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Medium 9781475811889

Information and Communications Technologies Support for 21st-Century Teaching: An International Analysis

JOURNAL OF SCHOOL LEADERSHIP Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

DAVID RUTKOWSKI
LESLIE RUTKOWSKI
JASON SPARKS

ABSTRACT: Beginning in the 1990s, national educational policies around the world have mandated massive investments in information and communications technologies (ICT) to transform teaching and learning in ways appropriate for developing “21st-century skills.” Recent research indicates significant success in bringing teachers and students into contact with ICT in many national education systems; however, significant challenge remains in integrating ICT into the pedagogical practices aimed at developing 21st-century skills. This article inquires into one commonly cited obstacle to pedagogical change around ICT: school-based support. Using data from the 2006 Second Information Technology in Education Study survey, we investigated whether the availability of school-level support for 21st-century skills teaching activities predicted the increased use of ICT in conjunction with those 21st-century teaching activities in the classroom. We studied 18 national education systems and found that in only three—namely, South Africa, the Russian Federation, and Thailand—was school-based support for ICT use in 21st-century teaching activities consistently associated with the odds of using ICT on such activities. These counterintuitive findings are interpreted against the literature framing the inquiry.

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Medium 9781943874965

4 Conducting Practicing and Deepening Lessons

Robert J. Marzano Solution Tree Press ePub

CHAPTER 4

Conducting Practicing and Deepening Lessons

Once content is introduced through direct instruction, teachers must further develop student knowledge.

The desired mental states and processes for students for lessons designed to develop knowledge are:

After teachers present new content, students deepen their understanding and develop fluency with skills and processes.

When conducting practicing and deepening lessons, it is important to keep in mind the difference between procedural and declarative knowledge. Procedural knowledge includes skills, strategies, and processes. For example, converting fractions to decimals is a skill because it requires a set of steps usually performed in a specific order. Decoding is a strategy because it involves specific actions although they are not necessarily performed in the same order each time. Writing an expository essay is a process because it involves executing multiple strategies that have different outcomes but must work together in a unified manner.

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Medium 9781475824506

Social Stories for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders: Updated Review of the Literature from 2004 to 2010

Journal of Evidence-Based Practices for Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Amanda K. Stary
Gregory E. Everett
Katie Bradshaw Sears
Mayo Fujiki
Stephen D. A. Hupp

ABSTRACT: The current review summarizes 19 investigations documenting the use of Social Stories with children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders. As a follow-up to Nichols, Hupp, Jewell, and Zeigler (2005), the current review outlines only those experimental studies published from 2004 through 2010. Studies are first organized according to those child behaviors targeted for change and further subdivided on the basis of Social Story delivery. Specifically, studies are categorized regarding whether Social Stories were used to increase social skills, decrease disruptive behavior, or concurrently target behavioral increases and decreases. They are then subdivided according to whether the story was read to or by participating children or delivered through technological means. In addition, an overall summary of included studies is included, as well as directions for future research.

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Medium 9781936764006

Appendix C: Standards for Mathematical Content, Grade 4

Solution Tree Press ePub

APPENDIX C

Source: NGA & CCSSO, 2010, pp. 27–32. © Copyright 2010. National Governors Association Center for Best Practices and Council of Chief State School Officers. All rights reserved. Used with permission.

In Grade 4, instructional time should focus on three critical areas: (1) developing understanding and fluency with multi-digit multiplication, and developing understanding of dividing to find quotients involving multi-digit dividends; (2) developing an understanding of fraction equivalence, addition and subtraction of fractions with like denominators, and multiplication of fractions by whole numbers; (3) understanding that geometric figures can be analyzed and classified based on their properties, such as having parallel sides, perpendicular sides, particular angle measures, and symmetry.

(1)   Students generalize their understanding of place value to 1,000,000, understanding the relative sizes of numbers in each place. They apply their understanding of models for multiplication (equal-sized groups, arrays, area models), place value, and properties of operations, in particular the distributive property, as they develop, discuss, and use efficient, accurate, and generalizable methods to compute products of multi-digit whole numbers. Depending on the numbers and the context, they select and accurately apply appropriate methods to estimate or mentally calculate products. They develop fluency with efficient procedures for multiplying whole numbers; understand and explain why the procedures work based on place value and properties of operations; and use them to solve problems. Students apply their understanding of models for division, place value, properties of operations, and the relationship of division to multiplication as they develop, discuss, and use efficient, accurate, and generalizable procedures to find quotients involving multi-digit dividends. They select and accurately apply appropriate methods to estimate and mentally calculate quotients, and interpret remainders based upon the context.

