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Medium 9780253015976

2 African Writers Challenge Conventions of Postcolonial Literary History

Kenneth W Harrow Indiana University Press ePub

Olabode Ibironke

I refuse to be put in a Negro file for sociologists to come and examine me. . . . 
I refuse to be put in a dossier.

Ezekiel Mphahlele, “On Negritude in Literature”

Every great and original writer, in proportion as he is great and original, must himself create the taste by which he is to be relished.

William Wordsworth, “Letter to Lady Beaumont”

[Nigerian] novels published in Britain are far more likely to use village settings than novels published in Nigeria, and this preference is holding steady. . . . In fact, however, Nigerian novels are far more likely to feature traffic jams in Lagos, a boss’s assaults on his secretary’s virtue, or how urban youth confront temptations to easy money through crime. Political novels, on the other hand, are disproportionately more likely to be published in Nigeria than in Britain.

Wendy Griswold, “Nigeria, 1950–2000”

DAVID DAMROSCH ARGUES in What Is World Literature? that the term “world literature,” coined by Goethe, was one that “crystallized both a literary perspective and a new cultural awareness, a sense of an arising global modernity” (1). It could be construed that Damrosch attempts to establish the criteria by which works enter into world literature. This essay addresses how in African postcolonial literary criticism, the vexed question of the thresholds of world literature takes off precisely from where the question of the thresholds of African literature ends: from the moment when African texts become, as Franco Moretti has argued with regard to Chinua Achebe’s Things Fall Apart, “world texts.” The chapter also examines the consequences of “world” and/or “global” as pedagogical and theoretical categories for grouping and orienting African and postcolonial literatures.

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Medium 9780253013064

5 • Origin and Meaning of a Revival Painting Tradition

Melissa R. Kerin Indiana University Press ePub

With stylistic connections made between the Gyapagpa Temple paintings and the larger Ngari style of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, this chapter will address the origin of this style, its shifting significations, and the multiple ways in which it has been used and interpreted. Central to this discussion is my argument that this late medieval painting tradition is in fact a revival of the eleventh-century style from the same area. A review of the scant scholarship about fifteenth-century painting traditions of Mnga’ ris (Ngari) reveals that scholars have differing opinions about this subject. A critical dichotomy surfaces, which tends to present the later Ngari painting tradition as either a continuation of the eleventh-century style or as a separate style altogether. This difference between these positions is a critical one. Based on analyses of both visual and textual evidence, I argue that the fifteenth- and sixteenth-century painting style was indeed a separate style, which was a revival of the eleventh-century Khache painting tradition. I suggest further that the fifteenth-century resuscitation of this older painting style is reflective of the Guge kingdom’s objective to fashion itself as a continuation of the former dynasty. In so doing the later kingdom is communicating an ideological message about its connection to, and continuity with, its predecessor of the eleventh century. Based on this hypothesis, we can understand the fifteenth-century painting style as a carefully constructed visual system that worked to signify the fifteenth-century kingdom’s legitimacy and legacy through its association with the eleventh-century dynasty.

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Medium 9781937538187


Bob Weil Rocky Nook-IPS ePub

Stone Quarry Sawmill

This tutorial poses the challenge of getting proper exposures for the brighter areas outside the windows and darker areas inside a building. After completing this tutorial, you’ll be able to create a high dynamic range (HDR) image comprised of multiple pairs of light and dark images stitched together to create an image with a wide-angle perspective, great exposure for both light and dark areas, and vibrant color throughout the image.

Tripod with iPhone tripod holder bracket

Bracket Mode

True HDR

AutoStitch Panorama


Image Blender

Dynamic Light

I captured this image at the site of an abandoned stone quarry sawmill near Bloomington, Indiana. After attending Indiana University and falling in love with Bloomington, I spent a number of years living there. It was impossible to be a part of the Bloomington community without being aware of the impact of the limestone quarries that surrounded the city then.

In 1979 the movie Breaking Away romanticized the “cutter” culture. This abandoned site is the kind of place one of the fathers in the movie would have worked. All that remains of this site today is the huge iron frame building, scattered rusting equipment, and this business office where the men punched their time cards and picked up their paychecks. I wanted to convey a sense of the history of this place by capturing both the layout and detail of the office and a sense of the work areas outside the doors and windows.

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Medium 9781937538187


Bob Weil Rocky Nook-IPS ePub

The Clockwork Sister

In this tutorial you will learn to use layers, masks, and type to tell a story with a surreal image composited from multiple realistic photographs.




