4622 Chapters
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Medium 9781932127300

Chapter 6: Winning Foundation Grant Proposals

Beverly Brown Solution Tree Press ePub

Chapter 6

Winning Foundation Grant Proposals

YOU MUST PLAY BY FOUNDATION RULES TO WIN A GRANT. The tricky part is determining which grant proposal rules to follow. Some foundations have their own grant application forms while others require a customized cover form to be used instead of your own standard proposal format. Some foundations indicate in their published guidelines that they want proposals in either the Regional Association of Grantmakers (RAGs) format or the National Network of Grantmakers (NNG) format. Most foundations accept the NNG format.

Remember, grants awards are competitive. How can foundations eliminate the stacks of unsolicited and solicited proposals dumped into their mailboxes every day? By requiring grant seekers to jump through a lot of technical hoops. Grant seekers who “do their own thing” when it comes to submitting a proposal to a foundation will quickly find themselves on the standard-form rejection letter recipient list. Another tactic used to reduce the number of funding requests is requiring customized application forms. For example, many foundations require scanning of the forms, then typing in the requested information—a tedious process. Other foundations want your entire request limited to a one-page application form with no attachments. The key is to never, ever send the same generic proposal to all of the foundations you approach. This is called “funding suicide,” and you cannot go back to these funders for years if you make this mistake!

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Medium 9781475836783

Implementation of the International Studies Schools Network (ISSN) Reform Model: A Case Study in Ohio

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Implementation of the International Studies Schools Network (ISSN) Reform Model

A Case Study in Ohio

Vicki L. Plano Clark

Jessica A. West1

Sam Stringfield†

Jacinda K. Dariotis

ABSTRACT: This case study examined the implementation of Asia Society’s International Studies Schools Network (ISSN) model in two schools funded for three years (2011–2014) through the Ohio Network of Education Transformation. Documents, interviews, and observations were gathered over two years (2013–2015) for two schools. One year post-funding, the high school’s implementation of the ISSN model was thriving and the middle school was struggling to maintain its implementation. Several dimensions emerged from the data analysis to help explain the differences between the schools’ ISSN implementation and to suggest lessons learned specific to the ISSN reform model.

KEYWORDS: International Studies Schools Network (ISSN), reform implementation, case study

A key decision within any school reform effort is the selection of the guiding reform model. The evaluation of the Ohio Network of Education Transformation (ONET) component of Ohio’s implementation of the Race to the Top (RttT) initiative provided a unique opportunity in which to examine and compare the implementation of different educational reform models (Stringfield et al., 2017). Five districts in Ohio originally received funding ($600,000 over three years) to implement the International Studies Schools Network (ISSN) model. This case study describes the experiences of two funded schools.

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Medium 9781934009420

Chapter 2 A Journey of Transformation

Richard A. DeLorenzo Solution Tree Press ePub

Leading Questions

1. What are the burning issues and opportunities for improvement in your school or district?

2. Do the educators in your system have regular, open, schoolwide, and districtwide conversations about student achievement?

3. Does your school or district have a shared vision, or are administrators, teachers, parents, and community stakeholders working at cross-purposes?

4. Are you willing to be a leader—among your colleagues, in your school, in your district, or with your fellow board members—in bringing about positive change?

There is a story passed down orally through the ages, generation to generation, about the origin of the name Chugach. John F. C. Johnson, an Alaska Native whose family is from the village of Nuchek in Prince William Sound, shares a tale related to him by the late John Klashinoff, who was born in Nuchek in 1906:

John Klashinoff learned many stories from my grandmother’s uncle, Chief Makari (Makarka) Chimovitski, who adopted and raised him and 10 other orphans at a new settlement called Makarka Point. In the early 1900’s an epidemic that swept across Alaska claimed John’s parents and many others.

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Medium 9781475819168

Editorial: Mystification and the Work of Teacher Educators—A More Authentic Speaking

R&L Education ePub


[I]t is [education’s] business to cultivate deep-seated and effective habits of discriminating tested beliefs from mere assertions, guesses, and opinions; to develop a lively, sincere, and open-minded preference for conclusions that are properly grounded, and to ingrain into the individual’s working habits methods of inquiry and reasoning appropriate to the various problems that present themselves. (Dewey, 1910, pp. 27–28)

Education never was, is not, and can never be neutral or indifferent in regard to the reproduction of the dominant ideology or the integration of it. (Freire, 1998, p. 91)

The concept of mystification refers to the relationship between appearance and reality. It is a distancing of individuals, or collectives, from the world, from themselves and from others around them. Mystifications “disguise or transpose . . . real life” (Lefebvre, 1991, p. 146) by providing explanations which achieve the status of common sense. The point is to keep hidden an undisclosed purpose that is not concerned with its impact on individuals or collectives. Mystification occurs when individuals or collectives transpose a story of what reality is, into a belief that the story is reality based on facts. As Hanna Arendt (1968) explains,

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Medium 9781936763252

Chapter 17 What’s Your Opinion?

