1996). The image of the known world fascinates the young students in the class.

Flash forward to a high school freshman, Tanya, who is holding a different kind of tablet, gliding her finger over Google Earth to locate the Euphrates River. Simultaneously, she obtains topographical and demographic information immediately through a hyperlink. As Tanya opens up the hyperlinks and studies the resultant maps, she is stunned to learn that this is where the Iraq War was fought. Her teacher directs her to a scientific journal, Water Resources Research, from which Tanya learns that Iraq’s water sources are currently drying up.

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Medium 9781934009437

Chapter 4: Emphasizing Effort

Allen Mendler Solution Tree Press ePub

PUTTING THE FOCUS ON EFFORT IS CRUCIAL to increasing achievement, promoting learning, and minimizing behavior problems among students who are hiding their academic inadequacies. Most students who present themselves unfavorably, whether through their lack of motivation or their inappropriate behavior, are trying to conceal their concerns about academic or performance inadequacy. In a nutshell, they simply do not see themselves as capable and usually attribute success to ability rather than effort. As Carol Dweck’s research has shown, these students believe that intelligence is a fixed entity and is the factor responsible for success or failure (cited in Azar, 1996). By contrast, successful learners generally believe that their effort is the key factor in determining success. The end result is that many students who fail simply do not try because they believe that even if they worked harder, their achievement still would not improve in any substantial way. Although it is difficult to get such students to put forth greater effort, there are many classroom techniques that can work when the emphasis is placed on the relationship between achievement and effort.

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Medium 9781947604117

Chapter 10

Kajitani, Alex Solution Tree Press PDF


The Secret to

Motivating the

Unmotivated Student

Succeed With Students

Who Are At Risk

Let’s be honest—as teachers, we often dread a lack of motivation in our students more than any other trait. That dread places our students at risk among the most challenging cases, because they frequently enter our classrooms with a multitude of family and sociological barriers, often paired with well-established track records of low academic achievement. All these things serve to make motivating a discouraged or disinterested student to achieve academically a daunting challenge. That said, it can be done.

How do I know it can be done? Because teachers, coaches, and educators are already doing exactly this (Lamperes, 1994). How do they do it? This is a complicated issue (of course it is!), but I’ve come to believe that there is one main factor behind any adult who successfully motivates students who are “unmotivated,” at risk, or struggling: make real connections with them. Build relationships. Help them feel seen. Believe in them. Have a stake in their success and show it. As Rita Pierson

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Medium 9780253020512

4. Inheritance, Heritage, and the Disinherited: Sacred Arabic

Charis Boutieri Indiana University Press ePub


Inheritance, Heritage, and the Disinherited: Sacred Arabic

What does it mean to modernize a sacred language? What do such processes look like? How do they intersect with political interests and official policies? And what is a modern language in the first place?

—Niloofar Haeri, Sacred Language, Ordinary People: Dilemmas of Culture and Politics in Egypt

On the bus ride home from school that we frequently took together, junior-year student Malika often initiated provocative discussions about piety, the moral problems that undercut Moroccan society, and the relationship between what she called the “Muslim World” and the “West.” The child of two primary school teachers, Malika was articulate and authoritative beyond her years. From her flushed face and beaming smile, I could tell she took equal pleasure in quizzing me on other religions, mainly Christianity, Judaism, and Hinduism, and in instructing me on Islam. During one such ride, slightly dazed by the heat and the very crowded bus, we spoke about the various educational resources on Islam available to Muslims today. Malika insisted that she did not owe her knowledge of Islam exclusively to what she learned at school; she also learned about her religion from independent online study, exposure to radio and television experts, and her participation in regular discussions on moral issues in her neighborhood’s charitable association called Raḥma (God’s Mercy). Even though these sources of knowledge definitely did not all speak in one voice, she told me every single one had convinced her that “Islam was the most advanced and most perfect of all religions.” When I asked her to explain further, Malika pointed to how congruent the religion was with both tradition and modernity, with the past and the present: “I appreciate how the Qurʾan explained natural phenomena and scientific facts that societies discovered centuries later!” Because Malika was a humanities student and very committed in sharing her religious expertise, I asked her if she contemplated a degree in Islamic Studies at university. Her tone shifted from cheery to somber: “No way—where would I work? There are no jobs in this field! Then, I don’t really want to study and teach in fuṣḥā (Classical Arabic), I know it’s our official language and it’s the language of our religion, but I find it old and heavy.” Her reluctance to study and teach in fuṣḥā piqued my interest in the relationship between language and religion for high school students. A self-avowed pious young woman, Malika contrasted Islam as a religion that transcends time with Arabic as a language stuck in the past. Her view is all the more striking because it conflates the Arabic language of worship, Qurʾanic Arabic, with the Arabic of public education. What was the context that framed such a view, and how did it inform the negotiation of Muslim identity at school?

