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Medium 9781902375014

2.8 Conflicts

Low Sui Pheng Chartridge Books Oxford ePub

CHAPTER 2

Behavioural influence of ISO 9000

2.1 Introduction

The ISO 9000 standard is a quality management system which involves every employee within an organisation, both directly and indirectly. As a management system, it requires discipline within an organisation to ensure that procedures are followed closely by all employees. Unless everyone contributes with the right attitude, the system will not function properly. While documentation is the key to implementation, top management’s commitment, the generous provision of resources and a positive attitude towards ISO 9000 are important attributes which underpin quality management systems. Quality management systems do not function effectively without the support of senior management.

In reality, however, things are not always smooth going. It is human nature to resist change, even for the better. Apart from employees’ reluctance to follow a set of rigid procedures, they may also perceive it as pointless to document procedures for activities which they have been doing every day for many years. The failure of management in securing co-operation and co-ordination adds to difficulties in implementing quality systems. Furthermore, organisation politics is another reality which should not be ignored for managing quality systems effectively. While the technical requirements of ISO 9000 are important, studies have suggested that other non-technical, irrational and socio-political factors may have an equally adverse influence on quality management systems (Seymour and Low, 1990; Low, 1989, 1993).

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Medium 9781902375014

4.1 Introduction

Low Sui Pheng Chartridge Books Oxford ePub

CHAPTER 4

Legal implications for the construction industry

4.1 Introduction

Traditionally, a client’s expectations with regard to quality in construction works are ensured and upheld by building contracts. With the recent emergence of ISO 9000 quality management systems, however, the definition and assurance of quality have taken on a new dimension. Many contractors have since applied quality management systems in their organisations without understanding its intricate relationship with the building contract used. This chapter examines the likely conflicts and compatibility between Standard Forms of Building Contract and quality management systems. An understanding of the possible legal obligations that may arise from adopting a quality management system contractually will help contractors and clients protect their interests when defects arise. In addition, many contractors are in the process of establishing their quality management systems to increase their competitive and bidding edge.

This trend has raised questions as to the application of quality systems to Standard Forms of Building Contracts in the construction industry. There is a tendency for both the Quality Manager and Construction Manager to consider quality systems and their associated legal obligations separately from building contracts. This may be acceptable when the quality system is still in its infancy stage. As the quality system matures, however, there would be unavoidable interaction between quality systems and contractual/legal obligations at different levels, especially when there is evidence of reliance by the purchaser on certification such as ISO 9000.

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Medium 9780253016706

2 National Identity, National Conflict, Space, and Memory

Noga Kadman Indiana University Press ePub

NATIONAL IDENTITY ATTACHES its bearer to a “nationality”—a defined political community driven by an ideology of social and territorial exclusivity. National identity evolves and consolidates through a prolonged and intricate process, involving a host of cultural and political forces grappling to shape its character. Part of the process is the creation of a hegemonic narrative that describes the history of the nation, establishes the link between the nation and the territory that it claims, stresses its uniqueness and unity, charts out its shared goals and mission, and cultivates the values and norms by which this nation abides. The national ideas expressed in the narrative are communicated to society through art (literature, painting, poetry), mass media, the education system (especially in the subjects of history and geography), and holidays and rituals. These fields of discourse and practice are performed by different institutions—governmental, social, political, and cultural—that bring nationalism into daily life, thus cultivating the individual’s identification with national ideas and reinforcing his or her national identity.1

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Medium 9780253010469

12 Guinea Hens in the Churchyard: Signposts of Maple Grove Road

Nancy R Hiller Quarry Books ePub

Lauren Coleman

The first time my husband and I drove maple grove road, a rural historic district near Bloomington, Indiana, we were surprised. From the descriptions given us by friends, all of whom praised its rural charm, we had formed an expectation of idyllic, uninterrupted farmland dotted with benevolent old farmhouses. The farmland was still there. But so many of the houses were distinctly modern; the kind with faux-brick façades and preternaturally green lawns; the kind you can’t imagine, a hundred years from now, standing, let alone eliciting the pleasure of the district’s few remaining aged farmhouses, which are as wholly right in their environment as the enormous trees that shade them.