Patricia M. Cunningham Solution Tree Press ePub


What’s Your Opinion?

Whenever you find yourself in a conversation or near others talking in a crowd, you are likely to hear people express lots of opinions in just a few minutes. Having opinions is certainly not limited to adults. Even small children readily state whether they like a particular food and what they want for their birthday. Just listen when your students are talking among themselves during recess or playtime. You will almost certainly hear them utter different opinions about what they should do and who should perform what role. Expressing opinions seems almost as natural as communication itself.

The Common Core State Standards build on this human tendency to form and articulate personal views by having students begin to write simple opinion pieces in kindergarten and first grade. Writing anchor standard one (CCRA.W.1) seeks to improve students’ ability to compose well-reasoned opinion pieces so that, increasingly, students will be able to use evidence and logic to support their judgments and conclusions in the various subjects they study as they move up through the grades.

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Medium 9781936764495

Chapter 6 Tackling Curriculum Management

John F. Eller Solution Tree Press ePub

Marvin, a new middle school teacher, is getting ready to teach a unit on measurement. In order to prepare for the unit, Marvin checks the district-curriculum guide for the standards and learning objectives that students are supposed to achieve in this area. He can see that his part of the curriculum moves the students into a more complex application of measurement.

In preparing for the start of the unit, Marvin works with his colleagues to see if they have developed a preassessment he can use to see what skills and content knowledge his students have before he starts the unit. This will help him know what areas may need more focus or emphasis.

In developing his plan for the unit, Marvin includes a list of learning targets that the students need to master. He knows that it is important for them to understand what they will be learning and how they will be reaching the targets.

In this scenario, Marvin develops his unit, determining what he will teach, based on the outcome the students need to reach. This focus on state or districtwide standards and learning objectives ensures that all students are meeting the same goals and learning what has been deemed most critical for their subject or grade level. By helping students understand what they need to know through learning targets, Marvin reinforces the expected learning and helps his students to be invested and successful in mastering it.

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Medium 9781935249467

3 Making Decisions That Support Close Reading Instruction

Diane Lapp Solution Tree Press ePub

Now that we’ve defined close reading, and identified the factors that make a text complex, let’s briefly consider some key decisions that you must address as you prepare a lesson to support your students in becoming close readers of increasingly complex texts. You make the following decisions as a result of your assessments of student performance. It’s important to remember that the decisions teachers make greatly affect student learning (Vescio, Ross, & Adams, 2008). These decisions can also help you assess your own progress as a teacher of close reading; as you gain experience with the process, your decisions about what constitutes a complex text become more obvious, the questions that support students being able to analyze these areas of complexity will be easier to craft, and the scaffolds that you design to support all students becoming close readers will become more differentiated.

Because there is so much emphasis on teaching students to closely read short, complex texts, there’s a temptation to just select any short passage, even though it may not be related to the lesson purpose, to engage students in a close reading. Doing this would be the opposite of what should occur. Once you identify your lesson purpose that is, of course, related to the standards being addressed, you can then select a text and plan a close reading as one dimension of the instruction designed to accomplish the purpose. While we list possible texts to support sample lesson purposes, it’s important to note that the text should be selected after the lesson purpose has been identified because the study of the text should help accomplish the purpose. We mention these texts here merely as examples of the relationship that should exist between a content purpose statement and a text selected to help students achieve the purpose. Also note that while we identify texts that are related to the accomplishment of a specific lesson purpose, we are not suggesting that an entire book be used for a close reading. A text or passage selected for close reading should be short—approximately one page—because students will be reading it more than once.

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Medium 9781935542285

Chapter 2 Teacher-Managed Instruction

Elaine McEwan-Adkins Solution Tree Press ePub

We will never teach all of our students to read if we do not teach our students who have the greatest difficulties to read. Another way to say this is: “Getting to 100% requires going through the bottom 20%.”