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Medium 9781936764006

Chapter 1 Using High-Performing Collaborative Teams for Mathematics

Solution Tree Press ePub

CHAPTER 1

Far too frequently, your mathematics professional development experience as a grades 3–5 elementary school teacher likely feels inadequate. Why? It could be because you receive little or no professional development time dedicated to teaching, learning, and assessing mathematics. Unless you are in the process of implementing a new mathematics curriculum, which may happen every six to eight years, the focus of most professional development time is in another major area of need—literacy.

To be certain, professional development in literacy for grades 3–5 is essential. After all, the evidence is clear that students who struggle to read in your class often struggle in mathematics as well. Skill in reading is necessary for success in mathematics (Gersten, Jordan, & Flojo, 2005; Jordan & Hanich, 2003). However, in order for you to transition to the Common Core State Standards for mathematics, you will need to shift the same amount of priority time to your professional development in mathematics (National Governors Association [NGA] Center for Best Practices & Council of Chief State School Officers [CCSSO], 2010).

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Medium 9780982259245

Introduction

Robert J. Marzano Marzano Research ePub

The Highly Engaged Classroom is part of the series of books collectively referred to as The Classroom Strategies Series. The purpose of this series is to provide teachers as well as building and district administrators with an in-depth treatment of research-based instructional strategies that can be used in the classroom to enhance student achievement. Many of the strategies addressed in this series have been covered in other works such as The Art and Science of Teaching (Marzano, 2007), Classroom Management That Works (Marzano, 2003), and Classroom Instruction That Works (Marzano, Pickering, & Pollock, 2001). Although those works devoted a chapter or part of a chapter to particular strategies, The Classroom Strategies Series devotes an entire book to an instructional strategy or set of related strategies.

Engagement is obviously a central aspect of effective teaching. If students are not engaged, there is little, if any, chance that they will learn what is being addressed in class. A basic premise of this book is that student engagement happens as a result of a teacher’s careful planning and execution of specific strategies. In other words, student engagement is not serendipitous. Of course, no teacher will have all students engaged at high levels all of the time; however, using the suggestions presented in this book, every teacher can create a classroom environment in which engagement is the norm instead of the exception.

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Medium 9781574412024

Chapter 6. It All Depended on the Teacher

Edited by Kenneth L. Untiedt University of North Texas Press PDF

Resolved: Texas should be divided into two states.

W

hen Carl Halsell suggested a debate defending or attacking that idea to the boys who had arrived early one fall morning in 1922 at their country school ground to practice basketball, most of them looked puzzled. Carl knew that the students, who seldom saw a newspaper and had no radios in their homes, would learn at least a few research techniques, as well as gain confidence from having to stand in front of their parents and friends and express opinions, whether they actually believed in their defense or not. When he laid out his plan, however, his pupils looked at each other with skepticism. How could they argue for something they definitely didn’t believe in? To them, boasting that they were citizens of the biggest state in the

Union set them apart from Yankees, Arkansawyers, and Okies.

Finally, their teacher convinced them that the topic merited their thought. Two of the boys said they would argue the affirmative, even if they didn’t believe it.

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Medium 9781475811858

The Role of Superintendents in Supporting Teacher Leadership: A Study of Principals’ Perceptions

JOURNAL OF SCHOOL LEADERSHIP Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

CARYN M. WELLS

C. ROBERT MAXFIELD

BARBARA KLOCKO

LINDSON FEUN

ABSTRACT: This article documents a study in which principals were asked to examine the concepts related to the development of teacher leadership in their districts by responding to an original survey sent electronically via SurveyMonkey. Half the respondents were chosen from districts that were involved with a program identified as preparing teacher leaders; the other half had no program affiliation. This descriptive study used quantitative measures that revealed some differences between perceptions of principals in school districts based on involvement in teacher leadership programs. Principals from all schools reported that the role of the superintendent was important in developing teacher leaders, although they seldom experienced the support. The article concludes with suggestions for superintendents to consider as they use a research-based approach to changing the culture of their schools to include teacher leadership.

