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Medium 9780253016706

5 Depopulated Villages in Tourist and Recreational Sites

Noga Kadman Indiana University Press ePub

NEARLY ALL THE depopulated Palestinian villages were demolished in order to erase them from the landscape. However, most of the village sites are located today in open areas, and in many some remains of the village can be seen.1 Over the years, in many of these areas forests were planted, parks were established, national parks and nature reserves were declared, and hiking paths were paved. Today, the previously built-up area of almost half of the depopulated Palestinian villages (182 out of 418) is included within tourist and recreational sites, such as JNF forests and parks, nature reserves, or national parks run by the Israel Nature and Parks Authority (INPA), marked hiking trails signposted by the SPNI, and privately operated tourist sites. A full list of the villages and the recreation sites that came to include them can be found in appendix A, along with a map showing their locations across the country.

Many of the village sites have thus become accessible to the Israeli public, and therefore many encounters between Israelis and the villages take place during hiking and sightseeing. Unlike the symbolic encounter through reading a name or a map, these encounters are a tangible, physical experience. For most Israelis, who were born after the villages had been demolished, the first and only physical encounter with the villages occurs when they come across their remains. This encounter is mediated by the authorities who maintain the nature and recreation sites.

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Medium 9781902375014

5.9 Non-conformance works

Low Sui Pheng Chartridge Books Oxford ePub

CHAPTER 5

A case study of ISO 9000 in large scale projects

5.1 Introduction

Although quality management systems were introduced more than a decade ago in the construction industries of the developed countries (in the United Kingdom, for example), the implementation of quality management systems in some less developed countries is still a relatively new phenomenon.

While quality management systems are now slowly making their presence felt in the less developed countries, there has been a lack of study of the problems faced by practitioners in implementing quality management systems for building projects during their infancy stage in the industry. This vacuum was, likewise, felt in the more developed countries like the United Kingdom when quality management systems were first introduced to their construction industries. This lacuna at the infancy stage means that the lessons and experiences learnt from implementing quality management systems in one particular building project are not necessarily transferred to benefit other projects. Apart from filling this vacuum, the aims of this chapter are to:

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Medium 9780253006875

5. Narrating the Artist: Seyni Camara and the Multiple Constructions of the Artistic Persona

Joanna Grabski Indiana University Press ePub

SILVIA FORNI

 

Exhibition narratives have long-lasting power in determining the ways in which artists and their work are perceived and appreciated by the public and scholars. Even when the stance taken by curators of successful exhibitions is criticized by reviewers and academics, the implications of their discourse may persist for years. Sometimes, the intellectual and political narratives informing an exhibition prove to be so powerful that they completely mute the personal input of the artists included in the show. At other times, these narratives may subvert or reinforce what artists say about their own work. In all cases, these narratives have great potential to define artists’ works and professional personas.

In this chapter I address the relationship between curatorial narratives and personal self-presentation by focusing on Seyni Camara, a Senegalese sculptor from Casamance, who made her first appearance on the international art scene in the oft-cited seminal exhibition “Magiciens de la Terre” (1989).1 Apparently indifferent to the concerns of art critics, Camara presents herself in a way that seemingly replicates the framing proposed by “Magiciens de la Terre.” However, a closer look at the narratives developed by Camara and her critics reveals a much more complex picture in which personal visions are entangled with local cultural references and global ambitions in an ever-evolving negotiation.

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4 Naming and Mapping the Depopulated Village Sites

Noga Kadman Indiana University Press ePub

What is the name of this place? A few years ago there was a place and it had a name. The place is lost and the name is lost. What is left? At first, a name torn out of a place. Soon, that, too, is erased. Neither place nor name. . . .

—S. Yizhar, “The Silence of the Villages,” Stories of a Plain

NAMING A PLACE and presenting it on a map is an acknowledgment of its presence in the landscape, its historical importance, and its cultural significance. Most of the sites of depopulated Palestinian villages were never granted an official name in Israel, even though the traces of many still remain in the landscape, and despite the Israeli pretension of naming any geographical object in sight, including ruins. Even where names were given to village sites, in most cases the Arab name was not recognized: if the Arab name preserved a biblical name, that earlier name was restored as the official name; in other cases, village sites were given Hebraized names, which usually ignored the content of the Arab names and the cultural world that they reflect. Sometimes the new names were even devoid of any meaning in Hebrew.

