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Medium 9781475837520

The Master’s Tools: Revealing Doxic Foundations and (Re)Imagining Complexity to Position Future Teachers as Agentic Selves

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

The Master’s Tools

Revealing Doxic Foundations and (Re)Imagining Complexity to Position Future Teachers as Agentic Selves


ABSTRACT:This article examines the possibility of working within neoliberal mind-sets to dismantle educational ideologies founded upon norms of the market. Using Audre Lorde’s (1984/2007) notion that “the master’s tools will never dismantle the master’s house” (p. 112) the author examines the complexity of examination and potential for change within neoliberal paradigms to conclude that reductionist and market-driven discourses can be revealed, reimagined, and reconstructed when educators position themselves from a perspective of utopic thinking.

Audre Lorde’s (1984/2007) assertion that “the master’s tools will never dismantle the master’s house” (p. 112) was a call for Western feminists to examine their own racism and homophobia and interrogate the “terror and loathing of any difference that lives” inside each of us (p. 113). Lorde asks, “What does it mean when the tools of a racist patriarchy are used to examine the fruits of that same patriarchy? It means that only the most narrow parameters of change are possible and allowable” (pp. 110–11). While Lorde’s critique of the narrow potential for change when participants do not account for the tools and measures of change and the identities and differences of individuals were meant for the feminist movement, this critique of mindset is applicable in other contexts. In Lorde’s critique, some feminists did not recognize the doxa of racism and patriarchy at deep, paradigmatic levels and formed actions that appropriated the master’s tools; rather than deconstructing the master’s house, it was reinforced. This reinforcement is accepted because it is not always perceived when viewed through a cloud of apparent or narrow change.

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Medium 9781935249467

1 Understanding Close Reading

Diane Lapp Solution Tree Press ePub

What constitutes a close reading, and what types of instruction support close reading? These are two questions that many educators have considered since 2010 when NGA and CCSSO’s (2010) Common Core State Standards identified the ability to “read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it; cite specific textual evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions drawn from the text” as the first English language arts anchor standard for reading (p. 10). Anchor standards are the overarching expectations of the CCSS for each of the four strands: Reading, Writing, Speaking and Listening, and Language. As more and more teachers become comfortable crafting instruction and management that support close reading across grades and disciplines, many wonder what to do at the end of a close reading when some students are still struggling to understand the text and also what to do with those who have mastered the text.

To begin to explore answers to these questions, we first need a shared definition of close reading. Sheila Brown and Lee Kappes (2012) provide a comprehensive description:

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Medium 9781936763382

Chapter 10: Teaching With the Social-Emotional Self in Mind

Kathleen Kryza Solution Tree Press ePub

For many people, one of the most frustrating aspects of life is not being able to understand other people’s behavior.

—Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

Martin Luther King Jr. and Mother Teresa were superheroes even though they didn’t have superpowers. They changed the world by uniting people using love, compassion, and determination around a common cause. They led from their heart and soul, and people followed.

We think it is important as educators to have a tool belt filled with a variety of effective strategies to address students with emotional needs. We all know that saying “If you only have a hammer, everything looks like a nail.” This book and the other resources found in the appendix are intended to help you fill your tool belt with many effective strategies to deal with kids’ social-emotional needs. Our goal for this chapter is to help see student behavior differently and to offer an appropriate tool to help you help your students.

If we could give you one big idea for understanding and effectively dealing with student behavior, it would be “Don’t take behavior personally; respond with skills rather than react with emotions!”

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Medium 9780253115560

14. Student and Alumni Relationships

Herman B Wells Indiana University Press ePub

I HAVE LONG greeted freshman students with, “So you are a freshman. Great! Freshmen are very important people. Without freshmen there soon would be no seniors or, in fact, a university, and I like it here.”

With rare exceptions I had happy relationships with the students during my days in the president's office. I saved time for contact with them; I tried to accept their invitations even though in some instances it was not particularly convenient to do so. I recognized the fact that they invited me to their many functions in the best spirit, evidencing their interest in Indiana University and their friendliness toward me. Many times student dinners are a bit stiff and awkward, but the youngsters are learning the art of entertaining, a useful part of their whole learning experience. By keeping close to students, one is reminded that they are a major reason for the existence of the university and certainly the major reason why the state supports the institution. In the quality and spirit of these youngsters is to be found the future of the state and nation. They and their parents are making sacrifices in order to realize an individual and family dream, seeking the mobility and self-fulfillment that can come with a collegiate and professional education.

