4816 Chapters
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Medium 9781475811520

The Leadership of Heritage: Searching for a Meaningful Theory in Official-Language Minority Settings

JOURNAL OF SCHOOL LEADERSHIP Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub


ABSTRACT: This article has two purposes: the first is to give a voice to school leaders in official-language minority schools; the second is to present an empirically based critical analysis of some of the main current models in the field of educational leadership in order to verify whether they are relevant in official-language minority settings. This original perspective is gleaned from a research project that is currently being conducted in official French-language minority schools across Canada. The article presents a brief explanation of the Canadian context with regard to the constitutional rights of official-language minorities to education in their language, describes the method used to conduct the first phase of the research project, and presents some of the main findings.

Since the early nineties, the concept of educational leadership has been the central topic in several major English-language publications in the field of school administration (among others, see Begley, 1999; Greenfield, 1995; Hodgkinson, 1991; Macmillan, 2003; Maxcy, 1991; Owens, 1998; Reynolds & Young, 1995; Sergiovanni, 1996, 2000; Sergiovanni, Burlingame, Coombs, & Thurston, 1999; Starratt, 1991, 1997, 2002) as well as, to a lesser extent, in the French-language literature (see Baudoux, 1994; Deblois & Corriveau, 1994; Girard & Daouda, 1999; Langlois & Lapointe, 2002; St-Germain, 1999). These studies have allowed researchers to identify the crucial role played by educational administrators as leaders, and their influence on the degree of success in educational projects. A number of theoretical models have emerged that attempt to explain what educational leadership is and what it ought to be, such as transformational leadership, socio-constructivist leadership, critical leadership, and moral and ethical leadership. Because most of these models have been developed from research conducted in either homogenous linguistic settings or urban, multicultural milieus, their relevance to educational leadership in official-language minority settings is uncertain.

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Medium 9781935249559

Chapter 3: All About the Learners

Robin J. Fogarty Solution Tree Press ePub


Learning How Student Data Support Differentiation

This chapter explains the need for initial student data that identify who the learners are and what their talents and needs are—their “backstories.” Teachers need to know what makes their learners tick. This chapter focuses on understanding learners and accommodating their learning styles in ways that allow them to excel.

When teachers deliberately and purposefully seek baseline data on their students, they give themselves a huge advantage. When there are reasons to differentiate, teachers inform their decisions on accommodating, adjusting, and modifying a lesson for particular students with whatever information they have about those students. That is what the differentiation process is all about. The data come in many forms, including face-to-face interactions, anecdotal classroom records, standardized test data, and the common assessments used to monitor student progress.

To proceed with this critical aspect of the differentiated classroom, PLC teams should use various tools and techniques to assess their students in four specific areas: (1) student readiness, (2) student interests, (3) student learning profiles, and (4) student affect (Tomlinson, 2005). Student readiness is directly linked to potential for immediate and future growth, while student interests spark the motivation to learn. Learning profiles that delineate preferred styles and learning strengths and weaknesses impact the efficiency of student learning, while student affect speaks to the feelings, emotions, and attitudes of the learners.

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Medium 9780253350787

9. Composer

Estelle R. Jorgensen Indiana University Press ePub




Thinking about composing from a teacher’s perspective requires focusing on the act of composing and its relationship to performing and listening, and the ways in which composing can be fostered throughout music education, from elementary to advanced levels of instruction. Composing is one of the least-emphasized aspects of musical instruction in general education. Although invoked as a necessary element of musical education in The National Standards for Arts Education: What Every Young American Should Know and Be Able to Do in the Arts, and an important aspect of British public music education, it still remains, for too many music teachers, something of a mystery.1 Since undergraduate and graduate music education programs generally pay scant attention to composing, it is not surprising that music teachers often feel unprepared to lead their students in composing and that composing in schools is often undertaken only by the best-prepared musicians who themselves are composers.

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Medium 9781943874149

Chapter 1: Where Am I Going?

William M. Ferriter Solution Tree Press ePub

All too often, teachers use the terms grading and feedback interchangeably. We convince ourselves that any information we give students—letter grades on reports, number grades on quizzes, or written comments on projects—counts equally as forms of valuable feedback. The truth, however, is that grading and feedback are different practices serving different purposes and having different impacts on learners.

