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Medium 9781945349584

Chapter 6

Watanabe-Crockett, Lee Solution Tree Press PDF






have found that all learning requires the learner to apply a process. To conduct a science experiment, one applies the scientific method. Project-based learning, STEM, and inquiry all require processes. In chapter 5, I demonstrate how students can apply information fluency to the research process, but learning has all sorts of processes for tackling all sorts of challenges. It can be about using information fluency to gain a deeper perspective on a profound essential question, solution fluency to solve a complex problem, media fluency to understand the message in media content, collaboration fluency to work as a team, or creativity fluency to add meaning through design, art, and storytelling. That’s what this chapter is all about: how learners learn to identify a process and apply it to myriad learning applications.

I cannot stress enough that this must be about learners. In my experience, processoriented learning falls apart in pedagogies such as STEM and project-based learning when the teacher owns the process and guides learners through each step. So, the teacher is doing all the thinking and all the work, and we end up with teacherdirected learning augmented with a form of “edutainment” as opposed to engagement.

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Medium 9781936765508

Appendix A Changes in Mathematics Standards, 1989–2012

Solution Tree Press ePub

Helping students use their prior knowledge to enable them to recognize what is new and different in their learning is a key element of scaffolded instruction. Similarly, as you explore the CCSS for mathematics, it will be helpful to compare aspects of mathematics standards that have framed your previous instruction so that you can identify what is familiar, what is new and challenging, and what changes are required in the content delivered to your students. As you examine the CCSS for mathematics, you may find it helpful to refer to the standards that have formed the basis of your instruction recently. The release of the CCSS for mathematics comes on the heels of a long history of mathematics research and reform efforts. Consider the following dates.

1957: Launch of Sputnik resulted in the “new math” movement, with an emphasis on the abstract nature of mathematical structure, set theory, and number bases

1970s: Back-to-basics movement in which rote memorization was emphasized—the teacher was the dominant figure in instruction with good management skills and a focus on basic skills.

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Medium 9781935249900

Chapter 13 Navigating Social Networks as Learning Tools

James A Bellanca Solution Tree Press ePub


Nelson Smith could not start a fire, even if his life depended on it. In fact, he could not even produce smoke. He had the perfect piece of yellow pine, a nice blob of lint from his clothes dryer, a sturdy spindle, and a perfectly strung bow to make it spin. But thirty minutes of pulling and pushing the bow back and forth produced little heat where the wood pieces ground together. The wood stayed cool even as his skin turned hot.

However, Nelson, a twelve-year-old from Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, with a passion for outdoor survival skills, had a plan. He wanted to master this crucial, yet basic, part of bushcraft, and he knew the perfect tool to make it happen: his mom’s video camera.

“Hello,” Nelson says in the opening frame of his video as viewers see one of his grass-stained bare feet holding down the block of yellow pine and his hands clutching the pieces of his set. “I’m trying my hardest here to make a bow-drill set . . . ”

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Medium 9781935542773

Chapter 6 Challenge the Use of a Single Grade

Thomas R. Guskey Solution Tree Press ePub


Challenge the Use of a Single Grade

Imagine two students, Marie and Robert, who attend the same high school and take many of the same classes. Marie is an exceptionally bright but negligent student. She consistently gets high grades on classroom quizzes and assessments, even though she rarely completes homework assignments and seldom participates in class discussions. Her compositions and reports show unusually keen insight and thoughtful analyses of critical issues but often are turned in a day or two late. Because of her missing homework assignments and lack of punctuality, Marie receives Cs in most of her classes, and her grade point average ranks her in the middle of her high school class. But Marie scores at the highest level on the state accountability assessment, qualifies for a state honor diploma because of her scores, and is eligible for state scholarships.