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Medium 9781574411713

2: Impact of Federal Bilingual Education Policy

Guadalupe San Miguel Jr. University of North Texas Press PDF

T H E E X P A N S I O N O F B I L I N G U A L E D U C AT I O N , 1 9 6 8 – 1 9 7 8


Lau Remedies Compliance Reviews, 1975–78

In addition to these procedures, the federal government also developed an elaborate civil rights enforcement mechanism and pressured local school districts to develop bilingual education programs. Although there were programmatic and interpretational problems and even opposition to the Lau Remedies, the Office for Civil Rights used it to negotiate compliance plans with over 500 local school districts in the late 1970s. Coercion or the threat of coercion and the withdrawal of federal school funds served as the basis for the development of bilingual education programs.38


The origins of and changes in federal bilingual education policy had a significant impact on various aspects of American political and educational life. For instance, this policy significantly impacted state and local governments, the political fortunes of minority groups, and language use. More importantly, it encouraged a political opposition to voice its opinion and to speak out against this policy.

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Medium 9781935543176

Chapter One

Sheryl Nussbaum-Beach Solution Tree Press ePub

Chapter One

Defining the Connected Educator

Our lives are connected by a thousand invisible threads.

—Herman Melville


Our Stories

Back in the early 1990s, I was teaching children's literature to preservice educators at Valdosta State College (now Valdosta State University). I wanted to help students extend their reach beyond our small-town, south-Georgia culture and experience firsthand the power of connecting and collaborating with people and cultures very different from their own. I believed that if they were changed because of such connections, they would pass similar experiences on to their future students. I put the word out on the online bulletin boards where I regularly engaged in threaded discussions and asked all individuals interested in sharing their culture with preservice teachers in a virtual global exchange to email me. I was astounded by the number of responses. Using a geographical list created from the responses I received over just a few days, I had students choose an area and then matched each to an international partner for correspondence through Internet Relay Chat, bulletin boards, and email— the cutting-edge collaboration tools of the day. They were to gather information to create a model classroom learning station, sharing stories, artifacts, and children's literature from their partner's country.

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Medium 9781942496533

Chapter 8 Complex Thinking

James H. Stronge Solution Tree Press ePub

What do students really need to learn in order to succeed, not only in the classroom but also later on in college, the workplace, and as engaged citizens? Beginning in 2010, a movement for deeper learning or complex thinking has emerged on the United States’ education scene. Complex thinking refers to a set of competencies students must master in order to develop keen understanding of academic content and apply their knowledge to novel tasks and situations in the classroom and on the job—competencies such as problem finding, problem solving, and creative thinking (Huberman, Bitter, Anthony, & O’Day, 2014). Students need to develop attitudes and mindsets that empower them to confront new challenges, take the initiative, and persevere through setbacks.

Unfortunately, the academic rigor of teaching and learning in many classrooms is low. Teachers do not always have enough time or the expertise to balance the memorization of facts with the more complex tasks of applying, synthesizing, evaluating, and communicating. A review of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 1999 video study finds that mathematics teachers in the United States focus learning on content, routine exercises, and procedures at the lower end of the cognitive continuum (Hiebert et al., 2005). Additionally, U.S. students spend 34 percent of each mathematics lesson applying knowledge as compared to 74 percent for Japanese students.

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Medium 9781943874965

6 Using Strategies That Appear in All Types of Lessons

Marzano, Robert J. Solution Tree Press ePub


Using Strategies That Appear in All Types of Lessons

There are a number of strategies that commonly appear in all three types of lessons: (1) direct instruction lessons, (2) practicing and deepening lessons, and (3) knowledge application lessons.

The desired mental states and processes common to these ubiquitous strategies are:

Students continually integrate new knowledge with old knowledge and revise their understanding accordingly.