Grades communicate how well a student’s work measures up against a teacher’s expectations. Often given only after a student completes an assignment, grades rarely promote growth in learners. In fact, grades rarely even report growth. Instead, they boil down product, process, and progress indicators into one ambiguous number or letter (Guskey, 2009). The result is that students have no clue whether the grades they are earning are a reflection of the quality of the content they have created, the effort they invested into the task, or the fact that their final pieces were better than they expected. As Wiggins (2012) argues:

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Medium 9781943360093


Ilberlin, Jeanie M. Marzano Research ePub


Cultivating Mindfulness in the Classroom is part of a series of books collectively referred to as The Classroom Strategies Series. This series aims to provide teachers, as well as building and district administrators, with an in-depth treatment of research-based instructional strategies that can be used in the classroom to enhance student achievement. Many of the strategies addressed in this series have been covered in other works, such as Classroom Instruction That Works (Marzano, Pickering, & Pollock, 2001), Classroom Management That Works (Marzano, 2003), The Art and Science of Teaching (Marzano, 2007), and Effective Supervision (Marzano, Frontier, & Livingston, 2011). Although those works devoted a chapter or a part of a chapter to particular strategies, The Classroom Strategies Series devotes an entire book to an instructional strategy or set of related strategies.

The purpose of this book is to encourage the use of mindfulness as a highly effective, low-cost strategy to help students meet their psychological needs in school and throughout life. It makes the case for why educators must help students become more mindful and offers a user-friendly approach to mindfulness that is grounded in the science of managing stress, focusing the brain for longer periods of time, and increasing emotional intelligence. Cultivating Mindfulness in the Classroom takes a broad view of the concept, incorporating positive psychology, emotional awareness, and a variety of pragmatic approaches.

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Medium 9781943874965

8 Implementing Rules and Procedures

Marzano, Robert J. Solution Tree Press ePub


Implementing Rules and Procedures

Part of a mental set conducive to learning is the perception that the classroom environment is orderly and safe. The teacher fosters such a perception through well-articulated rules and procedures.

The desired mental states and processes for this design area are: Students understand and follow rules and procedures.

The following elements are important to effective rules and procedures.

Element 33: Establishing Rules and Procedures

The initiating element for this design area is establishing rules and procedures. This, of course, typically occurs at the beginning of the year, although teachers should make adaptations regarding rules and procedures throughout the year. The strategies for this element appear in table 8.1.

Table 8.1: Establishing Rules and Procedures



Using a small set of rules and procedures

Classroom rules and procedures are fundamental to building a productive learning community. The teacher prioritizes rules and procedures by restricting them to five to eight per class. Generally, a teacher should begin the year by establishing general classroom rules, then work toward procedures for more specific areas such as the beginning and end of the school day or period, transitions, and the efficient use of materials and equipment.

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Medium 9781475832518

The Critical Nature of the Knowledge of Content and Students Domain of Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching

Teacher Education and Practice Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

The Critical Nature of the Knowledge of Content and Students Domain of Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching

Steve Rhine

ABSTRACT: Teacher education programs have the responsibility of preparing preservice teachers with the knowledge, skills, and dispositions that initiate effective and rewarding careers. In this thematic issue, the author considers mathematical knowledge for teaching and argues that knowledge of content and students is the most critical knowledge for teacher education programs to focus on. In an examination of research on teacher listening, noticing, Mathematically Important Pedagogical Opportunities, the difference between how master and novice teachers process classroom dynamics, and, finally, the specific context of algebra and how work at the Center for Algebraic Thinking influences the discussion, the author suggests that knowledge of content and students is the catalyst for use of other forms of teacher knowledge and instructional decision making in the classroom.

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Medium 9781425806866

Chapter 7

Sharroky Hollie, Foreword by Eugenia Mora-Flores, Ph.D. Shell Education PDF

Creating a Responsive

Learning Environment


Anticipation Guide

What do you think of when you encounter the expression responsive learning environment? Do you agree or disagree with the following statements about the classroom learning environment?