Robert, on the other hand, is an extremely dedicated and hardworking student. He completes every homework assignment, takes advantage of extra-credit options in all of his classes, and regularly attends special study sessions held by his teachers. Yet despite his efforts, Robert often performs poorly on classroom quizzes and assessments. His compositions and reports are well organized and always turned in on time but rarely demonstrate more than a rudimentary understanding of critical issues. Robert also receives Cs in most of his classes and has a class rank very similar to Marie’s. But because he scores at a low level on the state accountability assessment, Robert is at risk of receiving an alternative diploma and will not qualify for state scholarship funds.

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Medium 9781945349539

Chapter 8

Sousa, David A.; Tomlinson, Carol Ann Solution Tree Press PDF



Managing a



The greatest sign of success for a teacher is to be able to say, “The children are now working as if I did not exist.”

—Maria Montessori

A teacher with the conscious goal of supporting each learner’s success will necessarily learn to use all available classroom elements flexibly so there is room for a variety of students to flourish. The teacher will provide many opportunities for students to work in ways that work for them. This requires him or her being flexible and guiding students in working effectively with routines that permit both flexibility and predictability. For many teachers, the prospect of students doing a variety of things in a classroom at a given moment is daunting. It seems more viable—and easier—to have everyone work in a sort of lockstep manner. It’s just more comfortable for the teacher that way. However, the price for teacher comfort is often a classroom that accommodates only a portion of its learners.

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Medium 9781935542124

Chapter 7 Time-Saving Strategies for Busy Teachers

Reeves, Douglas Solution Tree Press ePub

In this chapter, we will consider how effective grading strategies save time for busy teachers. First, we challenge the notion that traditional grading policies are as efficient as they appear. In fact, grading systems that lead to higher levels of student failure not only have enormous costs for the student in terms of frustration and academic distress, but also cost teachers and schools excessive time and energy. By contrast, effective grading systems save time and are therefore in the best interests of both students and teachers. In particular, we will consider the menu system, a grading system that I have used with students ranging from elementary to graduate school. This represents one of many possible ways that teachers can save time and also provide feedback to students in a way that is accurate, fair, and specific.

Any new policy, whether it has to do with grading, curriculum, assessment, discipline, or any other educational issue, will not have a prayer of implementation if it attempts to cram additional tasks into the days of teachers who are already overwhelmed with initiatives. In a national study, University of Pennsylvania researchers Richard Ingersoll and David Perda (2009) found that, contrary to many stereotypes about teacher dissatisfaction (inadequate pay, poor discipline, standardized testing, and so on), the greatest source of dissatisfaction was the lack of time to do their jobs well.

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Medium 9781942496946

Appendix C

Bill Barnes Solution Tree Press PDF

Appendix C

Mathematics Professional

Development Plan for a

School Year

Source: Phoenix Union High School District, 2013. Used with permission.

Effective mathematics leaders create intentional districtwide professional learning opportunities during a school year. The professional learning is aligned to the year’s strategic goals and builds the capacity of individuals, collaborative teams, team leaders, and site-level leaders. The plan is articulated to all stakeholders before the opening of the school year to provide teams and site-level leaders choices to best support their learning needs. Appendix C is an example from Phoenix Union High School District during the final phase of implementing the new curriculum. See tables C.1 and C.2.

Strategic Goals of E2 Math

The purpose of E2 Math is to create equity and excellence for all mathematics students in Phoenix Union High School District. We will complete this by engaging in the following actions.

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Medium 9781574411713

Conclusion: Contestation and Federal Bilingual Education Policy

Guadalupe San Miguel Jr. University of North Texas Press PDF



This brief history focused on one of the most contentious and misunderstood policies in the country: federal bilingual education. It traced and explained, in bold sketches, the rise and fall of federal bilingual education policy during the years from 1960 to 2001 and the role played by the contending groups of supporters and opponents in its development.

Three major findings were presented in this book. First, this study showed that contestation, conflict, and accommodation were integral aspects of federal bilingual education policy development. From its origins in the 1960s to the present, different groups with competing notions of ethnicity, assimilation, pedagogy, and power have contended, clashed, struggled, and negotiated with each other for hegemony in the development and implementation of bilingual education. Second, contextual forces over time, especially electoral politics and a changing political climate at the national, state, and local level, significantly shaped the contours and content of this policy. Finally, those supportive of or opposed to federal bilingual education displayed a wide array of political, educational, and social reasons for their actions.