Iris Photo Suite (iPhone version)

Color Splash

Photo Editor – Fotolr


ScratchCam FX

Storytelling is at the heart of what I do. Before I discovered photography, my main creative outlet was writing. Although it has been set aside to some degree since my involvement with photography, the need to create and tell a story is still very strong within me.

After I had moved past my first flush of photography—seeing everything anew through the lens and taking shots of everything—I found myself returning to storytelling again. At first I created elaborate titles, so the photography became a moment in a story that it had inspired. However, as my photography developed, more and more I created the image itself. As much as I can appreciate and enjoy street photography, landscapes, and all the other categories of image making, to me they were someone else’s story, and I needed to tell mine.

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Medium 9781603444668

3. River Revealed: Cross Timbers and into the Llano Uplift

Margie Crisp Texas A&M University Press ePub


Below the dam at O. H. Ivie, the Colorado River cuts across layers of time, digging into the exposed shelves of millions of years. Alluvial deposits along the bed and banks of the river are recent, but the river has relentlessly carved away at the cover of Cretaceous rocks exposing the tilted stacks of old sedimentary rocks in the broad basin. On a geological map, multiple parallel bands of color stripe north to south. The river slices across in a twisting gold line of alluvial soils, descending from young to old, across pale bands of Permian limestone and shale, pink blobs and squiggles of sediment eroded from the Cretaceous and Permian rocks upriver, and into the dark blue patterns of older, exposed Pennsylvanian sandstones. Curving in a tight arc, the river bounces between the old sandstones and tongues of limestone and shale before snaking down the deep canyons of ancient Ordovician limestones into the heart of the Llano Uplift.

In this length of river, seven or eight counties, depending on how you count them, crowd up to the river, nudge each other’s shoulders, and wiggle their toes in the stream. It is a land of big ranches, white-tailed deer and turkey hunting, a few row crops, and pecan orchards. The river regains its strength, pulls water from creeks and springs, and works its way back into a free-flowing stream for a few miles before running into the dams of the Highland Lakes downstream.

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Medium 9781937538187


Bob Weil Rocky Nook-IPS ePub

Dissipatas Lineas

My goal was to produce a piece that transmitted a feeling of the dadaist/surrealist works from the 1930s, based on elements from different pictures I had taken in previous weeks.

In this tutorial you’ll learn how to mask, blend, and juxtapose images and parts of images, including preparing them for use in a collage by turning them into black-and-white images, and finally adjusting the lighting and contrast.

Noir Photo


Image Blender


This image started with a picture I took of a man walking down the street and talking on his phone. When I took the picture I knew how I would like to use the image, as I previously had with a businessman for a series of images called The Business Man. In that series I used the outlines and postures of men and placed them in various surreal settings.

My work is heavily influenced by dadaism/surrealism, especially the paranoid-critical method, where you lose yourself in delirious, irrational associations and interpretations.

I seldom have a finished and composed scene in my mind when I start working with a picture. My images usually start with one figure or element that I isolate and add to a neutral background or canvas. From there I add and test different elements and pieces of images in a stream-of-consciousness process, and I evaluate the graphical and compositional qualities as I go along until I am pleased with the result.

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Medium 9780253013873

8 Zombie Race

Edward P Comentale Indiana University Press ePub

Profit, Profit, nigga I got it

Everybody know I’m a motherfucking monster

I’m-a need to see your fucking hands at the concert

I’m-a need to see your fucking hands

Kanye West, “Monster”

It begins with a thump, or rather, a scrape and a thump. Shhh-thump. The monster appears first as sound and then rhythm, or, rather, counter-rhythm. Its presence is made known, paradoxically, by its double absence, one physical and the other temporal.

It lags, behind itself, drags itself, before itself, somewhere in back of you, in front of you, over your shoulder—always where it is not. Shhh-thump. Its second beat is scarier than the first, not just because it is louder, closer, but because it recalls the first. The monster is always in two—two spaces, two times. It approaches as it recedes. It coheres as it falls apart. Each step revives as it destroys. Each step is the death of death, the death of death, over and over again.

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Medium 9780253013873

4 Zombie Media

Edward P Comentale Indiana University Press ePub

We are the hostages of news coverage, but we acquiesce secretly in this hostage-taking.

Jean Baudrillard, Virtuality and Events

The news is always horseshit.

Tony, Diary of the Dead

Taken as a whole, George A. Romero’s body of work has most often been thought to mark shifts in cultural anxieties—anxieties around the Vietnam War and the civil rights era, the rise of a consumer economy, the relation of science and the military during the Cold War, the war in Iraq, and the irruptive spectacle of terrorism—anxieties that his films not only embody but also critically respond to, and all of which have been well documented. Yet, by regarding these films as markers of cultural anxieties or repressions, such readings either implicitly or explicitly tend to use psychological models, often ones that have been transposed to a cultural level.1 Such frameworks, while certainly useful, also tend to domesticate the zombie.2 Under such models, the zombie becomes safe and familiar, immanently legible as political allegory and cultural construct. In the end, it all comes back to us humans.

