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Medium 9781935249047

Appendix A: Math Academic Word List for English Language Learners

r4Educated Solutions Solution Tree Press PDF

Math Academic Word List for English Language Learners

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Medium 9781947604513

1: The Integrated Nature of Assessment and the Creative Process

White, Katie Solution Tree Press ePub


The Integrated Nature of Assessment and the Creative Process

Imagine a physical education teacher invites his students into a creative process during a physical education class. He has spent a few weeks exploring a number of net games (for example, tennis, volleyball, table tennis), and the class is ready to use a creative process to determine degrees of understanding and skill. He decides he wants students to apply what they learn about net games to a new game of their own creation. The teacher invites them to choose equipment and design rules. He then offers them the chance to try the game with classmates, in order to identify strategies and tactics that advance their game. He asks students to create a scoring system and parameters for wins and losses.

During this creative process, the teacher engages in assessment with the students. During exploration, he might preassess students to determine the degree to which they understand what makes net games unique. He checks their understanding of rules during tennis, badminton, volleyball, and pickle ball. He ensures they have a grasp of the critical features of a net game. For those students who are struggling with this content, he offers additional instructional support and practice, so learners can successfully engage in the creative process in relation to this topic (building foundational domain knowledge).

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Medium 9781932127423

Section 4 Placing PLCs in a Broader Context

Richard DuFour Solution Tree Press ePub


The Effective Schools movement will celebrate its 40th anniversary in 2006. The history of the Effective Schools movement began with the publication of the Equal Educational Opportunity (EEO) study, also known as the “Coleman Report,” in 1966. The now infamous conclusion of that report—that schools do not make a difference—triggered a response that has come to be known as the Effective Schools research. The EEO conclusion was significant because it suggested that if one wanted to know about the achievement of children, one needed to look at the homes from which they came, not the schools in which they learned. Left unchallenged, this conclusion would have essentially rendered schools passive players in helping children achieve the American dream.

In response to this report, a number of independent educational researchers set out to find schools where all children—especially minority and disadvantaged children—were mastering the intended curriculum. It was thought that finding such schools would serve as compelling evidence that the conclusions of the EEO study were not totally accurate. This successful effort identified many schools that challenged the EEO conclusion that “schools do not make a difference.” These initial studies changed the conclusion to “some schools make a difference” and led to the emergence of two new questions:

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Medium 9781943874514

Start Your Own Business!

Marge Maxwell Solution Tree Press ePub

Source: Adapted from Lena White and Kelli Ralston. Used with permission.

Content: Social studies

Learning Objectives:

1.Students will create a business plan for their own business for the school fair.

2.Students will use web 2.0 tools to create a multimedia presentation advertising their business and product.


C3 Framework for Social Studies State Standards—

•D2.Eco.2.K–2 Identify the benefits and costs of making various personal decisions (NCSS, 2013).

•D2.Eco.3.K–2 Describe the skills and knowledge required to produce certain goods and services (NCSS, 2013).

Project Options: Students will be able to use web tools that appeal to them. For instance, students who are more visually oriented may choose to use Animoto over Prezi. They may opt to use many different web 2.0 tools that work best with their choice of business. There is also opportunity to do the plan and project as a group, not just individually.

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Medium 9781942496373

Chapter 5 Managing Classroom Behavior

Eaker, Robert Solution Tree Press ePub

Even the best program requires good management techniques to get children started and moving. Your destination won’t be reached if you can’t get the car started and keep it moving (or stopped when necessary). And educational objectives won’t be achieved if a teacher can’t get children involved in the work and keep them from disturbing others.

—Jacob Kounin

Most educators recognize the impact student behavior can have on learning. Teachers spend a great deal of time dealing with behavior issues—in some cases, a disproportionate amount of time. In fact, the issue of student discipline and the amount of time spent dealing with student behavior looms so large in the minds of some teachers it causes them to give up on the teaching profession entirely because they feel they rarely deal with anything else (Saphier et al., 2008).

The terms discipline and classroom management are often used interchangeably. One way to differentiate between these terms is to view discipline as those tools teachers employ after a student misbehaves. Classroom management, on the other hand, refers to the tools teachers utilize to manage their classrooms, preventing discipline problems from occurring in the first place. Teachers need to be skilled in both kinds of tools, and teachers in a PLC place a great deal of emphasis on gaining the knowledge and skills that can help them effectively manage their classrooms.

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Medium 9781934009543

Chapter 2 Tier 1 Mathematics Instruction: A Critical Component of RTI

Wiliam N. Bender Solution Tree Press ePub

In the most commonly adopted RTI models, Tier 1 instruction is provided in the general education environment across all grade levels, and this instruction is, for the most part, delivered in a self-contained classroom setting (Buffum et al., 2009; Fuchs & Fuchs, 2005, 2006). While some educators use the term intervention to describe the first level of the RTI pyramid, we find that it is more accurate and less confusing to describe it as Tier 1 instruction, since it does not involve small-group or individual intervention. Rather, Tier 1 instruction typically involves high-quality whole-group instruction, universal screening, and classroom assessments, coupled with some small-group instruction, differentiated instruction, and limited individual assistance in mathematics as needed (Bender, 2009a). Thus, the general education teacher has a number of diverse responsibilities for Tier 1 instruction—the first, and arguably the most critical, component of RTI.