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Medium 9781935249559

Chapter 3: All About the Learners

Robin J. Fogarty Solution Tree Press ePub


Learning How Student Data Support Differentiation

This chapter explains the need for initial student data that identify who the learners are and what their talents and needs are—their “backstories.” Teachers need to know what makes their learners tick. This chapter focuses on understanding learners and accommodating their learning styles in ways that allow them to excel.

When teachers deliberately and purposefully seek baseline data on their students, they give themselves a huge advantage. When there are reasons to differentiate, teachers inform their decisions on accommodating, adjusting, and modifying a lesson for particular students with whatever information they have about those students. That is what the differentiation process is all about. The data come in many forms, including face-to-face interactions, anecdotal classroom records, standardized test data, and the common assessments used to monitor student progress.

To proceed with this critical aspect of the differentiated classroom, PLC teams should use various tools and techniques to assess their students in four specific areas: (1) student readiness, (2) student interests, (3) student learning profiles, and (4) student affect (Tomlinson, 2005). Student readiness is directly linked to potential for immediate and future growth, while student interests spark the motivation to learn. Learning profiles that delineate preferred styles and learning strengths and weaknesses impact the efficiency of student learning, while student affect speaks to the feelings, emotions, and attitudes of the learners.

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Medium 9781935249870

Chapter 3 Technology to Support Teaching and Learning

Meg Ormiston Solution Tree Press ePub

Earlier, I stated that merely outfitting schools with technology does not automatically transform passive classrooms into ones of high engagement. Lessons need to be defined or redefined, and substantive changes are crucial. This means that teachers (and administrators) must look beyond the bells and whistles of available technology. Yes, many forms of technology are captivating and fun to use, but the real role of technology in classrooms is not to entertain but to facilitate learning in new, active, engaging, and collaborative ways.

If students are to become critical thinkers, then we must assign projects that stimulate their engagement, not just worksheets. An active-learning orientation would suggest that they need to be engaged in meaningful projects—analyzing and synthesizing content, not merely absorbing it from readings or discussions. For example, when students produce a video that takes a historic speech and matches it with complementary images, accomplishing this project promotes deeper understanding as they study the speech to discern which images will best convey the speaker’s ideas.

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Medium 9780253211859

The Moral Self from Ethics (1932)

LARRY A HICKMAN Indiana University Press ePub

The self has occupied a central place in the previous discussions, in which important aspects of the good self have been brought out. The self should be wise or prudent, looking to an inclusive satisfaction and hence subordinating the satisfaction of an immediately urgent single appetite; it should be faithful in acknowledgment of the claims involved in its relations with others; it should be solicitous, thoughtful, in the award of praise and blame, use of approbation and disapprobation, and, finally, should be conscientious and have the active will to discover new values and to revise former notions. We have not, however, examined just what is the significance of the self. The important position of the self in morals, and also various controversies of moral theory which have gathered about it, make such an examination advisable. A brief reference to the opposed theories will help to indicate the points which need special attention.

A most profound line of cleavage has appeared in topics already discussed. Some theories hold that the self, apart from what it does, is the supreme and exclusive moral end. This view is contained in Kant’s assertion that the Good Will, aside from consequences of acts performed, is the only Moral Good. A similar idea is implicit whenever moral goodness is identified in an exclusive way with virtue, so that the final aim of a good person is, when summed up briefly, to maintain his own virtue. When the self is assumed to be the end in an exclusive way, then conduct, acts, consequences, are all treated as mere means, as external instruments for maintaining the good self. The opposed point of view is found in the hedonism of the earlier utilitarians when they assert that a certain kind of consequences, pleasure, is the only good end and that the self and its qualities are mere means for producing these consequences.

