4778 Chapters
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Medium 9781475819557

Teacher Engagement in STEM for Sustainability Education: Lessons for Teacher Educators

Teacher Education and Practice Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub


ABSTRACT: With the recent interest in STEM (science, technology, engineering, and math), educators have begun to rethink how these disciplines are taught. Beyond redesigning curricula and core standards, an educational culture is emerging that reexamines the purpose of STEM education and whom it serves. To ensure that all learners are inspired and prepared for success in STEM, we need to break down traditional boundaries, establishing partnerships across institutions (e.g., universities and school districts) and within institutions (e.g., teacher education and STEM departments). Teacher education programs can support improvements in STEM literacy by providing relevant, meaningful learning experiences that help teachers develop confidence and competency in STEM. These programs need to incorporate time for teachers to learn content and apply their new understandings into curricular plans. Teachers need to be active participants in their learning as they develop knowledge, skills, and dispositions related to students, learning, curriculum, pedagogy, and assessment.

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Medium 9781475820348

Implications of the 2011 U.S. Survey of Doctoral Education in Leadership Preparation

International Journal of Educational Reform Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Implications of the 2011 U.S. Survey of Doctoral Education in Leadership Preparation

Margaret Terry Orr

ABSTRACT: As the number of U.S. doctoral educational leadership programs and graduates has increased dramatically in recent years, there is not only more attention to the purpose, design, and assessment for degrees but also more criticisms over the lack of differentiation between the PhD and the EdD. A group of scholars analyzed the results of a survey of 103 U.S. institutions to examine current programs, and they found modest differences in preparation for the two types of doctorates but positive influences from current efforts to redesign the EdD for professional practice, particularly for the dissertation. The scholars call for further research on program design, the impetus and challenges of degree change, and attention to related issues of faculty and student diversity and the role of the field. This article summarizes these findings and draws further implications on the need for case studies and models of degree programs that are coherently redesigned around the different purposes of research and advanced practice beyond the dissertation.

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Medium 9781475811704

Exploring the Intersectionality of Multiple Centers Within Notions of Social Justice

JOURNAL OF SCHOOL LEADERSHIP Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub


Our hope for creative living in this world house that we have inherited lies in our ability to reestablish the moral ends of our lives in personal character and social justice. Without this spiritual and moral awakening we shall destroy ourselves in the misuse of our own instruments.

—Martin Luther King Jr.

The words of Dr. King (1987) reverberate in the ears and weigh on the minds of many in fields such as educational leadership as more scholars espouse the rhetoric of social justice. The problem in this context is the gulf between rhetoric and reality. Thus, the noble intentions of social justice are becoming more codified and solidified in the language and imaginations of many educators. However, these intentions are mired when these same individuals value social justice in terms of verbal articulation but not social action. A proactive notion of social justice may very well be in danger of being co-opted and trivialized, thereby increasing the aforementioned chasm between rhetoric and reality and further denigrating those already marginalized—that is, people of color, women, the disabled, and gay, lesbian, and bisexual people (Bogotch, Beachum, Blount, Brooks, & English, 2008; Capper, 1993; Marshall & Oliva, 2006; North, 2006). Even more dangerous is the idea that disunity among loosely allied intellectual kindred spirits could very well ensure the eventual implosion of any effort to promote social justice. Specifically, scholars who address oppression tend to fight their battles using their prime area of understanding as a philosophical and perspectival home—for example, a feminist who mainly addresses gender issues or an African American who primarily does research on racism. The purpose of this special issue is to get scholars to address another area of concern besides their primary area of research, immediate concern, or center. We believe that the initiation of the praxis (i.e., the reflection and action; Freire, 2000) of social justice as alluded to by Dr. King’s quote is of utmost importance in educational leadership. Therefore, scholars must tread new and different theoretical waters; they must scale the difficult summit of unfamiliarity; and, ultimately, they must begin to explore the complex land of intersectionality.

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Medium 9781942496786

Appendix A

Tuchman Glass, Kathy Solution Tree Press PDF

Appendix A

Narrative and Descriptive Text Types

For this section of the book, I offer an overview of narrative and descriptive text types (also called modes or categories), plus an in-depth discussion about narrative genres and subgenres. I intend the explanations and examples in this appendix to help you plan a standardsbased narrative unit of instruction. As mentioned in the introduction to this book, if you are familiar with narrative and descriptive text types and all they entail, you might skim this material or forgo reading it altogether.

Since what I present here are expansive topics, sometimes authors and educators disagree on definitions and classifications. For example, are tall tales a legend or fantasy? What constitutes contemporary in contemporary realistic fiction? What is the difference between autobiography, personal narrative, and memoir? Therefore, after reading this appendix, you might confer with colleagues in your school or district to agree on the characteristics and elements specific to each genre that you will teach so there is consistency for students.

