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Medium 9781475832143

Development and Validation of an Instrument to Assess Teacher Leadership Behaviors in a Math–Science Partnership Program

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub








Development and Validation of an Instrument to Assess Teacher Leadership Behaviors in a Math–Science Partnership Program

ABSTRACT: This paper describes the development and validation of a science teacher leadership instrument modeled on the seven domains of the Teacher Leader Model (TLM) Standards (The Teacher Leadership Exploratory Consortium, 2011). Instrument development was part of National Science Foundation–funded Mathematics and Science Partnership (MSP) program that aimed to develop science teacher leaders through the use of Project-Based Science (PBS) in the context of renewable energy. Ratings of professional development sessions presented by teacher leaders to their peers were analyzed to assess whether the instrument could be used to measure teacher leadership in this context. The resulting TLM Standards Instrument is presented as a valid instrument to observe the development and assessment of teacher leadership.

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Medium 9781935543305

3 Improving Communication With Families

LeBlanc-Esparza, Ricardo, LeBlanc-Esparza, Kym Solution Tree Press ePub

In the 1990s, a survey was administered to educators in twenty-nine different states regarding what they consider to be vital skills when working with families (Nathan & Radcliffe, 1994). In 2011, Education Oasis conducted a similar study and identified the same skills (Advice from Teachers, 2011). Educators must be able to:

•  Conduct effective conferences

•  Consult with families when a student has a problem

•  Communicate with families about student progress

•  Help families understand class goals, strategies, and methods of assessment

The foundation of all these skills is effective communication. Communication should occur in a variety of forms, including face-to-face meetings, written notices, and where feasible, technology-assisted formats.

Consider the messages that each of these actions might send to a family (Educational Research Service, 1999b):

•  The principal makes evening hours available for appointments with working families. In the school’s monthly newsletter, the principal prints accessible phone numbers and invites families to call during certain hours.

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Medium 9781942496113

Chapter 3: Data Literacy Projects: Understanding Big Data

Suzie Boss Solution Tree Press ePub

Chapter 3

Data Literacy Projects: Understanding Big Data

We live in a world awash in data. Every Google search, ad click-through, standardized test, public health report, and political poll adds to the mountains of information available for analysis.

From the World Bank to local government bureaus, organizations are becoming increasingly transparent about the information that they gather. People who know how to analyze and interpret open data can crunch numbers to make predictions, explain historical trends, or poke holes in faulty arguments. Increasingly, data scientists leverage their specialized insights to address social and environmental challenges, from climate change to global poverty. Some cities have improved local services by inviting citizens to crowdsource data about needed park repairs or potholes in need of filling.

Students who become data literate enjoy an advantage when it comes to problem solving. They get a head start on posing good questions, analyzing information, and supporting their conclusions with reliable evidence. “Analyzing data, spotting patterns, and extracting useful information have become gateway skills to full participation in the workforce and civic engagement of the 21st century,” according to the Oceans of Data Institute, an initiative of the Learning and Teaching Division at the Education Development Center (EDC Oceans of Data Institute, n.d.b).

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Medium 9781475816846

How Middle School Principals Can Affect Beginning Teachers’ Experiences

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Peter Youngs

Hyun-Seung Kwak

Ben Pogodzinski

How Middle School Principals Can Affect Beginning Teachers’ Experiences

ABSTRACT: This article reports on a 2-year qualitative research study of the processes by which middle school principals’ policies and actions shaped the experiences of five novice teachers in two Michigan school districts. We examined beginning teachers’ perceptions of principals’ approaches to managing student behavior, instructional leadership, and teacher collaboration and their perceptions of the extent to which each principal was trusted by his or her teaching staff. At the end of the second year of data collection (2007–2008), all five beginning teachers expressed high levels of satisfaction and planned to remain teaching in their schools. We argue that leadership related to student behavior and instruction (as perceived by the novices), combined with high levels of teacher–principal trust (again as perceived by the novices), contributes to these outcomes.