The elements that focus on this design area help students continually loop through content they are learning so that they might integrate new knowledge with old. The notion that students must cycle through and make changes in their existing knowledge base is certainly not new. For example, Jean Piaget (1971) distinguishes between the learning processes of assimilation and accommodation. Assimilation refers to the initial linking of new content to old content. New content is assimilated into existing knowledge structures. Accommodation occurs more gradually as existing knowledge becomes redesigned as a result of assimilation with new information. David E. Rumelhart and Donald A. Norman (1978) describe three types of knowledge change: (1) accretion, (2) tuning, and (3) restructuring. Accretion and tuning refer to additions to knowledge over time. Accretion happens relatively quickly. Tuning is more gradual and involves the expression of knowledge in more parsimonious forms. Restructuring is like Piaget’s accommodation in that pre-existing knowledge structures are permanently redesigned as a function of the learning process. For example, a student might have a pre-existing knowledge structure for the relationship between the moon and tides, which involves only the distance between the Earth and the moon. However, after a set of particularly clear direct instruction lessons by the teacher, the student redesigns her knowledge structure adding variables like the tilt of the Earth and the gravitational pull of the sun. She also completely revamps the number and type of causal relationships among variables in her knowledge structure.

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Medium 9781936764105

Chapter 4: Implementing the Teaching-Assessing-Learning Cycle

Briars, Diane J.; Foster, David Solution Tree Press ePub


Implementing the Teaching-Assessing-Learning Cycle

An assessment functions formatively to the extent that evidence about student achievement is elicited, interpreted, and used by teachers, learners, or their peers to make decisions about the next steps in instruction that are likely to be better, or better founded, than the decisions they would have made in absence of that evidence.

—Dylan Wiliam

The focus of this chapter is to illustrate the appropriate use of ongoing student assessment as part of an interactive, cyclical, and systemic collaborative team formative process on a unit-by-unit basis. You and your collaborative team can use this chapter as the engine that will drive your systematic development and support for the student attainment of the Common Core mathematics content expectations as described in chapters 2 and 3.

When led well, ongoing unit-by-unit mathematics assessments—whether in-class, during the lesson checks or end-of-unit assessment instruments like tests, quizzes, or projects—serve as a feedback bridge within the teaching-assessing-learning cycle. The cycle requires your team to identify core learning targets or standards for the unit, create cognitively demanding common mathematics tasks that reflect the learning targets, create in-class formative assessments of those targets, and design common assessment instruments to be used during and at the end of a unit of instruction.

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Medium 9781935543244

Chapter 6: Engaging the Mind, Body, and Spirit

Anne E. Conzemius Solution Tree Press ePub

Never lie to your horse.


There is an emerging philosophy about the relationship between humans and horses called joining up. Once thought to be one of master and servant, the relationship is now viewed as a partnership.

At a recent joining-up clinic for horse owners, Anne watched a gentle cowboy work magic with one feisty steed after another. He began by removing some of the constraining equipment that has traditionally been used to control the horse. This was perplexing for the owners. After all, they had come to the clinic because they had been ineffective in controlling their horses; to remove the only control mechanisms they had seemed odd, if not dangerous.

The next step was to get the horse to move with the cowboy, not away from him. He gave the horse a gentle nudge in just the right place to signal the horse to move in one direction or another. Most people try to move a horse by pulling on the reins and halter. But the horse is bigger and stronger than the human, and when he decides he’s not going to move, jerking his head is only going to make him mad. The cowboy told the gathered owners that the day he realized that he had to work with the whole animal—body, spirit, and mind—was the day he became an effective horseman. He went on to say that, as the owner, you’ve got to work with the horse, get him to move by engaging his body, and then build a relationship by engaging his mind and spirit.

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Medium 9780982702970

2    Creating the Structures for Collaboration

DuFour, Richard; DuFour, Rebecca Solution Tree Press ePub

Creating the Structures for Collaboration

Now that you and your guiding coalition have worked with the staff to articulate the shared foundation of a PLC at Work, how do you bring those words to life? How do you change the traditional assumptions, habits, expectations, and beliefs that constitute the very culture of the school? An important step in transforming school culture is replacing traditional structures with those more aligned to the school you are trying to create, and then supporting the staff members as they begin to operate within those new structures. This chapter will focus on some of the structural issues principals must address to help move a staff from working in isolation or working in groups to working as members of high-performing collaborative teams. Meeting this challenge will require principals to do the following:

1.  Organize people into meaningful teams focused on learning.

2.  Provide teams with time to collaborate.

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