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Medium 9781936763276

Chapter 5: The Victim Mindset

Anthony Muhammad Solution Tree Press ePub

No one can make you feel inferior
without your consent


If equality is to become a reality, the onus cannot lie on the shoulders of one group. Dan Lortie (1975) writes that “it is illogical to expect a group of people who have personally benefited from a system to become the catalyst for changing the system” (p. 74). I do not begrudge communities and school systems that strive for excellence for their students, but I believe that they are responsible for supporting policies and creating an atmosphere that protects their superior ranking to the detriment of other communities, schools, and students. So, what is the responsibility of the oppressed?

In a seminal 1951 work, Eric Hoffer, award-winning moral and social philosopher, sums up the dilemma of the oppressed perfectly:

Discontent by itself does not invariably create a desire for change. Other factors have to be present before discontent turns into dissatisfaction. One of these is a sense of power. Those who are awed by their surroundings do not think of change, no matter how miserable their condition. When our mode of life is so precarious as to make it patent that we cannot control the circumstances of our existence, we tend to stick to the proven and the familiar. (p. 7)

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Medium 9781475812008

Defining and Activating the Role of Department Chair as Instructional Leader



ABSTRACT: With strong connection to schoolwide policy and vision and to the realities of the daily life of teachers and students, the department chair is uniquely positioned to play an important role in advancing instructional effectiveness (Printy, 2008; Weller, 2001). This article provides an in-depth look at the efforts of three urban comprehensive high schools to revision the role of department chair as instructional leader. The case studies identify building a shared vision, trust, role clarity, professional development, modeling, and application as critical elements of leadership development. The article defines the role of department chair as instructional leader and examines the effects of efforts to strengthen this role. Findings suggest that department chairs found their new role to be motivating and enriching, but significant training and reshaping of school norms were needed to provide the skills and legitimacy for them to lead instructional improvement in their departments.

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Medium 9781935543398

Chapter Two Alignment’s Essential Components

Mark Van Clay Solution Tree Press ePub

It can really be off-putting when you lose your way somehow.


This chapter will discuss how alignment works by highlighting its four essential elements: (1) defining district roles, (2) communicating through data, (3) applying loose and tight leadership, and (4) applying the alignment constants. Just as the component parts of a compass need to be working well in order to determine your course, these essential elements of alignment must all be in good working order for efforts at alignment to be effective.

In looking at district roles, we first examine the types of roles, then the phenomenon of role bridges, and finally the cascading effect that roles have on each other.

There are three distinct district roles—strategic, tactical, and operational—in every district (Van Clay & Soldwedel, 2009). Who assumes each role, how well they assume it, and how their actions affect those in other roles determine how successfully a school district will reach its desired state of alignment.

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Medium 9781936763238

Chapter Three: Quality Homework: The Result of Quality Design

Eileen Depka Solution Tree Press ePub

Quality Homework: The Result of Quality Design

No one has any interest in assigning or being assigned tasks that waste time. Correcting assignments that are poorly or incorrectly done is both discouraging and time not well spent. When students learn and then practice procedures they are unsure of, they can potentially solidify an incorrect understanding. Taking care in what we assign allows us to ensure that we identify quality tasks for students. Evaluating the timing of the assignment is equally beneficial. Work assigned too early, prior to the student having a solid base of preliminary understanding, will result in frustration and poor performance. In this chapter, we discuss the features necessary for designing quality student work, including the use of assignment evaluation, Bloom’s taxonomy, and Norman Webb’s Depth of Knowledge. We also look at creating a menu of options for students and evaluating the quality of their work.

Recognition and Design of Quality Work

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Medium 9781475816013


International Journal of Educational Ref Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Richard P. Manatt

Professor of Educational Administration

College of Education

Iowa State University

N226 Lagomarcino Hal

Ames, IA 50011-3190

The GOALS 2000: Educate America Act checks are in the mail! All but five states have taken advantage of the opportunity; they are New Hampshire, Ohio, South Dakota, Virginia, and Wyoming. Some applicants, like Iowa, were reluctant, claiming that the proposed National Education Standards and Improvement Council would infringe on local control of curricula. Others, Illinois for example, were so far along in the process because of state improvement efforts (in this case the Illinois Goals Assessment Program) that they were able to offer implementation grants to some districts in the first year. Most state departments of education created Requests For Proposals that centered on planning grants for June 1995-July 1996 with the expectation that implementation grant applications were to follow.1

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Medium 9781942496090

Chapter 3: Bring Back the Fun With New Professional Development Experiences

Meg Ormiston Solution Tree Press ePub

The art of teaching is the art of assisting discovery.

—Mark Van Doren

Change is constant, and old habits die hard. Creating partnership classrooms led by innovative teachers will require intense, creative professional development. This professional development is what I call “messy learning bordering on organized chaos.” This is a change process, not a quick workshop. I suggest teachers and administrators experience partnership learning in a professional development setting so that they have the opportunity to experience what it looks and feels like in the classroom.