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Medium 9781475811339

SPECIAL SECTION: STUDENT PERSPECTIVES ON SCHOOLS AND SCHOOL LEADERSHIP

JOURNAL OF SCHOOL LEADERSHIP R&L Education ePub

JIM ANSALDO

JESSE GOODMAN

ABSTRACT: In response to the tremendous changes that the contemporary field of curriculum studies has undergone, this article explores the ways in which the faculty and students at Indiana University have reconceptualized the doctoral curriculum studies program during the past decade. We begin with a portrayal of the structural manifestations of our doctoral program and then turn our attention to the way in which this program is currently experienced by at least some of our students. Our purpose here is not to suggest that we have “found the answer,” but rather to invite an interchange with others interested in doctoral education within our program and others in the field of education.

As Pinar and his colleagues (1995) recently demonstrated, the field of curriculum studies has undergone tremendous changes during the past three decades. These alterations have encouraged us to rethink the very essence of our field. For example, the topics of study that are currently considered important among curriculum scholars have grown exponentially during this time, as have the ways in which we conduct our scholarship. This turn of events also has prompted many of us to ask several questions related to our doctoral program in curriculum studies. Should we substantively alter the courses offered in curriculum studies? What should students experience while they are enrolled in our program? What type of relationship should a program try to encourage among doctoral students and between students and faculty? How should new graduate students be introduced to doctoral studies? What does it mean to “become” a scholar and professor of curriculum studies? Should long-standing conventions such as the qualifying exam and dissertation be altered in significant ways? In what ways, if at all, should the dramatic changes in the field be reflected in the way curriculum studies doctoral students are educated? In response to these and other questions, this article explores the ways in which the faculty and students at Indiana University have reconceptualized the doctoral curriculum studies program during the past decade. Our purpose here is not to suggest that we have “found the answer,” but rather to invite an interchange with others interested in doctoral education within our program and other programs in the field of education. We begin with a portrayal of the structural manifestations of our doctoral program and then turn our attention to the way this program is currently experienced by at least some of our students.

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Medium 9781879639607

Appendix B

DuFour, Richard Solution Tree Press PDF

Appendix B

Curriculum Standards,

Models, and Concepts

This appendix provides examples of useful sources for curriculum development. It is not intended to offer either a comprehensive listing of all useful resources or even a thorough analysis of those that are included. It is impossible to survey all of the curricular ideas and models available in today’s educational arena. Providing materials such as these can be a valuable resource for teachers as they collaborate on curricular issues.

Schools should be organized so that teachers do not have to tackle these issues in isolation. Both the structure and culture of schools should encourage teachers to collaborate with one another to find the right mix of curricular ideas for their students and their schools. This collaboration fosters the ownership and shared responsibility that make curriculum development a powerful force for school improvement.

Academic Content Standards

The academic content standards movement calls for a clearer identification of what students should know and be able to do and is critical of the fact that what students are taught in a specific subject or at a specific grade level varies greatly among

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Medium 9781935542520

Appendix B: Hubbell Elementary School (a Des Moines Public School) Assessment Policy

Ken O'Connor Solution Tree Press ePub

This assessment policy was written collaboratively by the Hubbell Assessment Committee. It will be shared with all stakeholders and reviewed annually.

At Hubbell Elementary School, we believe assessment is an integral part of the instructional cycle and is essential for learners constructing meaning. It allows for the collection and analysis of information and gives insight into the teaching and learning happening in the school. Students will have the opportunity to illustrate their knowledge of content and skills through demonstrations of their understanding of concepts and their ability to transfer that learning to real-world situations using authentic assessments. A variety of models should be used to reach the various learning styles of all students. The Hubbell community believes that assessment drives the improvement of the PYP [Primary Years Program]. It is crucial to assess not only the product of the inquiry, but also the process.

Pre-assessments are used at the beginning of each unit of inquiry to inform instruction and plan for differentiation based on prior knowledge and/or learning styles. These assessment tools give valuable information into what to teach, how to teach, and how to connect it to students’ interests and talents, as well as uncover any misconceptions.

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Medium 9781475816778

Tax Credit Scholarship Programs and the Law

International Journal of Educational Ref Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Lenford C. Sutton

Patrick Thomas Spearman

ABSTRACT: After Zelman v. Simmons-Harris (2002), civil conflict over use of vouchers and taxes to purchase private education, especially in religious schools, largely remained an issue for state courts’ jurisprudence. However, in 2010, it returned to the U.S. Supreme Court when Arizona taxpayers challenged the constitutionality of the state’s education tax credit program permitting private donations to student tuition organizations that in turn provide scholarships for student attendance at private schools. This article describes selected U.S. education tax credit programs used to purchase private education, their legal sustainability, and the ongoing public policy debate.