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2.2 Power in organisations

Low Sui Pheng Chartridge Books Oxford ePub

CHAPTER 2

Behavioural influence of ISO 9000

2.1 Introduction

The ISO 9000 standard is a quality management system which involves every employee within an organisation, both directly and indirectly. As a management system, it requires discipline within an organisation to ensure that procedures are followed closely by all employees. Unless everyone contributes with the right attitude, the system will not function properly. While documentation is the key to implementation, top management’s commitment, the generous provision of resources and a positive attitude towards ISO 9000 are important attributes which underpin quality management systems. Quality management systems do not function effectively without the support of senior management.

In reality, however, things are not always smooth going. It is human nature to resist change, even for the better. Apart from employees’ reluctance to follow a set of rigid procedures, they may also perceive it as pointless to document procedures for activities which they have been doing every day for many years. The failure of management in securing co-operation and co-ordination adds to difficulties in implementing quality systems. Furthermore, organisation politics is another reality which should not be ignored for managing quality systems effectively. While the technical requirements of ISO 9000 are important, studies have suggested that other non-technical, irrational and socio-political factors may have an equally adverse influence on quality management systems (Seymour and Low, 1990; Low, 1989, 1993).

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4.9 Evaluation of subcontractors

Low Sui Pheng Chartridge Books Oxford ePub

CHAPTER 4

Legal implications for the construction industry

4.1 Introduction

Traditionally, a client’s expectations with regard to quality in construction works are ensured and upheld by building contracts. With the recent emergence of ISO 9000 quality management systems, however, the definition and assurance of quality have taken on a new dimension. Many contractors have since applied quality management systems in their organisations without understanding its intricate relationship with the building contract used. This chapter examines the likely conflicts and compatibility between Standard Forms of Building Contract and quality management systems. An understanding of the possible legal obligations that may arise from adopting a quality management system contractually will help contractors and clients protect their interests when defects arise. In addition, many contractors are in the process of establishing their quality management systems to increase their competitive and bidding edge.

This trend has raised questions as to the application of quality systems to Standard Forms of Building Contracts in the construction industry. There is a tendency for both the Quality Manager and Construction Manager to consider quality systems and their associated legal obligations separately from building contracts. This may be acceptable when the quality system is still in its infancy stage. As the quality system matures, however, there would be unavoidable interaction between quality systems and contractual/legal obligations at different levels, especially when there is evidence of reliance by the purchaser on certification such as ISO 9000.

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Medium 9781902375014

2.5 Organisation politics

Low Sui Pheng Chartridge Books Oxford ePub

CHAPTER 2

Behavioural influence of ISO 9000

2.1 Introduction

The ISO 9000 standard is a quality management system which involves every employee within an organisation, both directly and indirectly. As a management system, it requires discipline within an organisation to ensure that procedures are followed closely by all employees. Unless everyone contributes with the right attitude, the system will not function properly. While documentation is the key to implementation, top management’s commitment, the generous provision of resources and a positive attitude towards ISO 9000 are important attributes which underpin quality management systems. Quality management systems do not function effectively without the support of senior management.

In reality, however, things are not always smooth going. It is human nature to resist change, even for the better. Apart from employees’ reluctance to follow a set of rigid procedures, they may also perceive it as pointless to document procedures for activities which they have been doing every day for many years. The failure of management in securing co-operation and co-ordination adds to difficulties in implementing quality systems. Furthermore, organisation politics is another reality which should not be ignored for managing quality systems effectively. While the technical requirements of ISO 9000 are important, studies have suggested that other non-technical, irrational and socio-political factors may have an equally adverse influence on quality management systems (Seymour and Low, 1990; Low, 1989, 1993).

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Medium 9780253353627

4: Equality ~ Shared Light

Henry Plummer Indiana University Press ePub

4

EQUALITY ~ SHARED LIGHT

Transom over Dining Room Doors Church Family Dwelling House Hancock, Massachusetts

TRANSOM WINDOW

Transom windows, frequently placed by Shakers above inner as well as outer doors, provide a means to increase the light shared between neighboring rooms, and maintain this flow even when doors are fully closed. Interior transoms are typically set over doors connecting dark corridors and well-lit perimeter rooms, and take shapes ranging from multi-paned rectangles to arched or semicircular fanlights.