I am a twenty-eight-year-old woman from Southern California, where iconic, early twentieth-century Spanish Colonials and Craftsman bungalows coexist with vast tracts of McMansions. My time in Indiana is brief and somewhat arbitrary, the result of my husband’s three-year graduate program. I am a vegetarian of twenty-one years (not, I like to think, of the proselytizing variety; rather of the “this is comfortable for me” variety) who subscribes to homesteading magazines with headlines such as “Butcher Your Own Hogs!” and “Onions: Truffles of the Poor.” Although I do not identify with a sub-culture, I acknowledge that I am somewhat of a cliché: a young, college-educated, temporarily (and not all that uncomfortably) lower-income person, yearning in a vague and naïve way toward a rural way of life I know very little about. At present, my efforts to access this life are essentially limited to – ironically – spending money: I pore through my homesteading magazines; I splurge on organic tomatoes at the farmers’ market; I plant carrot seeds that languish in the clay soil of our side yard. My husband and I talk earnestly of pint-sized houses, backyard chickens, herb gardens. I imagine a life in which I milk goats, bake whole grain bread from scratch, and sell some sort of felt craft on Etsy. In other words, I’m sort of annoying, in the way my husband’s precocious freshman students (“I’m going to get my Ph.D., become a professor at Yale, and write for the New Yorker on the side”) are annoying. Not because my daydreams are wrong or bad, but because they reek of inexperience, a lack of acquaintance with the realities of goat poop (Plate 13). And because they make of farming and livestock a pretty game, where once people lived and died – indeed, still live and die – by poor soil and mastitis.

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Medium 9780253006875

6. Interview: Akinbode Akinbiyi

Joanna Grabski Indiana University Press ePub

AKINBODE AKINBIYI

Interviewer: After months of trying to arrange a meeting with Akinbode Akinbiyi, I eventually tied him down to a date and time in what he calls his home city, Lagos. He actually lives in Berlin, and it was there that I often emailed him. Of Nigerian parentage, he was born in Oxford, England, just after the Second World War. He claims that one of his first childhood memories is of his parents talking about the horrors of this war, the weight of darkness that came across in their discussions and in the quiet modulations of their adult voices.

At the age of three and some, he left Oxford together with his recently born brother to return with his parents to Lagos. There, his memories are much clearer and he remembers vividly walking to primary school nearby the home in which they lived, the wide expanse of the streets spread out before him.

Mr. Akinbiyi, those early walks to and back from school, were those the beginnings of your wanderlust?

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Medium 9781902375014

3.2 ISO 9000 Quality Management System

Low Sui Pheng Chartridge Books Oxford ePub

CHAPTER 3

Managing change under ISO 9000

3.1 Introduction

An effective quality management system is one which adopts customer-oriented strategies and has an organisational form which can respond efficiently to customer preference. It should also encourage innovations - new technologies, new markets, new customer applications of existing products, new products, new organisational forms, new requirements for entrepreneurial activities - and be flexible enough to meet social and economic changes in the environment. The improvement of existing quality management systems through flexibility and innovation will increase product and service quality. This will in turn enhance and advance the organisation’s business objective.

The “segmentalist” and “integrative” concepts are examined in this chapter using detailed case studies of two construction firms. These should be removed from or implemented into the organisation where necessary. Organisations must adopt the “integrative” approach which looks ahead to the challenges of the future rather than the “segmentalist” approach which is contented with past accomplishments. A corporate renaissance must be created within the organisation to take on these challenges and implement change and innovation. It is therefore necessary to develop the humanistic factors and a “participatory management” environment. However, in so doing, the technical aspects are also of importance and should not be totally ignored. These are collectively the key elements to maintaining a quality management system effectively.

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Medium 9781607321750

Chapter 6. Cooking for Fame or Fortune The Effect of European Contact on Casabe Production in the Orinoco

Sarah R. Graff University Press of Colorado ePub

Kay Tarble de Scaramelli
UNIVERSIDAD CENTRAL DE VENEZUELA

Franz Scaramelli
INSTITUTO VENEZOLANO DE INVESTIGACIONES CIENTÍFICAS

Manioc, a shrub with a starchy, tuberous root, requires a complex cooking sequence in order to be converted into a storable and transportable food, either as casabe, a flat, round cake, or as mañoco, a form of toasted grits. In both cases, this process involves the grating, pressing, sieving, and cooking of the resulting pulp. Manioc is also consumed in the form of beer, known locally by different names such as cachiri or yarake, which also involves a lengthy production process and results in a fermented drink that figures prominently in indigenous social and ritual gatherings throughout the remote areas of the Amazonian region (Mansutti-Rodríguez 2006; Monod 1975; Uzendoski 2004; Viveiros de Castro 1992). While a great deal of attention has been paid to the symbolic meaning of manioc and meat in “traditional” indigenous Amazonian societies, and the roles they play in structuring social relations and reproduction, less consideration has been given to the transformation in foodways brought about by colonial intervention.* In this chapter we will discuss archaeological evidence for cooking practices related to manioc that points to profound transformations in the indigenous societies located in the area of mission influence of the Middle Orinoco. We argue that modifications took place in the relations of production and distribution that had obtained prior to European colonization and that resulted in a shift from a domestic mode of production, aimed at generating surplus to be used to enhance status through feasting (Dietler 1996; Dietler and Hayden 2001; Gassón 2003; Rodríguez-Alegría 2010), to a market-oriented production in which manioc became a commodity. We refer to the first productive strategy as a means to “fame,” (Munn 1986; Turner 1984) while the second is aimed at “fortune.”