���� The traditional classroom structure with students sitting in rows is most effective in maintaining discipline with underserved students.

���� Excessive use of decorative materials in the classroom can be distracting for underserved students.

���� An inviting classroom environment encourages students to interact positively with one another and the teacher.

���� Learning centers are necessary in primary-grade classrooms but are not essential for students in the upper grades, notably middle and secondary levels.

���� Fair and clear procedures for classroom behaviors contribute to a sense of community in the classroom.

���� A combination of teacher-directed and student-centered activities is needed to maintain a responsive learning environment.

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Medium 9781935542353

Chapter 1: A New American Revolution

Robert D. Barr Solution Tree Press ePub

Chapter 1

A New American Revolution

What does it mean to be an American? Well, to me, it means that no matter who you are or how many problems you have, in America, everybody has a chance.

—Fourth-Grade African-American Student

A revolution is occurring in public education, and it has generated dramatic changes in our nation’s schools and classrooms. This revolution is shattering attitudes and beliefs that have existed for decades and focusing national attention on the need to educate all students effectively. With a high-quality education, almost anyone, regardless of race, gender, social class, or national origin, can gain access to economic prosperity and security. Without an adequate education, the promise of prosperity and security that is the foundation of a democratic society is out of reach. Without a high-quality education, a person can live in the richest nation on earth yet lack adequate job opportunities, housing, and health benefits, and he or she can too easily fall victim to crime, addiction, abuse, and other dangerous behavior. A high-quality education has become so vital that it is now viewed as an essential and guaranteed civil right.

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Medium 9781935249634

Chapter 3 The Current Impact of Neuroscience on Teaching and Learning

David A Sousa Solution Tree Press ePub


The convergence of laboratory science and cognitive research has entered our classrooms. Interpretations of this research and its implications for increasing the effectiveness of instruction are welcomed by many educators who seek ways to breathe life into increasingly compacted curricula that must be “covered” for standardized tests. Other teachers, who have been forced to use curricula claiming to be brain based that in fact are neither effective nor adequately supported by valid scientific research, are rightfully hesitant and cynical about using laboratory research as evidence on which to base classroom strategies.

In this chapter, I offer information about the brain processes involved in learning and memory to give educators foundational knowledge with which to evaluate the validity of “brain-based” claims. In addition, understanding how one’s most successful lessons and strategies correlate with neuroscience research promotes the expansion and modification of these successful interventions for use in more situations and for the varying needs and strengths of individual students.

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Medium 9781935542018

Ten Building Community in Diverse Classrooms

Ricardo L. Garcia Solution Tree Press ePub

Diversity is a fact of life. Community is not. It must be envisioned, nurtured, and fostered to thrive. Schools are called upon to assist families in rearing children to live well. Bringing up children to live successfully in the greater community has been a shared responsibility for a very long time. More than a hundred years ago, Jane Addams wrote in Democracy and Social Ethics:

The democratic ideal demands of the school that it shall give the child’s own experience a social value; that it shall teach him to direct his activities and adjust them to those of other people. (1907, p. 180)

The adage “It takes a village to raise a child” rings true. In fact, schools are like village commons, the place in communal living where individuals pull together for the development of the self in conjunction with others. Each honors the rights of others so that others will honor hers or his. This is an old ideal, a social contract inherent in e pluribus unum.

In prior chapters, I focused on the intellectual development of students via instruction guided by three universal goals: (1) learning autonomy, (2) intellectual effectiveness, and (3) cultural efficacy. I examine those goals again in this chapter through the lens of socialization (social development), which is mainly “caught” rather than taught in daily classroom and school interactions. First, I examine the relationship between socialization and diversity; then I discuss the characteristics fundamental to a community, from which I make inferences for building community in the classroom. I conclude with a discussion of the school as a village commons.