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Medium 9781475816709

The Future of Religious Freedom in Australian Schools

International Journal of Educational Ref Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Paul Babie

Ben Mylius

ABSTRACT: This article explores the place of religion within Australian primary and secondary education. It is divided into three parts. The first examines religion within the Australian legal and constitutional structure. The second considers the accommodation of religion in government (public or state) and nongovernment (private) schools, using the State of South Australia as a representative example. The overarching question addressed in the third part is twofold: (1) Does religion find a place in Australia’s schools, both government and nongovernment? (2) To the extent that it does, are there current legal threats to that place—in other words, to the freedom of religious faith in schools? The final section offers some brief concluding observations about the place of religion in Australian life generally, suggesting that there may still be some judicial support for the place of religion in the public sphere, which may auger well for its future in Australian education.

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Medium 9781936764976

PART VIII Assessment

Richard E Ferdig Solution Tree Press ePub



Teachers know that students need frequent opportunities to write and receive feedback; however, for many teachers, the constant demands of responding to students’ writing can become tedious and time consuming. Teachers can also become discouraged when they do not see their evaluations and assessments contributing to students’ writing development. How do teachers provide feedback and assess students’ writing in ways that lead to positive growth in writing? How do teachers develop criteria for responding to and assessing students’ writing?

Research recommends that teachers focus on specific elements of writing and provide targeted feedback (Graham et al., 2012). Kelly Gallagher’s (2006) work supports this idea. He recommends that teachers should be readers during the writing process and uses the analogy of a coach providing support throughout a game or practice. For writing instruction, this means the teacher provides feedback and suggestions throughout students’ writing process rather than solely at the end, when students submit a final draft. One way to do this is to implement teacher-led conferences at various points of the process, so that students can focus their attention on specific aspects of their writing.

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Medium 9781935542872

Chapter 2

Holly Windram Solution Tree Press ePub

If you want to build a ship, don’t drum up people to collect wood and don’t assign them tasks and work, but rather teach them to long for the endless immensity of the sea.

—Antoine de Saint-Exupéry

Someone in the district office went to a conference, and now we have to do RTI.


Advance Organizer

  RTI helps to provides a common language to our practices once we decide what language we will speak.

  There are often numerous definitions for common terms associated with the RTI framework. Deciding what definitions your building and teams will use make the implementation process easier.

  The RTI triangle or pyramid has its origins in public health and helps us conceptualize a multitiered model of RTI.

The basic principles of response to intervention sound so good: effective, efficient screening so no student falls through the cracks; strong curriculum and instruction with a cascade of options designed to meet the needs of all kids; and a systematic and strategic process for making data-based decisions to accelerate student growth. Those principles sound great! Why wouldn’t schools want to jump right in? And many do. We commonly receive inquiries from secondary practitioners who are in the early stages of implementing RTI in their buildings and want to know what to do when they have hit a wall. Often they find that after a few months or even a year of attempting to get things off the ground to “do” RTI, there is an overwhelming sense of confusion, frustration, or in the worst cases, near mutiny of school staff against this new initiative. They have teams that are meeting, they have data they are collecting, and they have kids receiving some interventions. But now, they feel uncertain of their next steps and are revisiting their intentions for doing RTI in the first place. In a word, they feel stuck.

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Medium 9781935543695

Chapter 2 The World Within Your Classroom

William Kist Solution Tree Press ePub

A journey of a thousand miles begins with a single step.