—Torgesen (2006, p. 1)

This chapter explores the category of effective literacy instruction exemplars called teacher-managed instructional activities, or simply teacher-managed instruction. These activities are lessons in which teachers directly teach and work face to face with struggling students to provide differentiated (different and additional) opportunities to learn as needed to ensure that all students, regardless of their categorical labels, demographic characteristics, or learning difficulties, acquire literacy skills that enable them to achieve to their highest potential. There are eight exemplars of effective K–6 literacy in the teacher-managed instruction category, as shown in figure 2.1.

Figure 2.1: Exemplars and Nonexemplars of Teacher-Managed Instruction

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Medium 9781475821802

The Title I Program

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

The Title I Program

Fiscal Issues and Challenges

Cosette M. Grant

Noelle Witherspoon Arnold

ABSTRACT: Title I aims to tackle the academic achievement gap between disadvantaged and advantaged students via federal funding to school districts serving low-income students and to help equalize educational opportunities for students from poor households. Title I has been the largest K–12 program funded by the federal government. Yet, despite 49 years of Title I investments since 1965, persistent efforts to close the achievement gap between disadvantaged students and advantaged students have not been successful. Using existing research, we provide information on current fiscal issues that govern Title I funding to give a better understanding of challenges associated with managing Title I programs designed to close the achievement gap.

Education is a human right with immense power to transform. On its foundation rest the cornerstones of freedom, democracy, and sustainable human development.

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Medium 9780253005939


Matthew Tully Indiana University Press ePub



Sgt. John Barrow and I were walking down a hallway midway through third period of the school year’s first Friday when he got a call about a group of students who had been caught in the upstairs gym. The seven boys were skipping class and acting suspicious, another officer announced over the police radio. The day before, two students had been expelled for having oral sex in a nearby locker room. But the voice on the radio made clear to Barrow that he wouldn’t make it through this first week without a much bigger mess. “Let’s go,” he said.

Barrow had just finished giving me the first of many lessons he would deliver throughout the school year, lessons learned from more than a dozen years spent patrolling the halls of Indianapolis Public Schools (IPS). He called this one the “Dandelion Theory.” It’s based on the idea that you sometimes have to pluck out one troublemaking student so that the others can thrive. “I want my grass to be perfectly green,” said Barrow, an army veteran with a shaved head and a huge smile. “That means I want every kid in here to graduate and be happy. But if there is one dandelion, I can’t ignore it. I have to pull it out, or before long we’ll have a lawn full of weeds. It’s like cancer. Trouble spreads if you don’t watch out for it and do something about it.”

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Medium 9781936765973

Chapter 3 Implementing the Common Core Mathematics Content in Your Curriculum

Solution Tree Press ePub


Chapter 2 presented a strong argument for designing the transition to the CCSS through the window of teacher and student engagement in the Mathematical Practices (see appendix B, page 157). This makes a lot of sense as you consider the mathematics content of the CCSS. What’s the content? How does this mathematics differ from what you are now teaching or have previously taught? Are there particular standards that require additional focus? What about topics that appeared to be a struggle for your students last year or throughout your career? These “in my room with my kids” concerns are legitimate at every grade level.

This chapter provides a number of analysis tools for examining your classroom, school, or district implementation of the content domains and expectations of the Common Core State Standards. As you work collaboratively with colleagues, you will be able to address and become conversant with the paradigm shift less is more. The Common Core standards require you to shift to less (fewer standards) is more (opportunity to dig deeper with understanding) at each grade level in your school.

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Medium 9781425809232

Week 29

Christine Dugan Shell Education PDF



Name: _______________________________ Date:__________________


Read the text and then answer the questions.

Nina’s teacher had it all wrong. The principal did, too.

She was not talking during the fire drill. She was totally silent. She followed the rules. Nina’s teacher must have misheard the voice. Nina thought she confused her with

Jada. So Nina had to say something. She wanted to stand up for herself.











Who is the main character? the principal the teacher




What is the text mostly about?


Nina standing next to Jada


Nina’s teacher and principal being wrong


Nina getting in trouble for something she didn’t do


Nina talking during the fire drill

© Shell Education


Which suffix could be added to the root word stand?







What does the author mean when she says that Nina wanted to stand up for herself?





Nina has to walk alone.




____ / 4



Nina has to grow taller.

Nina has to stand up.

Nina has to speak up about the truth.