While the tiered instructional models used most frequently in reading and literacy rely on instructional teams collaborating to deliver data-driven instruction—teams including, for example, reading coaches, a reading specialist, general educators, and special educators—this is somewhat less likely in mathematics (Bender, 2009a). Of course, some districts have begun to employ certified mathematics coaches and specialists similar to reading coaches, but it is reasonable to assume that such support might be less likely to be available in mathematics, given the United States’ priority on reading. In the current RTI models, elementary general education teachers will be expected to do the majority of mathematics Tier 1 work alone.

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Medium 9781947604513

5: Unlocking Expression

White, Katie Solution Tree Press ePub


Unlocking Expression

The teacher and her students file into the gymnasium, past the parents waiting in the lobby. They have three short minutes to get ready to receive family members and friends. Today, the fifth-grade arts education students are going to show their guests some of the things they have been doing in class, and the students are buzzing in anticipation. Every student has someone whom he or she will receive as soon as the doors open. The teacher has made sure of this, so not one student is left out.

Among other things, the class has been creating a couple of dances—one as a whole group and one in smaller pods of students. The work leading up to this hour of performance has been rigorous, and the students are satisfied they are ready to share with people who matter to them. In addition, the students decide to follow up their performances with a participation component by teaching their guests the class dance.

Even the most reluctant students are prepared. Their creative process ensures they had a hand in crafting the elements of the dance they will be performing, and the group spent some time during each class over the past few weeks rehearsing and refining skills. The group performed for another class and shared the small-group dances with each other, allowing time for feedback and short-term goal setting. The students and the teacher have explored how to make their movements communicate the emotions they desire. To help visualize possibilities, they have been watching video segments of a variety of creative movement routines. The class is ready.

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Medium 9781935249849

16 Changing the Culture of Schooling to Embrace Effort-Based Enrichment

Richard DuFour Solution Tree Press ePub

Give them the gift of the growth mindset. Create an environment that teaches the growth mindset to the adults and children in your life.


Probably the most important—and the most difficult—job of the school-based reformer is to change the prevailing culture of a school. . . . Ultimately, a school’s culture has far more influence on life and learning in the schoolhouse than the state department of education, the superintendent, the school board, or even the principal can ever have.


Great schools “row as one”; they are quite clearly in the same boat, pulling in the same direction in unison. The best schools we visited were tightly aligned communities marked by a palpable sense of common purpose and shared identity among staff—a clear sense of “we.”


Educators in search of the one new program that will transform their school may be tempted to view the development of systematic interventions and enrichment for students as the solution to their problems. Unfortunately, the effect of simply adding programs to traditional school practices is neither significant nor lasting. At the risk of redundancy, we repeat the message we have attempted to stress throughout this book: attention to interventions and enrichment should not be viewed as a program or add-on, but rather should be considered as part of the larger process of creating the culture of a professional learning community.

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Medium 9781934009055

Collective Inquiry and Action Orientation

Robert Eaker Solution Tree Press ePub

MEMBERS OF PLCS ENGAGE IN collective inquiry: They learn how to learn together. But it is only when they focus this collective inquiry on the right questions that they develop their capacity to improve student and adult learning.

Learning by Doing

THE ENGINE OF IMPROVEMENT, growth, and renewal in a professional learning community is collective inquiry. People in such a community are relentless in questioning the status quo, seeking new methods, testing those methods, and then reflecting on the results.

PLC at Work

THE VERY REASON THAT TEACHERS work together in teams and engage in collective inquiry is to serve as catalysts for action.

Learning by Doing

MEMBERS OF PLCS ARE ACTION ORIENTED: They move quickly to turn aspirations into action and visions into reality.

Learning by Doing

WISHFUL THINKING AND GOOD INTENTIONS do not improve schools. Even serious reflection and meaningful dialogue impact school improvement only to the extent that those within the school are persuaded to act differently.

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Medium 9781936764433

Teacher’s Toolbox

Kathy Perez Solution Tree Press ePub

Students deserve the best strategies educators can offer to ignite their interest and excite them about reading. I gathered this toolbox of easy-to-implement techniques from classrooms throughout the United States during my years of teaching as a general educator, special educator, and literacy coach. I now have the privilege of teaching teachers, and I see these strategies used with great success in their classrooms.

After students have read a chapter or story or learned new information in a lesson, provide them with think time to make sense of the content.

Pose a question to the class.

Ask students to prepare a thirty-second speech about the main ideas they learned and their answer to the question.

Students then deliver their thirty-second speech with a learning partner.