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Medium 9780983351207

Chapter 4 Addressing Complex Problems and Issues

Marzano, Robert J.; Heflebower, Tammy Marzano Research ePub

Addressing complex problems and issues is the second category of 21st century cognitive skills in our model. As described in chapter 1, this new century often presents more complex and frequent problems and issues than the 20th century presented to its citizens. In this chapter, we present three types of strategies that, taken together, constitute a useful set of tools that apply to a variety of complex problems and issues: (1) focus, (2) divergent and convergent thinking, and (3) a problem-solving protocol.

Focus refers to an individual directing his or her attention to a specific issue over an extended period of time. As we saw in chapter 2, the concept of focus is antithetical to the popular notion of multitasking. Or, to state it differently, multitasking while trying to address complex problems and issues is a recipe for disaster.

Given the popularity of multitasking, an important awareness to instill in students is that while multitasking may sometimes be necessary, there are times when it can be detrimental to learning and even dangerous to one’s well-being. Perhaps the best way to broach this topic with students is to present anecdotes about the dangers of multitasking such as the following.

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Medium 9781622500246

Developing an Outline

Emily Hutchinson Saddleback Educational Publishing PDF

Basic Skills Practice

Developing an Outline

An outline is the framework for a planned composition. A writer creates an outline to plan and organize the major and minor points to be covered in the completed composition.

A. To show what you know about writing an outline, use words from the box to complete the sentences. Hint: You will not use all the words.

sketchy detailed write rearrange brief type review structured minor separate order draft details sequence plan thoughts topics original

An outline is simply a ___________________. It helps you organize your

___________________ in the most effective ___________________. The better your outline, the easier it will be to write your first ___________________.

Outlines vary with the ___________________ of writing you are doing. An appropriate outline for a research project would be quite

___________________ and ___________________. For a one-page business letter, a fairly ___________________ and ___________________ outline will usually be adequate. But whether your outline is long or short, it will always set out the major __________________ and the supporting

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Medium 9781935542186

Chapter 4 Orient Your Faculty to the Look-Fors and Walkthroughs

Elaine K. McEwan-Adkins Solution Tree Press ePub

If the school is the unit of improvement, then individual teachers have to work across classrooms to generate improvement. One classroom at a time won’t work.

—City et al. (2009, p. 162)

1. Understand the literacy look-fors.

2. Understand the classroom walkthroughs.

3. Assess your instructional leadership capacity.

4. Orient your faculty to the look-fors and walkthroughs.

5. Collect and analyze look-for frequency data.

6. Develop, implement, and assess embedded professional development.

7. Use team walkthroughs to build school capacity.

In this chapter you will find suggestions for orienting your teachers to the look-fors and walkthroughs. Take your time with the orientation process. Make sure your faculty thoroughly understands the look-fors and walkthroughs and begins to see the potential they have for connecting faculty professional growth to student learning.

The key to any successful improvement implementation depends on a combination of embedded professional development activities and total principal commitment. Even if you receive help from central office or a jump-start from out-of-district providers, your implementation is not likely to achieve its intended results unless you are leading the team, articulating your expectations, and taking risks alongside your teachers. Therefore, you are in charge of providing the orientation to the literacy look-fors and walkthroughs to your faculty.

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Medium 9781935543657

Chapter 5: Convergent Assessment: Where Are We Now?

Austin Buffum Solution Tree Press ePub


Convergent Assessment: Where Are We Now?

Convergent assessment: An ongoing process of collectively analyzing targeted evidence to determine the specific learning needs of each child and the effectiveness of the instruction the child receives in meeting these needs. Thinking is guided by the question, Where are we now?

Once a school has created a collaborative culture focused on collective responsibility for student learning and identified the learning goals all children must reach to be successful in school and in life, it should next gather the evidence necessary to determine where each child is in his or her learning relative to the goal. This evidence, gathered through convergent assessment, answers the question, Where are we now?

Convergent assessment ensures that interventions and enrichments are both timely and targeted. Instruction must target specific skills or knowledge in a timely sequence that proceeds toward a known learning destination. If we don’t know exactly where each student is and what he or she needs to succeed, our interventions and enrichments will be well-intentioned “shotgun blasts” of strategies aimed at a plethora of skills in hopes that something will “hit.”

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Medium 9780253211859

Evolution and Ethics (1898)

LARRY A HICKMAN Indiana University Press ePub

To a strictly logical mind the method of the development of thought must be a perplexing, even irritating matter. Its course is not so much like the simple curve described by a bullet as it speeds its way to a mark, as it is like the devious tacking of a sail boat upon a heavy sea with changeable winds. It would be difficult to find a single problem during the whole record of reflective thought which has been pursued consistently until some definite result was reached. It generally happens that just as the problem becomes defined, and the order of battle is drawn, with contestants determined on each side, the whole scene changes; interest is transferred to another phase of the question, and the old problem is left apparently suspended in mid-air. It is left, not because any satisfactory solution has been reached; but interest is exhausted. Another question which seems more important has claimed attention. If one, after a generation or a century, reviews the controversy and finds that some consensus of judgment has finally been reached, he discovers that this has come about, not so much through exhaustive logical discussion, as through a change in men’s points of view. The solution is psychologically, rather than logically, justified.