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Medium 9780253009913

1 - Normal Life in the Former Socialist City

Fehérváry, Krisztina Indiana University Press ePub

In the mid-1990s in Dunaújváros, half a decade after the fall of state socialism, long lines once again formed in front of shops, but now for lottery tickets. An editorial on the front page of the local newspaper attempted to articulate the sentiments of the people standing in these lines, people still living in concrete apartment blocks, whose standard of living had declined rather than improved in the tumultuous years since the incursion of market capitalism.

Most people know…that unfortunately in this world it takes a lot of money for a full life. If you want to update your library, travel, see the world; if you want to have a livable home, drive a normal car, and occasionally have a respectable dinner—for these you need a small fortune. (Dunaújvárosi Hírlap, June 3, 1997)

Throughout my fieldwork, people used terms like “livable,” “normal,” and “respectable” to refer to services, goods, and material worlds that met their expectations of life after the end of state socialism. New telephone systems, automatic teller machines, twenty-four-hour convenience stores, and courteous sales clerks were amenities that many Hungarians associated with the dignity accorded respectable citizens of a “First World.” In contrast, they understood obsolete technologies and infrastructures, corruption and rude behavior, and the frantic pace of everyday life to be vestiges of a discredited socialist system. Scholars have reported similar uses of “normal” throughout central Eastern Europe and the Baltics during this period, as people used it to refer to things that were clearly extraordinary in their local context, but were imagined to be part of average lifestyles in Western Europe or the United States.

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Medium 9781902375014

8.7 Conclusion

Low Sui Pheng Chartridge Books Oxford ePub

CHAPTER 8

Total Quality Management

8.1 Introduction

While quality management systems will help to promote good quality construction, it should be realised that the building industry is, however, frequently characterised by diverse professionals as well as a heavy dependence on foreign labour in some countries. This diversity and reliance can lead to cultural, social as well as professional stratification. Hence, to achieve quality construction, there is a need for all parties involved in the building process to cultivate a teamwork mindset. Unfortunately, such a mindset appears to be still lacking in today’s construction industry. It follows from such a situation that a more rational management approach for the construction process needs to be identified. The existing system of project implementation frequently leads to conflicts among the parties involved in the building process, hence rendering the system devoid of effective communication and teamwork. As construction projects become more varied and complex in nature, a fresh management paradigm seems imperative. In this context, a shift from the profession based scenario to a project-oriented team based scenario may be envisaged. The various disciplines should function within such a team culture, guided by policies, procedures and systems whilst focusing on the objectives and benefits identified for the project from the outset.

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Medium 9780253006875

Appendix: Interlocutors

Joanna Grabski Indiana University Press ePub

This book would not have been possible without the generosity and expertise of the many individuals who shared their insights and time. Those listed below joined us in interviews and conversations. They appear in various places throughout our text, and here we recognize their contributions to our narratives.

Arnoldi

Sekou Camara

Budagari Coulibaly

Khadja Coulibaly

Nakamissa Coulibaly

Adama Diarra

Mei Diarra

Ousmane Diarra

Moussa Fane

Siriman Fane

Lynn Forsdale Denny

Kirango, Bamana youth association

Kirango, Boso youth association

Kirango, Sòmonò youth association

Adama Mara

Cheik Oumar Mara

Khalilou Tera

Mariam “Mamou” Thiero

Bakary Traore

deSouza and Purpura

Roberto Bedoya

Michael Jesse Jackson

Casper Bruun Jensen

Forni

Eveline Barsene

Omar Camara

Seyni Camara

Ndeye Cisse

Ferdinand De Jong

Aby Diagne

Frohne

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Medium 9781902375014

5.3 Quality control department

Low Sui Pheng Chartridge Books Oxford ePub

CHAPTER 5

A case study of ISO 9000 in large scale projects

5.1 Introduction

Although quality management systems were introduced more than a decade ago in the construction industries of the developed countries (in the United Kingdom, for example), the implementation of quality management systems in some less developed countries is still a relatively new phenomenon.