Fanlight between Kitchen and Dining Room Center Family Dwelling House Pleasant Hill, Kentucky

Arched Transom over Infirmary Door Center Family Dwelling House Pleasant Hill, Kentucky

INTERIOR WINDOW

The stretching of light, and the open feeling, afforded by an interior window are especially impressive when able to transform an utterly mundane space, such as a back stair or closet. An ingenious device to siphon daylight deeply into a building, this glazed opening serves also to share illumination between rooms demanding acoustic separation, so as to spread light in a peaceful way, free of disrupting noise.

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8.2 The TQM philosophy

Low Sui Pheng Chartridge Books Oxford ePub

CHAPTER 8

Total Quality Management

8.1 Introduction

While quality management systems will help to promote good quality construction, it should be realised that the building industry is, however, frequently characterised by diverse professionals as well as a heavy dependence on foreign labour in some countries. This diversity and reliance can lead to cultural, social as well as professional stratification. Hence, to achieve quality construction, there is a need for all parties involved in the building process to cultivate a teamwork mindset. Unfortunately, such a mindset appears to be still lacking in today’s construction industry. It follows from such a situation that a more rational management approach for the construction process needs to be identified. The existing system of project implementation frequently leads to conflicts among the parties involved in the building process, hence rendering the system devoid of effective communication and teamwork. As construction projects become more varied and complex in nature, a fresh management paradigm seems imperative. In this context, a shift from the profession based scenario to a project-oriented team based scenario may be envisaged. The various disciplines should function within such a team culture, guided by policies, procedures and systems whilst focusing on the objectives and benefits identified for the project from the outset.

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Medium 9780253009913

4 - Socialist Generic and the Branding of State Socialism

Fehérváry, Krisztina ePub

IN THE 1960s, economic reforms injected color, diversity, and forms of abundance into a commercial sphere that had been relatively sparse in the 1950s. The Kádár regime placed new emphasis on quality of life, including the provision of more consumer goods, leisure activities, and forms of entertainment. The department store Luxus opened in Budapest and catered to the segment of the population that wanted and could afford the higher quality and more expensive clothing it offered. At the same time, a chain of new self-service stores appeared, playfully called “ABC” (standing for all the letters in the alphabet) that offered consumers a wide variety of things under one roof and allowed them to access goods without going through a salesclerk. The first state-run warehouse for new furniture opened in Budapest in 1974, called Domus after the Italian design academy (Vadas 1992:183) and in 1976 a new department store chain called Skála opened its glass-clad flagship store in Budapest to great fanfare. The Skála was different from existing department stores in that its wares were supplied by new and more independent cooperative workshops (szövetkezet), making for more diverse offerings than previously possible through central planning channels. The Dunaújváros branch of the Skála was housed in a large, windowless set of cubes in a sienna orange. State-sponsored commercial media expanded, including the use of neon signs and television advertising; so did apolitical print media, such as magazines for car aficionados, fisherman, and photographers, as well as for cooking and women's fashion.

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Medium 9780253337566

Materialization

Henry Glassie Indiana University Press ePub

Architecture works in space as history works in time. History interrupts time’s ceaseless flow, segmenting and reordering it on behalf of the human need for meaning. Architecture intrudes in the limitless expanse of space, dividing it into useful, comprehensible pieces. Converting space into places through disruption, architecture brings meaning to the spatial dimension.

With astronomy as the extreme instance, the architectural impulse begins in exploration and naming. The baby crawls upon a softness that matures in meaning as time passes and names pile up: the softness is a rug, it is a red rug, it is a mediocre late nineteenth-century eagle Kazak. The explorer ventures into unknown territory to parcel and claim it with names that commemorate his heroism. Through time, names accumulate on the land and combine to recall its history: the sequence of settlement, the conflict between the invader and the native.

The name is a fleeting means for bringing history into space and marking the land as meaningful. Marking becomes firmer with physical alteration, when a trail is blazed through a forest, or one stone is piled on another to set a limit. More stones confirm the limit and rise into walls: the wall the Chinese built that turned the mounted warriors westward toward Europe, the wall the Romans struck across Britain to cede the heathy highlands to the wild men of the north, the walls of forts along the borders, the walls of prisons and gated communities, the walls of the cottage where the bold thresherman, his day’s work done, dandles the baby on his knee.