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Medium 9780253013873

12 Zombie Arts and Letters

Edward P Comentale Indiana University Press ePub

Then the idea hit him. Moses ran into his apartment and removed a leaf from the Book Isis had given him. He returned to the balcony where below the crowds had taken trees and were now using them to pound on the Palace gate. Moses uttered The Work aloud. 1st there was silence. Then the people turned toward the Nile and they saw a huge mushroom cloud arise.

A few minutes later, screaming of the most terrible kind came from that direction. The crowd dispersed, trampling 1 another as they rushed for the shelter of their homes. This was a turning point in the Book’s history.

Ishmael Reed, Mumbo Jumbo

Genre fiction is project-based art. Whether cowboy Western or inter-galactic sci-fi, genre writing entails a double inventiveness according to the set of directives imposed upon each story in advance. On the one hand, by definition such writing exercises a creative function following explicit conditions of constraint, whether formal, aesthetic, historical, moral, or economic. From the pulps to the remainder bin, genre fiction necessarily knows its limits; this is part of its “project.” On the other hand, it also recognizes and formalizes these limits as constraints in the first place, a gesture as constitutive of a genre’s artistic project as any subsequent improvisation or “genre bending” that arises in tension with these constraints. “Write a detective novel,” someone might say, and we already know what this means. It’s no different with zombie stories. The zombie genre, which began to take shape in the 1930s, reaching a kind of market saturation during the past decade, resembles virtually all other popular modes of genre fiction in the necessary restriction of its imaginative conditions. Every genre story, after all, must at once name and confront the exhaustion—or at least the exhausting familiarity—of its conventions. And keep on pursuing the project.

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Medium 9780253011596

3: Munich Painting School and Private Studio Fall 1883–Fall 1888

Rachel Berenson Perry Indiana University Press ePub

Fall 1883–Fall 1888

AS SUMMER DAYS SHORTENED, FORSYTH FOUND HIS outdoor work exceptionally gratifying, but he again anticipated his return to the smoky rooms of the Academy with wistful reluctance. “You can't get up too early in the morning and you can't work too late at night,” he wrote. “Days fly too fast for you and as the vacation draws to a close you become almost feverish in your eagerness to accomplish much in a small space of time. You count the days as a miser counts his gold. When you wake some crisp October morning and find the fields white with frost,…you feel like a condemned man whose warrant has been signed and whose pleasant days are over.”1 This pattern of grudgingly leaving a preferred fall painting ground to face a winter of studio painting repeated itself throughout Forsyth's life.

The American Artists’ Club organized an exhibit of summer work where several colleagues praised Forsyth's watercolors, but his stylistic inclinations appeared to be conflicted. “In watercolor I'm a rank ‘impressionist’; in oil I lean toward ‘realism’—the two contrive to keep me pretty lively and sometimes get me down.”2 A firm believer in accurate drawing, at the time he judged impressionistic paintings to be unfinished.

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Medium 9780253007414

2. Follow the Wood: Carving and Political Cosmology in oku, Cameroon

Kasfir, Sidney Littlefield ePub

Nicolas Argenti

The . . . mask is made to look like an animal. But it is not an animal; it is a secret.


(quoted in McNaughton 1988:129)

The kingdom of Oku, made up of three dozen villages spread over the highest peaks of a mountainous landscape, is a hierarchical polity headed by a king (or ∂bfon) and a complex palatine retinue. Within the Grassfields region, Oku is one among several dozen small kingdoms or chiefdoms, each with their own languages and ruling dynasties. Although these polities all share many cultural traits and myths of common origin and ancestry, they have each specialized forms of production for export over the centuries (Warnier 1985), and Oku has become renowned (not only in the region but among museum curators and collectors too) as one of the foremost centers of carving in the region. Although some of the objects produced by its carvers—mainly ceremonial items of palace regalia including the throne-stools of kings—are destined for export within a regional elite sphere of exchange restricted to the ruling elite of the Grassfields, others are used locally by the palace kwifon regulatory society and by Oku lineage elders. Some of the most arresting objects produced by Oku carvers are the masks used by dancing groups both within the kingdom and throughout the Grassfields. These masks represent male elders wearing gigantic interpretations of their characteristic tasseled caps, beautiful young women, and wild forest animals—some of them unidentifiable, all of them as sinister and alarming to bystanders as they are attractive and exciting. The masks (or headdresses, known as “helmet masks” because they are worn on the top of the dancer’s head) are used by the masking groups (k∂kum) of the palace secret societies and the ruling lineages of Oku (Argenti 1998, 2001, 2004, 2007).