This process enhances literacy skills and fosters social interaction.

Use this strategy to activate the beginning of a lesson or as a tool for summarizing at the end of a lesson. Give students an ABC grid (see page 69) with an empty box for each letter. They can work independently, in pairs, or as a team to complete their grid with words starting with that letter that relate to the topic they are studying.

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Medium 9781935542452

6 Scenario D: My Path to Juilliard

Laura Lefkowits Solution Tree Press ePub

In this scenario, the system of education has been reinvented, thanks to social networking tools, the economy and changes in consumer habits, and dissatisfaction with traditional K–12 education all culminating in an emerging grassroots revamping of education. Just as Web-based commerce caters to everyone’s needs, in this world, parents, students, and society in general have decided that the outcomes of learning should be differentiated according to every child’s individual needs and learning goals. Open-source curricula and social networking sites, such as Facebook, Twitter, and Ning, have made it easy for parents and students to form online communities of like-minded people who come together to shape their own educational experiences.

The main character of this scenario is Shana Ling, an eighteen-year-old who has completed an online course of study that has prepared her to enroll in Juilliard’s dance academy. The entire scenario is presented as a speech delivered by Shana for a special occasion on the White House lawn.

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Medium 9781932127157

Chapter 3: Institutional Barriers to Student Achievement

Crystal Kuykendall Solution Tree Press ePub

Unfortunately, many . . . teachers . . . share the general belief of educators and the public that racial differences in intelligence were innate, real, and fixed.

—Diane Ravitch, 2000

Recent reports released by the U.S. Department of Education on student performance on the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) tests in reading and science have caused considerable dismay among many educators and parents in the United States. Despite significant investments in education, average scores for fourth graders on the NAEP have held almost steady since 1992 (Fletcher, 2001). Similarly, the performance of twelfth graders on the NAEP science test given in 2000 to a nationally representative sample of school children was slightly worse than 1996 results. These test results show that more than 80% of the nation’s high school seniors lack proficiency in science. The results add to concerns that U.S. students are becoming weaker in subjects that are increasingly more important to America (Fletcher, 2001).

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Medium 9781936764761

Appendix D: Standards for Mathematical Practice

Kit Norris Solution Tree Press ePub

Source: NGA & CCSSO, 2010, pp. 6–8. © Copyright 2010. National Governors Association Center for Best Practices and Council of Chief State School Officers. All rights reserved. Used with permission.

The Standards for Mathematical Practice describe varieties of expertise that mathematics educators at all levels should seek to develop in their students. These practices rest on important “processes and proficiencies” with longstanding importance in mathematics education. The first of these are the NCTM process standards of problem solving, reasoning and proof, communication, representation, and connections. The second are the strands of mathematical proficiency specified in the National Research Council’s report Adding It Up: adaptive reasoning, strategic competence, conceptual understanding (comprehension of mathematical concepts, operations and relations), procedural fluency (skill in carrying out procedures flexibly, accurately, efficiently and appropriately), and productive disposition (habitual inclination to see mathematics as sensible, useful, and worthwhile, coupled with a belief in diligence and one’s own efficacy).

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Medium 9781935543589

One Scientific Inquiry

Eric C. Sheninger Solution Tree Press ePub



Scientists share a set of attitudes and beliefs about the nature of our world and the means to investigate its secrets. For example, scientists presume that there are persistent patterns in the universe that can be identified through careful observation and systematic study. They also allow for change in scientific ideas and theories as new knowledge is discovered and new patterns are identified. Scientific knowledge is often described using the best fit theory, which states that one cohesive theory explains everything that is known about a topic and can be modified as new knowledge is obtained (Lederman & Lederman, 2004). For example, when new discoveries made it impossible to explain the movement of the planets with Earth in the center of the universe, Copernicus postulated that the planets circle the sun rather than the Earth.

According to Norman Lederman (1999), all students should know the following five tenets concerning the nature of science. Scientific knowledge is:

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Medium 9781936763689

Chapter 3 The Common Core Mathematics Debate

Matthew R. Larson Solution Tree Press ePub

An excellent mathematics program includes curriculum that develops important mathematics along coherent learning progressions and develops connections among areas of mathematical study and between mathematics and the real world.


This chapter will help you better understand and speak to the original intent, hope, and promise of the Common Core as well as the arguments against them. As you read through these issues, ask yourself, “How will or does this affect the students in my class or my school, the current high school graduates in my district, or any graduating class moving forward? What is the truth about the expectations of the revised mathematics standards?”

If you are an elementary educator, students’ parents might have expressed concern about the nature of homework labeled Common Core. This chapter will help you better understand the intent of the Common Core, gain insight into the arguments some parents and politicians make against the Common Core, equip you to discuss those issues and concerns with parents, and help you determine if elementary-level math homework really has anything to do with the actual content standards of the Common Core. (See Issue 3: Challenges of Authentic Implementation, page 50, for more insight.)

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