#50923—180 Days of Reading for Second Grade

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Medium 9781475811506

From Barriers to Breakthroughs: Principals’ Strategies for Overcoming Challenges to Teachers’ Transformational Learning

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub


ABSTRACT: This nationwide qualitative study investigated how 25 school leaders, serving in schools with varying resources, perceive the practices they use to support teacher learning. The study discusses how these leaders understand the human resource challenges they face in supporting teacher learning and highlights their creative responses to these challenges across school contexts. Although the principals experience similar challenges, the challenges manifest themselves differently, and the strategies devised to overcome them are tied to the specific contexts of the leaders’ schools.

It is important for teachers to continually grow and renew themselves. . . . This is not a selfish, personal matter, to be pursued only when “time allows.” On the contrary, it is essential for health-giving teaching. (Finser, 1994, p. 236)

Much has been made of various crises in U.S. schools. In recent years, improving student performance and learning have occupied the foreground of attention, unquestionably the top priority of many school leaders. School principals have the responsibility of helping their teachers grow, though many face multiple obstacles to shaping contexts in which teacher learning can happen. Finser (1994) expresses what recent research verifies—the importance of prioritizing the personal and professional growth of faculty (Darling-Hammond & Sclan, 1996; Fullan, 2001; Fullan & Hargraves, 1992; Lightfoot, 1983). Helping teachers learn supports the development of students (Donaldson, 2001), as reflective practice has been associated with positive student outcomes (Guskey, 1999; York-Barr, Sommers, Ghere, & Montie, 2001). This article focuses on the human resource challenges principals face in facilitating teachers’ transformational learning and their creative strategies for overcoming such challenges. Time is one common challenge, but we argue that challenges vary as much as the contexts in which principals work.

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Medium 9781942496960

Chapter 4 Positive Reinforcement

Tom Hierck Solution Tree Press ePub

Key 3: Positive Reinforcement

Students receive timely and specific feedback—both formally and informally—on a regular basis. Celebration, recognition, and reward systems are in place to acknowledge, honor, and thank students for displaying positive social and academic skills.

Feedback is the information a teacher provides to a student in terms of that student’s understanding or demonstration of learning. It is most often an outcome of learning as opposed to a stimulus for learning. Yet, at its most powerful, feedback has the potential to improve teaching and learning if educators utilize different types of feedback and assess their effectiveness during the teaching-learning cycle. The relationship between assessment and feedback is a critical component of this back-and-forth exchange.

Timely and specific feedback is critical to improved learning. Students crave feedback and regularly seek it out. In a fascinating study, researcher Graham Nuthall (2007) put microphones on students and analyzed what was happening for them each day. One of the more interesting discoveries he made was that 80 percent of the feedback students received each day was from other students—and 80 percent of it was wrong! In discussion with students, Nuthall found out they like receiving the feedback. Why? Because, despite the inaccuracies, the feedback satisfies two key criteria for feedback to be effective: just in time and just for me. The timeliness aspect makes sense as the shorter the time lag, the smaller the gap, and the easier it is to close. If teachers delay feedback, students lose the opportunity for improvement. In progressive learning, students will not achieve the next step in the process if they have not yet mastered the previous step. I often encounter high school teachers frustrated with students reading at a grade 3 level. But when did teachers first know about the gap, and when could they first have provided feedback to close it? Grade 3, or possibly even earlier. The challenge becomes more significant and more difficult to amend with each passing day, week, or month. Educators should take care to personalize feedback as each student has unique needs. It’s rarely an effective strategy to offer the whole class feedback unless the whole class has made the same mistake. In my experience this is a rare occasion!

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Medium 9781935249689

Chapter 4 RTI and Brain-Compatible Differentiation Strategies for Mid-Elementary Reading Instruction

William N. Bender Solution Tree Press ePub

As students move into grades 3 and 4, a new array of additional reading skills becomes increasingly important. Whereas reading instruction in the early grades tends to concentrate on phonemics, phonics, and phonological skills, students in higher elementary grades must also master increasingly complex vocabulary, learn to read fluently, and develop comprehension skills, according to the National Reading Panel (2000). Ming and Dukes (2010) refer to this changing emphasis in reading as “learning to read” in kindergarten through grade 2, versus “reading to learn” in grades 3 and higher. That accurately describes most successful readers who are functioning on grade level, though it is less accurate for students struggling in reading. For these struggling readers, deficits in decoding skills in the lower grades result in later deficits in the higher-level reading skills such as fluency and comprehension (Bender & Larkin, 2009; Ming & Dukes, 2010). Therefore, teachers in grades 3 through 5 must structure differentiated instructional activities that address each of these more complex reading skills, as well as the prerequisite decoding skills discussed previously.

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