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Medium 9781902375014

3.1 Introduction

Low Sui Pheng Chartridge Books Oxford ePub

CHAPTER 3

Managing change under ISO 9000

3.1 Introduction

An effective quality management system is one which adopts customer-oriented strategies and has an organisational form which can respond efficiently to customer preference. It should also encourage innovations - new technologies, new markets, new customer applications of existing products, new products, new organisational forms, new requirements for entrepreneurial activities - and be flexible enough to meet social and economic changes in the environment. The improvement of existing quality management systems through flexibility and innovation will increase product and service quality. This will in turn enhance and advance the organisation’s business objective.

The “segmentalist” and “integrative” concepts are examined in this chapter using detailed case studies of two construction firms. These should be removed from or implemented into the organisation where necessary. Organisations must adopt the “integrative” approach which looks ahead to the challenges of the future rather than the “segmentalist” approach which is contented with past accomplishments. A corporate renaissance must be created within the organisation to take on these challenges and implement change and innovation. It is therefore necessary to develop the humanistic factors and a “participatory management” environment. However, in so doing, the technical aspects are also of importance and should not be totally ignored. These are collectively the key elements to maintaining a quality management system effectively.

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Medium 9780253353627

1: Simplicity ~ Pristine Light

Henry Plummer Indiana University Press ePub

1

SIMPLICITY ~ PRISTINE LIGHT

White-Painted Woodwork Meetinghouse (1820) Pleasant Hill, Kentucky

MONOTONE MASS

The radical simplification produced by a single exterior color, characteristic of Shaker architecture, serves to unite each form, while accentuating the play of light over a surface, enveloping the whole in a subdued atmosphere. These monochromatic effects, free of either visual friction or excitement, range from the absolute purity of a white meetinghouse, to the monotone crust of stone or brick around a dwelling, or continuous coat of yellow paint on a workshop.

White Limestone Façade First West Family Dwelling (1811–12) Pleasant Hill, Kentucky

Yellow-Painted Volume Brethren's Shop (1810) Hancock, Massachusetts

PURE WHITE CAVITY

A spotless surface of smooth plaster and white paint serves to purify Shaker space. This image of perfection reveals the slightest sign of dirt, is devoid, one might even say absolved, of darkness, and is inherently ethereal, reduced to nothing but sheer light.

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Medium 9780253009913

8 - Heterotopias of the Normal in Private Worlds

Fehérváry, Krisztina ePub

IN 1997, I met a local journalist who wrote for the steel mill newspaper. When I explained my research to her, she immediately understood it to be about the relationship between one's living space and one's sense of self in the world. She referred me to an article she had written on a new local handyman business that specialized in refurbishing panel apartments. I reproduce the first part of it here, as it gives articulate form to narratives and expressions in regular circulation during the late 1990s in Dunaújváros, a narrative that will feel familiar to the reader of this book. It is a narrative of recent history and of the expectations for and disappointments in the system change. It is also a narrative about the resilience of the idea that transformations to one's home can produce transcendent transformations to one's life. And finally, it is a narrative that hints more broadly at the emerging relationship between one's private home life and the wider sociopolitical and economic order. The title of the article? “My home, my castle!” (Kozma 1995).

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6.4 Implications of survey findings

Low Sui Pheng Chartridge Books Oxford ePub

CHAPTER 6

ISO 9000 for small construction firms

6.1 Introduction

The application of ISO 9000 Quality Management Systems (QMS) seems to be confined presently to the larger construction firms and not their smaller counterparts. However, many of the smaller firms are employed by large construction firms as their subcontractors. It therefore appears that QMS should also be extended to the smaller construction firms if the long-term objective of developing a construction industry which is capable of producing consistently good quality work is to be achieved (Low, 1995). This chapter presents the findings of a survey which examined the reasons why small construction firms are not receptive to ISO 9000. It also suggests measures to overcome some of the hurdles currently faced by small construction firms when developing and implementing quality management systems within their organisations. Total Quality Management within the construction industry can be achieved only when both large and small contractors have implemented quality management systems in their operations.

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