While quality management systems are now slowly making their presence felt in the less developed countries, there has been a lack of study of the problems faced by practitioners in implementing quality management systems for building projects during their infancy stage in the industry. This vacuum was, likewise, felt in the more developed countries like the United Kingdom when quality management systems were first introduced to their construction industries. This lacuna at the infancy stage means that the lessons and experiences learnt from implementing quality management systems in one particular building project are not necessarily transferred to benefit other projects. Apart from filling this vacuum, the aims of this chapter are to:

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Medium 9781902375014

2.1 Introduction

Low Sui Pheng Chartridge Books Oxford ePub

CHAPTER 2

Behavioural influence of ISO 9000

2.1 Introduction

The ISO 9000 standard is a quality management system which involves every employee within an organisation, both directly and indirectly. As a management system, it requires discipline within an organisation to ensure that procedures are followed closely by all employees. Unless everyone contributes with the right attitude, the system will not function properly. While documentation is the key to implementation, top management’s commitment, the generous provision of resources and a positive attitude towards ISO 9000 are important attributes which underpin quality management systems. Quality management systems do not function effectively without the support of senior management.

In reality, however, things are not always smooth going. It is human nature to resist change, even for the better. Apart from employees’ reluctance to follow a set of rigid procedures, they may also perceive it as pointless to document procedures for activities which they have been doing every day for many years. The failure of management in securing co-operation and co-ordination adds to difficulties in implementing quality systems. Furthermore, organisation politics is another reality which should not be ignored for managing quality systems effectively. While the technical requirements of ISO 9000 are important, studies have suggested that other non-technical, irrational and socio-political factors may have an equally adverse influence on quality management systems (Seymour and Low, 1990; Low, 1989, 1993).

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Medium 9781902375014

7.9 Format for the quality cost model

Low Sui Pheng Chartridge Books Oxford ePub

CHAPTER 7

A system for quantifying construction quality costs

7.1 Introduction

There are three components that make up quality costs: Prevention, Appraisal and Failure costs. The ISO 9000 standard introduces a quality management system that has been widely claimed would reduce the costs of business. One of the ways it does this is through a reduction in quality costs. The ISO 9000 quality management system establishes work procedures that reduce defects. Proper design and implementation of these work procedures lead to reduced wastage as more work would be done right the first time. Ultimately, the costs of operation would decrease. However, no study has been done based on the above premise. Although it has been widely claimed that ISO 9000 would reduce the costs of doing business, no studies have been undertaken within the context of ISO 9000 certified construction firms. Due to this vacuum, this chapter proposes a cost system to capture site quality costs. The aims of this chapter are to:

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Medium 9780253337566

Pattern in Time

Henry Glassie Indiana University Press ePub

My argument is done. Architecture provides a prime resource to the one who would write a better history. I will contrive a conclusion with a summary. Our history breaks into three great periods. Its dynamic depends upon impurity.

First is the period of the village, a time of compressed housing and dispersed fields. The great creation of the period was the largest, most permanent, most lavishly adorned building of the community. Collective resources were banked and the collective will was materialized in a sacred edifice that was built to last, when houses were not. It should humble us some that the religious buildings of this period are the world’s greatest architectural creations: the parish churches of England, the stave churches of Norway, the earthen mosques of West Africa, the towering temples of India — Chartres Cathedral, the Selimiye at Edirne, the Todaiji at Nara.

Urnes stave church. Sogn, Norway. 1995

San José. Trampas, New Mexico. 1987

In the beginning, there was the village, a neolithic invention, and in the beginning, there was enclosure. Valiant people carved farms out of the waste and built longhouses to shelter themselves and their stock against wolves and cattle raids. Enclosure expanded steadily, chewing away the wilderness on the margins, but it was blocked on the fat lowlands where enterprise was entangled in intricate webs of rights and obligations. Village people wanted to prosper, but no more than they wanted to live in confidence among their neighbors. Their cooperative arrangements worked economically, and their religion gave them a vision of unity. They wanted to prosper, but they understood that an appetite for worldly goods than ran beyond necessity was avarice — a sin as deadly as gluttony or fornication. The aim of life was sufficiently clarified by Christ’s message that it is easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle than it is for a rich man to enter the kingdom of God.

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6 - Unstable Landscapes of Property, Morality, and Status

Fehérváry, Krisztina Indiana University Press ePub

EARLY IN THIS book, I recounted an incident in which a university student from Dunaújváros nodded out the window of our bus at a silver car speeding by and remarked, “If everyone had a car like that, that would be normal!” In one breath, this young man summed up a complex mixture of expectation and disappointment. As with widespread invocations of a counterfactual “normal” in Hungary, he expressed the socialist middle strata's frustrated expectations for the kind of life they had assumed would be ushered in by democracy and a free market. Simultaneously, he delineated places and kinds of behavior in Hungary that conformed to such expectations. His insistence that “everyone” was entitled to a car like that also highlighted the fact that most people were still sitting on the bus. At the same time, these people could see that others—often inexplicably—enjoyed not only “normal” material goods and environments but far more lavish ones. Just as disturbing was the emergence of a visible homeless population as well as the regular sight of impoverished pensioners selling small, straggly bouquets of daisies on street corners.

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