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4 The Old Library Debate: How Bloomington, Indiana Preserved Its Carnegie Library

Nancy R Hiller Quarry Books ePub

Elizabeth Schlemmer

Carnegie libraries are a common sight in cities and towns across the United States, monuments not only to the steel magnate whose wealth made their construction possible, but also to the largely unknown communities of people who planned and preserved them. Every Carnegie library building stands for the work of local citizens who believed in its worth.

At the turn of the twentieth century, Andrew Carnegie was the wealthiest man in the United States, having grown Carnegie Steel into the largest and most profitable business in the nation. After selling his enterprise to JP Morgan in 1901, Carnegie committed the remainder of his life to philanthropic and scholarly pursuits. As outlined in his 1889 essay on the disposal of riches, “The Gospel of Wealth,” he considered libraries among the institutions most deserving of support, and he required would-be beneficiaries to invest in their libraries’ establishment.

To be eligible for a library grant, a community had to demonstrate need, provide land for building, and promise to support and maintain the library with annual tax funds equal to ten percent of the grant amount. Local leaders hired the architect for the project, planned the design, stocked the building with books, and employed librarians.

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Medium 9780253009913

2 - Socialist Realism in the Socialist City

Fehérváry, Krisztina ePub

IN APRIL 1950, workers began clearing land on an orchard-covered plateau overlooking the Danube River some sixty kilometers south of Budapest. Curious villagers from the nearby settlement of Dunapentele learned that the workers were building barracks for a new steel mill. They were soon to discover that the site had also been selected for the massive project of building Hungary's first socialist “new town.” The factory was to provide steel for an anticipated war with the West, but the new town, named Sztálinváros, or City of Stalin, was to model the socialist utopian society to come. Like other new towns being built throughout the Soviet bloc, it was intended to demonstrate the ability of a Communist Party–led, centrally planned, socioeconomic system to effect a wholesale transformation of society and to usher in an alternative modernity, one that avoided the misery of capitalist urbanization and industrialization.1

In contrast to the disorder of the existing industrial cities and backward villages, this new town was to feature a modern division of labor in which each member of a literate citizenry contributed to the working of the whole. Publicity campaigns promised a “good life” for the entire population, a life epitomized in modern urban living with central heat and indoor plumbing—comforts that were still rare in the countryside. The rational organization of labor would ensure that residents and workers in the new town could purchase rather than produce the goods they needed and enjoy the novelty of leisure time to be spent in cultivating the self.

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Medium 9781902375014

6.4 Implications of survey findings

Low Sui Pheng Chartridge Books Oxford ePub

CHAPTER 6

ISO 9000 for small construction firms

6.1 Introduction

The application of ISO 9000 Quality Management Systems (QMS) seems to be confined presently to the larger construction firms and not their smaller counterparts. However, many of the smaller firms are employed by large construction firms as their subcontractors. It therefore appears that QMS should also be extended to the smaller construction firms if the long-term objective of developing a construction industry which is capable of producing consistently good quality work is to be achieved (Low, 1995). This chapter presents the findings of a survey which examined the reasons why small construction firms are not receptive to ISO 9000. It also suggests measures to overcome some of the hurdles currently faced by small construction firms when developing and implementing quality management systems within their organisations. Total Quality Management within the construction industry can be achieved only when both large and small contractors have implemented quality management systems in their operations.

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8 Passing Through: Historic Preservation in Pike County’s Patoka Bottoms

Nancy R Hiller Quarry Books ePub

Edith Sarra

The place was, and still is, south of where county roads 300 West and 200 South intersect, approximately eleven miles below Petersburg in Pike County, Indiana. If you were to turn west from State Road 57 onto County Road 200 South, just north of the Gibson County line, and follow that road until you reach the first crossroads, you could turn again, south this time, and find yourself, as I did ten years ago, on what the late nineteenth-century histories of Pike and Gibson Counties call “the old state road.”

The origin of this road is difficult to pinpoint. A survey of Pike County Commissioners Reports (1817–1826) suggests it may have been constructed as early as 1825. For more than a century, until it was bypassed in 1936 by State Road 57, it served as the main route between Petersburg, the Pike County seat, and what is now Oakland City in eastern Gibson County. Follow this road south and it will plunge you soon enough into a wide floodplain flanked on either side by crop fields. An old set of oil well storage tanks stands off to the left here, just beyond where the road makes a short switchback along the bluff as it drops into the broad valley of the Patoka River’s South Fork.

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7.4 Significance of quality costs in construction

Low Sui Pheng Chartridge Books Oxford ePub

CHAPTER 7

A system for quantifying construction quality costs

7.1 Introduction

There are three components that make up quality costs: Prevention, Appraisal and Failure costs. The ISO 9000 standard introduces a quality management system that has been widely claimed would reduce the costs of business. One of the ways it does this is through a reduction in quality costs. The ISO 9000 quality management system establishes work procedures that reduce defects. Proper design and implementation of these work procedures lead to reduced wastage as more work would be done right the first time. Ultimately, the costs of operation would decrease. However, no study has been done based on the above premise. Although it has been widely claimed that ISO 9000 would reduce the costs of doing business, no studies have been undertaken within the context of ISO 9000 certified construction firms. Due to this vacuum, this chapter proposes a cost system to capture site quality costs. The aims of this chapter are to:

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