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Medium 9781475837520

Teacher Education and the Renewal of Our Common World

Jenlink, Patrick M. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Teacher Education and the Renewal of Our Common World


And education, too, is where we decide we love our children enough not to expel them from our world and leave them to their own devices, nor to strike from their hands their chance of undertaking something new, something unforeseen by us, but to prepare them in advance for the task of renewing a common world. (Arendt, 1954, p. 193)

Every year, I experience a familiar tightening in my stomach on the opening day of summer term, as I launch a teacher education course in social studies pedagogy and curriculum. The event has become an annual exercise in self-confrontation, where the ever-shifting imperatives of public education sidle up rather uncomfortably against my evolving conceptualizations of what I believe teacher education can and should be. A sense of obligation weighs heavily, as I consider how to stock new teachers’ survivalist “toolboxes” while preserving precious time to think about, to just be with, teaching—rather than the relentless doing of it. I encourage new teachers to consider who they wish to be as social studies educators, and how public education systems might serve their students and communities. This year, we consider the relational complexities and cultural entanglements of teaching life with particular urgency, as my students’ expulsion into a disconcerting “post-factual” context draws closer. The bewildering political events of recent months highlight that our public education systems require significant reimagining—the kind of renewal new teachers might infuse in their classrooms through critically minded, ethically grounded practice.

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Medium 9781475837537

RL_002 - Brown et al. FINAL

Jenlink, Patrick M. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

The Challenges of Differentiating Instruction for ELLs

An Analysis of Content-Area Lesson Plans Produced by Pre-service Language Arts and Social Studies Teachers

Clara Lee Brown and Rachel Endo

Abstract: This study addressed the challenges of differentiating instruction for ELLs at the pre-service level through an analysis of non-ESL teacher candidates’ work samples. Randomly selected lesson plans in K-12 Language Arts/English and Social Studies were content-analyzed to investigate the types and characteristics of accommodation, differentiation, and provisions provided for ELLs. The findings revealed the following trends: (1) the candidates often conflated ELL characteristics with learning disabilities, (2) stated differentiation strategies were generic without carefully scaffolded and sequenced strategies; and (3) when provided, differentiations for ELLs only provided surface-level accommodations that did not address building academic language or connecting content with prior knowledge. Implications are offered for practice and theory.

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Medium 9781475827903

A Case of Teacher–Assistant Principals: Spanning the Boundary Between Administration and Faculty Through Re-emergent Practices in Teacher Leadership

JOURNAL OF SCHOOL LEADERSHIP Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub


A Case of Teacher–Assistant Principals

Spanning the Boundary Between Administration and Faculty Through Re-emergent Practices in Teacher Leadership

ABSTRACT: Increasingly, teacher leaders are being asked to undertake administrative practices, particularly around instructional policy implementation. Yet little is known about this approach to teacher leadership in current educational contexts or how it may support teachers’ work as boundary spanners between administration and faculty. This case study explores the duties and collegial interactions of two teacher–assistant principals (teacher-APs) and examines the challenges and resources activated through their professional endeavors. Findings suggest that the teacher-APs served as consiglieres, instructional leaders, and mediators between faculty and administration. This work positioned the participants as boundary spanners, who activated resources around policy alignment but also faced substantial challenges like ambiguity, overload, and instructional trade-offs.

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Medium 9781475820539

Beginning Teachers: Supporting One Another and Learning Together

Teacher Education and Practice Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Beginning Teachers: Supporting One Another and Learning Together

Hoa Thi Mai Nguyen
Richard B. Baldauf Jr.

ABSTRACT: Over the past decade, language education in Asian EFL (English as a foreign language) contexts, including Vietnam, has been dominated by concerns associated with the issue of quality, with teacher education and teacher professional development being key focus points. The support provided to English-language teachers in general and beginning English-language teachers in particular is critical to the quality of their immediate professional experiences as well as to their long-term professional learning. Numerous claims have been made regarding the benefits of participating in a mentoring program for beginning teachers. Less attention has been paid to more equal and collegial relationships in mentoring, such as peer mentoring. This article reports a case study that explores the experience of groups of Vietnamese in-service EFL teachers and their participation in a formal peer mentoring model over one semester. Through interviews and reflective journals, this study offers insights into the participants’ experiences as well as the application of formal peer mentoring as a model of EFL teacher professional development.

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