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Henry Glassie Indiana University Press ePub

In Virginia and in Massachusetts, the first English settlement was a village. Providing protection and a familiar experience, the village brought unity to the disparate populations gathered at Jamestown and Plymouth. At the time of settlement, early in the seventeenth century, the England they left was in the midst of the most revolutionary change since the Neolithic. Openfield villages a thousand years old still stood on the lowlands, but the process of enclosure, powered by money and law, was reordering the landscape.

The open fields were surveyed, divided, consolidated, and fenced — enclosed — and separate farms were created on the arable lowlands. Village people resisted, leveling new walls, uprooting new hedges, and formulating loose customs into firm traditions designed to counter the expansion of law. Their heroic actions attracted the attention and won the sympathy of intellectuals, and the study of custom and tradition, of folklore, was born in England.

Mormon Village. Paris, Idaho. 1990

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Chapter 10. Great Transformations On the Archaeology of Cooking

Sarah R. Graff University Press of Colorado ePub

Kathleen D. Morrison

The difference between the potentially edible (plants and animals) and food—a substance deemed appropriate for consumption—is very often created through the act of cooking. In India, for example, paddy from the fields, though clearly destined for human consumption, is not subject to the same kinds of social restrictions as cooked rice, not yet being classified as a food, with all its attendant power and danger. Cooking is the vital, yet archaeologically neglected process of rendering potential foodstuffs edible, accessible, and appropriate. As a discipline, we expend a great deal of energy examining what we generally call “food production,” though for the most part these studies focus on agriculture, animal husbandry, foraging, and even marketing and shopping, while eliding the transformative process of cooking itself. The cycle of food production (to maintain the common usage), distribution, and consumption is linked by the labor and life of the humans who grow, gather, process, store, cook, and eat food, most of them on a daily basis. Cooking is thus an absolutely necessary aspect of human life, a set of practices at once quotidian and ceremonial, biologically necessary and culturally elaborated. Cooking practices are distinguished by suites of technological objects and residues and, very often, spatially specialized into storerooms, shops, hearths, kitchens, ovens, and cookhouses.

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Pattern in Time

Henry Glassie Indiana University Press ePub

My argument is done. Architecture provides a prime resource to the one who would write a better history. I will contrive a conclusion with a summary. Our history breaks into three great periods. Its dynamic depends upon impurity.

First is the period of the village, a time of compressed housing and dispersed fields. The great creation of the period was the largest, most permanent, most lavishly adorned building of the community. Collective resources were banked and the collective will was materialized in a sacred edifice that was built to last, when houses were not. It should humble us some that the religious buildings of this period are the world’s greatest architectural creations: the parish churches of England, the stave churches of Norway, the earthen mosques of West Africa, the towering temples of India — Chartres Cathedral, the Selimiye at Edirne, the Todaiji at Nara.

Urnes stave church. Sogn, Norway. 1995

San José. Trampas, New Mexico. 1987

In the beginning, there was the village, a neolithic invention, and in the beginning, there was enclosure. Valiant people carved farms out of the waste and built longhouses to shelter themselves and their stock against wolves and cattle raids. Enclosure expanded steadily, chewing away the wilderness on the margins, but it was blocked on the fat lowlands where enterprise was entangled in intricate webs of rights and obligations. Village people wanted to prosper, but no more than they wanted to live in confidence among their neighbors. Their cooperative arrangements worked economically, and their religion gave them a vision of unity. They wanted to prosper, but they understood that an appetite for worldly goods than ran beyond necessity was avarice — a sin as deadly as gluttony or fornication. The aim of life was sufficiently clarified by Christ’s message that it is easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle than it is for a rich man to enter the kingdom of God.

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5. Narrating the Artist: Seyni Camara and the Multiple Constructions of the Artistic Persona

Joanna Grabski Indiana University Press ePub



Exhibition narratives have long-lasting power in determining the ways in which artists and their work are perceived and appreciated by the public and scholars. Even when the stance taken by curators of successful exhibitions is criticized by reviewers and academics, the implications of their discourse may persist for years. Sometimes, the intellectual and political narratives informing an exhibition prove to be so powerful that they completely mute the personal input of the artists included in the show. At other times, these narratives may subvert or reinforce what artists say about their own work. In all cases, these narratives have great potential to define artists’ works and professional personas.

In this chapter I address the relationship between curatorial narratives and personal self-presentation by focusing on Seyni Camara, a Senegalese sculptor from Casamance, who made her first appearance on the international art scene in the oft-cited seminal exhibition “Magiciens de la Terre” (1989).1 Apparently indifferent to the concerns of art critics, Camara presents herself in a way that seemingly replicates the framing proposed by “Magiciens de la Terre.” However, a closer look at the narratives developed by Camara and her critics reveals a much more complex picture in which personal visions are entangled with local cultural references and global ambitions in an ever-evolving negotiation.

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2.6 Employees’ adaptability to change

Low Sui Pheng Chartridge Books Oxford ePub


Behavioural influence of ISO 9000

2.1 Introduction

The ISO 9000 standard is a quality management system which involves every employee within an organisation, both directly and indirectly. As a management system, it requires discipline within an organisation to ensure that procedures are followed closely by all employees. Unless everyone contributes with the right attitude, the system will not function properly. While documentation is the key to implementation, top management’s commitment, the generous provision of resources and a positive attitude towards ISO 9000 are important attributes which underpin quality management systems. Quality management systems do not function effectively without the support of senior management.

In reality, however, things are not always smooth going. It is human nature to resist change, even for the better. Apart from employees’ reluctance to follow a set of rigid procedures, they may also perceive it as pointless to document procedures for activities which they have been doing every day for many years. The failure of management in securing co-operation and co-ordination adds to difficulties in implementing quality systems. Furthermore, organisation politics is another reality which should not be ignored for managing quality systems effectively. While the technical requirements of ISO 9000 are important, studies have suggested that other non-technical, irrational and socio-political factors may have an equally adverse influence on quality management systems (Seymour and Low, 1990; Low, 1989, 1993).

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