The late environmental educator Donella Meadows (1990) is the originator of the concept of “If the world were a village of 1,000 people.” This was one of the first global awareness activities that I conducted in my class. I would calculate the percentages based on a traditional class of twenty-five and ask the students to group themselves according to the various populations that Meadows describes. The students were amazed to see, for example, just how small North America is in relation to the rest of the world or how few doctors or teachers there are in relation to other professions. For example, if the world were a village of twenty-five people, it would include:

• 14 Asians

• 6 Africans

• 2 Europeans

• 2 Latin Americans

• 1 from the territories of the old USSR

• 1 North American

• < 1 Australian or New Zealander

• 8 children (only 4 are immunized against preventable infectious diseases)

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Medium 9780253018786

Appendix 3. History of the Critical Thinking Rubric

William Condon Indiana University Press ePub

THE ORIGINAL CRITICAL Thinking Rubric began as a project in Condon’s graduate-level assessment seminar in 1997, when two students worked with the General Education Committee to devise a rubric that could measure changes (if any) in the ways students thought about the environment between the first year and mid-career (in partial evaluation of the effects of a grant from Weyerhauser, a prominent foundation in the state of Washington). That crude rubric showed enough promise that the Center for Teaching, Learning, and Technology (CTLT) headed up a working group (with participation from the Writing Programs and General Education) to refine it further. The goal at that point was to develop a rubric that could assess critical thinking. The group distilled fifty-five dimensions of critical thinking from the scholarly literature. Fifty-five dimensions were too many to assess practically or economically, so CTLT proceeded to test them in various assessment trials—located principally at colleges and universities around the state of Washington, but extending nationally and internationally as well. The resulting data, subjected to an ANOVA process, distilled the dimensions to the seventeen that mattered most within the academic community. Seventeen were still too many to assess efficiently or economically, so the data were further analyzed to find what correlations might exist among ratings of the seventeen dimensions. The hope was that assessing one dimension that correlated highly with another would allow for enough efficiency to make larger-scale assessments practical. The correlation study further reduced the list of dimensions to seven—small enough for a practical rating process on the scale of the institution, yet still sufficiently fine-grained to provide useful assessments of students’ learning outcomes.

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Medium 9781936763481

Chapter 2 During the Unit

Kanold-McIntyre, Jessica Solution Tree Press ePub


During the Unit

The choice of classroom instruction and learning activities to maximize the outcome of surface knowledge and deeper processes is a hallmark of quality teaching.

—Mary Kennedy

Learning is experience. Everything else is just information.

—Albert Einstein

Much of the daily work of your collaborative team occurs during the unit of instruction. This makes sense, as it is during the unit that you place much of your collaborative team effort put forth before the unit into action.

Your team conversations during the unit should focus on sharing evidence of student learning, discussing the effectiveness of lessons or activities, and examining the ways in which students may be challenged or need scaffolding to engage mathematically. While discussion about some of the tasks and the end-of-unit assessment planning take place prior to the start of the unit, teachers often plan and revise day-to-day unit lessons during the unit as they gain information regarding students’ needs and successes. What your students do and say while developing understanding of the essential learning standards for the unit provides the data for your teacher team conversations.

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Medium 9781475816747

University Autonomy: The Ethiopian Experience

International Journal of Educational Ref Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Demewoz Admasu Gebru

ABSTRACT: This article discusses and analyzes the state of university autonomy in Ethiopia at a time when the country has embarked on massive expansion of the sector, and universities are established out of urban centers based on regional equity. Legislative provisions and case study reports were reviewed, and lived experiences documented with emphasis on academic, financial, staffing, and governance matters. Following, generalizations were made in order that the country benefits out of the sector.

The government of Ethiopia (since 1991) has embarked on rapidly expanding higher education and universities based on equitable regional distribution. This is enshrined in major legislative provisions such as the Education and Training Policy (1994), the Constitution (No. 1/1995, FDRE), and the Higher Education Proclamation (No. 351/2003). Aimed to provide Ethiopians access to public education, the number of public universities has increased to 31 today from 2 in 1991. This enormously expanding system not only brought varied expectations (in creating knowledge, improving equity, and responding to various stakeholders), but also put considerable pressure on universities. Added to these were globalization, internationalization, and regionalization of knowledge. In all, universities need to adapt to a more complex environment. These head to shortage of research funds, lack of requisite profile of academic staff, and increasing competition for meager resources, among others. In order to raise their competitive edge in this highly competitive environment—both local and international—university autonomy plays a pivotal role in Ethiopia, one of the least developed countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. This is because institutional autonomy grants universities freedom to exercise alternative strategies in order to fulfill missions more effectively.