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Medium 9781943874323


Weber, Chris Solution Tree Press PDF


Behavior is a form of communication providing clues about what is missing in a young person’s life.

—J ohn S eita

Jacob is a fourth-grade student in an urban school district.

After losing his mom three years earlier, Jacob, his older brother, and younger sister now live in a single-parent home. Their father works two jobs to take care of the family, but he doesn’t earn enough wages to pay all the family’s living expenses. Jacob’s aunt often cares for him and his siblings along with her three younger children. Some days,

Jacob’s aunt asks the older children to watch the younger children. Jacob’s role as caregiver means he often makes his brother, sister, and cousins breakfast, helps them get dressed, organizes their lunches and backpacks, and walks them to their classrooms. Jacob is sometimes late to his own class or absent on these mornings.

Jacob and his siblings have witnessed varying degrees of violence and drug use in the community. His dad’s work demands make it hard to have routines, like a set bedtime or homework time. Jacob and his siblings sometimes don’t have meals at home. Jacob is often hungry but feels ashamed to ask for extra food at school, while watching other students waste theirs.

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Medium 9781945349621

Chapter 7

Welchel, Mark; McCann, Blane; Williams, Tami Solution Tree Press PDF



Using Data


n the introduction to this book (page 1), we provided a brief orientation to the three big ideas and four critical questions in a professional learning community. The third big idea, being results oriented, implies that collaborative teams are regularly assessing their work with students to determine how they can grow as professionals and what needs to happen next for learners. Richard DuFour, Rebecca DuFour, Robert

Eaker, and Gayle Karhanek (2010) describe common formative assessments as the linchpin to the PLC at Work process as a means by which to collect data. Without data, teams will stall out and not be able to grow together. When looking at this element of personalized learning that specifically addresses using data, it is clear that there is a direct link and interconnection between these two models. Just like a PLC needs data to move forward, so does a collaborative team planning for instruction that guides question 4 students.

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Medium 9781935249917

Section One: The Classroom Community

David Levine Solution Tree Press ePub

Section One

The Classroom Community

This is the bright home
in which I live,
this is where
I ask
my friends
to come,
this is where I want
to love all the things
it has taken me so long
to learn to love.

—David Whyte, The House of Belonging (p. 6)


What Is a Classroom Community?

A CLASSROOM COMMUNITY IS A PLACE where students feel safe both emotionally and physically, where they feel supported, and where they feel enthusiastic about the discoveries each new school day will bring. It is a place where every individual is honored and where a sense of interdependence is built into the culture. David Whyte’s poem speaks of such a place—where a person feels most at home, free to be his or her own true self without fear of being judged, labeled, or excluded. In this “house of belonging” an individual’s unique life experience is embraced, celebrated, and trea-sured; to belong to the group does not mean giving up one’s individuality. The classroom community, properly constructed, is also a house of belonging, and students thrive when exposed to the sense of security such a community can provide.

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Medium 9781935542032

Chapter Four The Most Critical Year: First Grade

Calderón, Margarita Solution Tree Press ePub

By María Trejo and Margarita Calderón

If a first grader is not beginning to read; does not know the difference between letter sounds and letter names; has limited oral language and vocabulary; does not have a basic understanding of mathematics, science, and concepts such as distance, height, and weight; cannot count; and has limited academic vocabulary in science and mathematics, the first-grade teacher needs to intervene—and quickly. Chances are, there is an academic and language gap between this student and average-achieving first-grade students. His or her vocabulary is probably three thousand to five thousand words behind other students of similar age; his or her comprehension and learning strategies are most likely quite limited; and there is a high probability that his or her parents are not aware that the child is already in academic jeopardy.

Who is most at risk of academic jeopardy? Children who did not attend preschool; children who are English learners; children who may have special educational needs; children who come from homes where the adults have very low literacy backgrounds; children who come from homes where there are no opportunities to visit parks, go on vacations, or go to the library; and children who do not have books at home to read or family members who read to them often. These are children who depend totally on their daily school experiences and the abilities of their teachers to help them learn.

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