Advocates for education tax credits contend that the proliferation of school choice for parents fosters a competitive environment whereby all schools, in both the private sector and the public, are compelled to compete, thereby increasing achievement levels for all students. In contrast, opponents of education tax credits claim that subsidizing private education with extractions from the state general revenue diverts tax dollars away from public schools, making it more difficult initiate school improvement strategies. Opponents also view education tax credits that purchase religious education as a source of tribalism in a society of racially resegregated schools and widening income and wealth disparities among its citizens.

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Medium 9781475827149

Uncovering the Need for Diversity Among K–12 STEM Educators

Teacher Education and Practice Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Uncovering the Need for Diversity Among K–12 STEM Educators

Vincent Basile and Kevin Murray

ABSTRACT: Unlike its predecessors, the 2010 PCAST report on STEM education calls for a significant increase in the number of students of color pursuing STEM careers. While the report suggests various ways to begin to pursue this goal, it fails to identify the need for a significant increase in the number of teachers of color in STEM education. With specific consideration to the PCAST report, this paper explores rationales behind the need for more STEM teachers of color and the evidence that supports those rationales.

We aim in this paper to work toward a critical definition of effective science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education. Drawing on major STEM education policy reports (Before It’s Too Late: A Report to the Nation from the National Commission on Mathematics and Science Teaching for the 21st Century, Rising above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future, and Prepare and Inspire: K-12 Education in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math for America’s Future), we find ourselves concerned that dominant definitions of effective STEM education are entirely silent on the issue of diversity among K–12 STEM educators. Most of these policy reports, which we review later in this paper, are focused narrowly on the ability of STEM to create economic prosperity both for individuals and for the nation as a whole. Even when these reports do engage in discussion about the ability of STEM to advance democracy and to serve the public good, they remain silent on the issue of diversity among STEM educators.

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Medium 9781943874514

5. Implementation of the Create Excellence Framework

Marge Maxwell Solution Tree Press ePub

At a second-grade team meeting, teachers are discussing their difficulties with planning meaningful projects, especially in an elementary school where the teachers are responsible for instruction of multiple content areas. Sara shares a recent epiphany. She had always thought that if students were doing a project, then at least they were involved in work that enhanced their curriculum at that time. However, she confides that she often felt that something was missing—some projects seemed shallow or felt like an add-on to the curriculum, without any meaningful connection to the real world. Her team agrees. Nita shares that she always strives to engage students during a project, but sometimes the project does not connect seamlessly to the curriculum. Lee shares how he is frustrated with how to incorporate student use of technology. He knows that he, himself, is excellent at teaching and modeling with technology, but he cannot figure out how to take the time out of the instruction and curriculum to give the students the opportunity to stretch and grow personally with the content. The teachers agree that they want to find an instructional-planning tool for real-world projects that could help them move forward together.

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Medium 9780253211859

The Good of Activity from Human Nature and Conduct(1922)

Larry A Hickman Indiana University Press ePub

Conduct when distributed under heads like habit, impulse and intelligence gets artificially shredded. In discussing each of these topics we have run into the others. We conclude, then, with an attempt to gather together some outstanding considerations about conduct as a whole.

The foremost conclusion is that morals has to do with all activity into which alternative possibilities enter. For wherever they enter a difference between better and worse arises. Reflection upon action means uncertainty and consequent need of decision as to which course is better. The better is the good; the best is not better than the good but is simply the discovered good. Comparative and superlative degrees are only paths to the positive degree of action. The worse or evil is a rejected good. In deliberation and before choice no evil presents itself as evil. Until it is rejected, it is a competing good. After rejection, it figures not as a lesser good, but as the bad of that situation.

Actually then only deliberate action, conduct into which reflective choice enters, is distinctively moral, for only then does there enter the question of better and worse. Yet it is a perilous error to draw a hard and fast line between action into which deliberation and choice enter and activity due to impulse and matter-of-fact habit. One of the consequences of action is to involve us in predicaments where we have to reflect upon things formerly done as matter of course. One of the chief problems of our dealings with others is to induce them to reflect upon affairs which they usually perform from unreflective habit. On the other hand, every reflective choice tends to relegate some conscious issue into a deed or habit henceforth taken for granted and not thought upon. Potentially therefore every and any act is within the scope of morals, being a candidate for possible judgment with respect to its better-or-worse quality. It thus becomes one of the most perplexing problems of reflection to discover just how far to carry it, what to bring under examination and what to leave to unscrutinized habit. Because there is no final recipe by which to decide this question all moral judgment is experimental and subject to revision by its issue.

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