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Medium 9781936764914

Chapter 2: Supportive Conditions

National Council of Supervisors of Mathe Solution Tree Press ePub


Supportive conditions are the non-negotiable messages and program characteristics that ensure that teachers, leaders, and parents are all pulling in the same direction to see that every student can and will successfully learn mathematics. As such, supportive conditions undergird the specific actions teachers and leaders must take to facilitate success for every student. They serve as both a guide and a measure. More specifically, supportive conditions send a clear and consistent message of expectations and establish rules of acceptable conduct. The three supportive conditions we set forth for ensuring programmatic quality and coherence are (1) beliefs and mindsets that are based on research and not tied to preserving tradition and historical practice, (2) a shared vision, and (3) designated leaders. Without clarity about the beliefs and mindsets that support or undermine social justice and a commitment to quality, a program fails under the idiosyncrasies of individuals rather than succeeds due to the collective wisdom of the community. Without a vision, a program is rudderless. Without designated leaders, no one is positioned to assume responsibility for supporting and monitoring the overall success of the program.

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Medium 9781475811650

Dialogue, Identity, and Inclusion: Administrators as Mediators in Diverse School Contexts

JOURNAL OF SCHOOL LEADERSHIP Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub


ABSTRACT: This article describes a study that explores the identities that principals assume as they engage in dialogue in diverse school contexts. In particular, it focuses on the various dimensions of one identity—that of mediator—and illustrates how this identity shapes the way in which administrators converse with others and how it affects efforts toward inclusion. Administrators in this study assumed either active or symbolic mediator identities in their quest to communicate with their respective school communities. They also devised strategies to deal with contradictions between their expressed inclusive values and their actual communication practices.

Dialogue is important in contexts of diversity. Among other things, it can assist marginalized groups to be meaningfully included in cultural institutions such as schools. Ideally, the right dialogical practices provide the bridges that bring together disparate and different communities in ways that enable them to overcome the powerful barriers that prevent them from sharing in what schools and communities have to offer.

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Medium 9781935249047

Appendix A: Math Academic Word List for English Language Learners

r4Educated Solutions Solution Tree Press PDF

Math Academic Word List for English Language Learners

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Medium 9781475827576

Passed Along: Black Women Reflect on the Long-Term Effects of Social Promotion and Retention in Schools . . .

International Journal of Educational Ref Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Passed Along: Black Women Reflect on the Long-Term Effects of Social Promotion and Retention in Schools

Lynnette Mawhinney
Decoteau J. Irby
Erica S. Roberts

ABSTRACT: Biographies and personal narratives are important for helping us understand how individuals make sense of their experiences and lives. This article explores the educational life histories of two adult Black women that we call Lauren and Shantel. Although both women graduated from US high schools, neither received the basic education and learning supports that would prepare them for successful adulthoods. This study demonstrates the long-term cumulative effects of social promotion and retention on the life outcomes of poor people of color and underscores the importance of prioritizing both students’ academic and socioemotional needs.

KEYWORDS: retention in schools, social promotion, educational life histories

In an era of high-stakes testing, educational researchers, policymakers, practitioners, and other stakeholders have grown increasingly concerned about the harmful effects of both social promotion and retention of students. Social promotion is the practice of moving students to the next grade regardless of their academic abilities. Often used as a means to ensure struggling students remain with students in their age group, social promotion frequently does significant harm to students academically and socioemotionally (Jimerson et al., 2006). Their inability to keep up with the material shakes the students’ confidence; they lose interest in school and lack motivation, and, unlike what most studies show (Carifio & Carey, 2010), some still drop out.

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