I provide professional development in partnership learning during the summer, and I call this experience Tech Camp. I carefully structure Tech Camp for optimal engagement of all participants, along with a whole lot of fun. The Tech Camp experience is just one of the kickoff professional development experiences. Follow-up coaching is also part of the continual learning process. You can take the tech camp model I have defined and personalize it specifically to the needs of your district. Create some takeaways in each section for your participants, and make this experience your own.

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Medium 9780982259207

Appendix C - Terms and Phrases from the new Taxonomy

Marzano, Robert J. Marzano Research ePub

Level 4

Knowledge Utilization


Select the best among the following alternatives

Which among the following would be the best

What is the best way

Which of these is most suitable


How would you overcome


Develop a strategy to

Figure out a way to

How will you reach your goal under these conditions


Generate and test

Test the idea that

What would happen if

How would you test that

How would you determine if

How can this be explained

Based on the experiment, what can be predicted



Find out about

Take a position on

What are the differing features of

How did this happen

Why did this happen

What would have happened if

Level 3



Compare and contrast





Create an analogy

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Medium 9781935249030

Chapter 3 Teaching the Language of the Open-Ended Response

r4Educated Solutions Solution Tree Press ePub

Chapter 3

Teaching the Language of the Open-Ended Response

Plot Elements

This sample lesson illustrates how a teacher can teach explicitly the components of the literary elements using graphic organizers. The topic chosen for instruction is plot elements. Students need to be taught each literary element individually. As each element is taught, students can add it to their Plot Elements chart (page 100) to keep a record of their learning.

Implications for High-Stakes Testing

A knowledge of literary elements is key to understanding the language of both the multiple-choice questions and the open-ended or short-answer response questions on the English language arts and reading portions of standardized assessments. On these tests, students are required to analyze fiction for literary elements.

Lesson Plan for Plot Elements


•  Plot Elements handout (page 100), one per student and one transparency

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Medium 9781475811964

The Importance of Belonging: Learning From the Student Experience of Democratic Education



ABSTRACT: This article grew out of an extensive piece of grounded theory research that explored students’ experiences of democratic education. A small democratic school in the south of England is used as a case study. Students in this school experienced a strong sense of belonging—to the school itself, with teachers, and with peers. This appeared to make a significant contribution to school outcomes. Data indicated that students’ sense of belonging was in part influenced by the democratic nature of the school, including its style of leadership. This resonated with existing literature. This article outlines key features of the school alongside empirical data about belongingness. A brief review of literature is provided. It concludes with a series of recommendations for practitioners.

The case for connecting democracy with education has been long since made (Dewey, 1916/2004; Goodlad, Mantle-Bromley, & Goodlad, 2004; Gutmann, 1999; Soder, 2001). Goodlad and colleagues (2004), for example, argued that

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Medium 9781935542070

Chapter 1: The Underminers

John F. Eller Solution Tree Press ePub

In almost every school, a personality type exists that can threaten the climate and culture of trust and slow down implementation efforts. We call this type “the Underminer.” While Underminers’ exact behaviors can be variable, in general they act supportive in your presence but make negative comments about you or the school behind your back.

As you read this chapter, you will learn the following:

Here are some of the specific behaviors that are typical of Underminers:

Underminers are particularly difficult to deal with because of the power they can have over the other staff members. They are good at expressing some of the reservations that other staff members may be thinking but don’t have the courage to say out loud. They also create fear in others because their behavior can go beyond just being negative about the change or new idea. They might work to undermine anyone who is positive about the change. This behavior can cause problems as Underminers try to shift the power balance and recruit other negative staff members.

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Medium 9781936765546

Chapter 2: Second Challenge—Engaging in the Right Work

Sharon V. Kramer Solution Tree Press ePub

Classrooms, schools, and school systems can and do improve, and the factors facilitating improvement are neither so exotic, unusual, or expensive that they are beyond the grasp of ordinary schools.

—David Clark, Linda Lotto, and Terry Astuto

What is the right work? What are the necessary conditions for all learners to succeed? What are the high-leverage elements that have the greatest impact on learning? It turns out that the right work does not require superhuman powers. It requires the ability to harness the power within a school. The professional learning community model is the organizing structure or framework that harnesses the power within to improve schools: “Our primary assumption is that the professional learning community model offers our best hope for ensuring high levels of learning for all students” (Eaker & Keating, 2012, p. 8).

The quantitative and qualitative research on PLCs’ positive effects on school improvement are well documented in the literature and on All Things PLC (www.allthingsplc.info). (Visit the section “Articles and Research” at www.allthingsplc.info to read specific accounts of school-improvement efforts.) Educational organizations and educational researchers alike endorse and embrace PLC concepts. The PLC framework has swept North America and is making a global impact. So what is a PLC? According to experts Richard DuFour, Rebecca DuFour, Robert Eaker, and Thomas Many (2010):

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