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Medium 9781475832518

Teacher and Instructional Characteristics of Inclusive Algebra I Classes

Teacher Education and Practice Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Teacher and Instructional Characteristics of Inclusive Algebra I Classes

Shane A. Smith

ABSTRACT: The number of students with disabilities who are educated alongside their peers without disabilities in general education classes has steadily increased. Although evidence in the current literature generally points to the effectiveness of educating students with disabilities in inclusive settings, little is known about the specific characteristics of general education math teachers in these settings and the classroom practices these teachers use. This study utilized small-scale survey methods to explore the characteristics of the general education algebra I teachers in a midwestern school district, the curricula they use, and their methods and strategies of instruction to address the needs of students with disabilities. Results indicate that teachers receive high levels of instructional support from special educators and use various curricula and instructional strategies to teach students with disabilities.

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Medium 9781942496762

Chapter 4 The Backward Planning Approach to Unit Design: Pre- and Culminating Assessments and Criteria for Success

Kathy Tuchman Glass Solution Tree Press ePub

Once you articulate a unit’s learning outcomes by identifying what students should know, understand, and do (KUDs), it is time to determine how students will show evidence of learning—the second part of backward planning. The focus of this chapter is on the culminating assessment and the criteria against which it will be assessed. Additionally, I suggest ways you can preassess to gather useful information about students’ writing capabilities and genre knowledge. I feature tools and strategies for you to create or redesign writing prompts, checklists, and rubrics and discuss writing models, anchor papers, and grading. This culminating assessment and the accompanying criteria, together with the KUDs, will guide you in orchestrating learning experiences to teach key skills. During lesson planning—the last stage of backward planning—you’ll have the opportunity to incorporate appropriate resources, instructional strategies and methods, differentiation, and various assessments, implementing all of these with a clear focus on helping students achieve well on the culminating assessment. If needed, review figure 3.1 on page 40 for a visual representation of backward planning to guide your reading of this chapter.

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Medium 9781945349584

Chapter 7

Watanabe-Crockett, Lee Solution Tree Press PDF



Learning Intentions and

Success Criteria


n this shift of practice, I will help you understand the importance of making learning intentions clear for students. When you equip students to better understand their goals, they are more likely to do the work necessary to achieve them. I like to illustrate this concept with a short, personal anecdote.

When I was in primary school I wanted to be Spider-Man. I loved the idea of the adrenaline rush and danger of swinging between buildings at high speeds. This is probably what led me to racing Ducati motorcycles in Italy. Really, though, I just wanted to help people; I wanted to make a difference where I saw need. I believe that this desire to do good lies in the heart of us all.

By the time I was in high school, I still wanted to make a difference and I knew it wasn’t possible to be Spider-Man; what I really wanted to do was write. I imagined sharing stories and ideas that would inspire people all over the world. I was a fiercely determined student and I announced my intention to be a brilliant writer to my

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Medium 9781945349621

Chapter 7

Welchel, Mark; McCann, Blane; Williams, Tami Solution Tree Press PDF



Using Data


n the introduction to this book (page 1), we provided a brief orientation to the three big ideas and four critical questions in a professional learning community. The third big idea, being results oriented, implies that collaborative teams are regularly assessing their work with students to determine how they can grow as professionals and what needs to happen next for learners. Richard DuFour, Rebecca DuFour, Robert

Eaker, and Gayle Karhanek (2010) describe common formative assessments as the linchpin to the PLC at Work process as a means by which to collect data. Without data, teams will stall out and not be able to grow together. When looking at this element of personalized learning that specifically addresses using data, it is clear that there is a direct link and interconnection between these two models. Just like a PLC needs data to move forward, so does a collaborative team planning for instruction that guides question 4 students.

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Medium 9781935542285

Appendix B Table of Contents for the Twenty Units

Elaine McEwan-Adkins Solution Tree Press ePub

Visit go.solution-tree.com/literacy to download and print this figure.

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Medium 9781936764518

1 Why Should You Care About Poverty?

Eric Jensen Solution Tree Press ePub

We’ve all noticed that things are changing in America, and they are changing fast. At one school I was working with, a teacher shared some pretty serious frustrations. As she spoke, her eyes moistened, “You want us to do this and that, plus you say it might be hard—and it might even take months or years! For starters, do you even know how much we are being asked to do these days? Do you know how little support we get from leadership? How do we even know these things you suggest are possible? And, really, why should we even bother? After all, things will change again in a few years, and there’ll be some new flavor of the month that we all have to jump on board with again!” She was nearly in tears, and her pain was obvious.

When teachers tell me, “Our jobs have changed,” they’re right. When teachers tell me, “Students aren’t like they used to be,” they’re right. When staff tell me, “The whole profession has changed,” they’re right. Lastly, when teachers like you tell me how frustrating their jobs are, I’m on your side. I’ve been a teacher. I work with teachers, and I know the profession well.

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