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Medium 9780253349118

15. The Wedding

Pravina Shukla Indiana University Press ePub

ON A STEAMY JULY evening in 1996, a small gathering of people sat in plastic chairs on the lawn of a five-star hotel in the Mughal city of Lucknow, waiting for the ceremony to begin. The bride, Shalini Shrivastava, looked beautiful as she emerged, accompanied by her younger sister, Nidhi. Shalini wore a magenta silk lehanga and covered her head modestly with the dupatta, surrounding her pretty face in bright, soft fabric. She wore the customary gold jewelry; the golden hathphul on her hands glittered in the flash of the cameras. Shalini approached the platform where her groom, Rohit, waited, dressed in a turban and an off-white suit with a long Nehru jacket, called a shervani.1 The couple exchanged flower garlands to the applause of their family and friends. A rich meal followed, after which most of the guests went home. Only the immediate family and a few close friends remained for the Hindu ceremony that continued into the night, during which the pundit, with Vedic chants in Sanskrit, united the young couple in eternal matrimony.

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Medium 9780253353801

16 Professor Dude: An Inquiry into the Appeal of His Dudeness for Contemporary College Students

Edward P Comentale Indiana University Press ePub

Richard Gaughran

On the first day of classes in the fall of 2006, I walked into a James Madison University class of fifteen students, none of whom I’d met before. I had the usual plan for the first day: a short welcome and introductions, the distribution of a syllabus, followed by explanations and answering of questions. Before any of this, however, I planned to distribute a questionnaire to anyone who has seen the Coen brothers’ film The Big Lebowski. But I had left the surveys in my office, so I placed my other books and papers on a table and mumbled something about having to return to my office to retrieve some forms I wanted the students to complete. When I returned about two minutes later, I asked, “How many of you have seen The Big Lebowski?” For some reason the room erupted in laughter. I didn’t think much of that until some weeks later, when one of these students, in my office for a conference, told me what occurred when I was gone from the classroom. After I had dropped my belongings on the table and left for my office, she asked the rest of the students if they had seen The Big Lebowski, and didn’t I remind them of the Dude? No wonder they thought my question to them, moments later, was funny.

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Medium 9780253349118

6. Making Jewelry

Pravina Shukla Indiana University Press ePub

INDIAN WOMEN GENERALLY view their jewelry as the central component of their personal adornment; something to hold, possess, and treasure as well as to wear, it is more important than their clothing. Clothes are used daily to convey multiple messages; they are changed and bought with frequency, but a woman’s jewelry is special for many reasons. Its cost is higher, its materials are precious, and its permanence provides a powerful sense of ownership and enables it to be passed down as an heirloom, building connections between the generations. Items of jewelry—like the brocaded saris of Banaras—are carefully chosen by the wearers for their beauty and symbolic value, and, like the saris, jewelry embodies the aesthetic choices made by a series of men—the suppliers of materials, the talented craftsmen, and the wily merchants. The production of jewelry involves complex negotiations of the kind found in the production of cloth. In both cases, the artists, the middlemen, and the sellers are men of different castes, ethnic groups, and religions. In both cases, the products—woven cloth or gold jewelry—can be imported from elsewhere in India or locally produced by desi artisans.

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Medium 9780253011596

5: Creating a Market for Landscapes Fall 1897–Summer 1904

Rachel Berenson Perry Indiana University Press ePub

Fall 1897–Summer 1904

PART OF HIS RELUCTANCE TO RETURN TO THE CITY had to have been Forsyth's tender romance with his new bride. Alice Atkinson, eighteen years her husband's junior, was born in Oxford in Benton County, Indiana, on May 5, 1872. Her ancestors were Quakers who emigrated from England to America in 1699 and originally settled in Philadelphia. Later moving to Clinton County in Ohio, Alice's grandfather, Thomas Atkinson (1806–92), went to Benton County to herd cattle in 1830. He liked the area and returned with his family eighteen years later. Two of his twelve children, Cephas and Robert Atkinson (1826–81), bought acreage and thrived as farmers. They founded the town of Atkinson (now extinct), which became an important shipping station for the Big Four railway.

After his first wife's early death, Robert Atkinson married a widow, Nancy Crosson, and they had seven children together. Alice was the fifth child, and the youngest died in infancy. Combined with children from both her parents’ previous marriages, the family included thirteen children who lived.1

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