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1. Talking to People about Art

Joanna Grabski Indiana University Press ePub

PATRICK MCNAUGHTON

Without thinking about it deeply, you might not realize that talking to people about art is a practice fraught with difficulty. First, there is the fact that visual art especially, but also music and performance, deploy form to produce an effect in ways that often defy authoritative explanation. Art takes you to places filled with thoughts and emotions, but by a very different route than you would have traveled had words alone been the vehicle in which you rode. Indeed, it sometimes seems that art exists to provide a landscape of exploration and analysis in which words work only with the greatest deliberation, and then at the cost of losing some of art's provocative potency. When you talk to people about art, be they consumers or producers—audiences or artists—you face the problem that words can be clumsy, obfuscating, diffusing tools with which to record the making and experiencing of visual culture. It might be easier to use words to examine the things that exist around art, such as artists’ biographies, influences on their work, the influence they have on others, the ways they manifest technique, or the goals they seek to articulate, though these topics too impose obstacles and are not as straightforward as they might seem. But exploring the broad world of art, from artists’ backgrounds and abilities to the effects that artists seek to create and the experiences that audiences gain from art, is vitally important if we are to comprehend expressive culture's depth of resonance in the human condition and its relevance to all human affairs. So we must seek ways to use words that foster understanding of a creative domain that often seems anathema to verbal exposition.

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Chapter 8. Vale Boi 10,000 Years of Upper Paleolithic Bone Boiling

Sarah R. Graff University Press of Colorado ePub

Tiina Manne
UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND

Animal fats in the form of subcutaneous, muscular, mesenteric, and within-bone deposits represent some of the most high-calorie foods available to foragers. Though the prehistoric extraction of animal body fats has no visible archaeological record, the harvesting of within-bone fats may be recognized through careful, taphonomy-oriented faunal studies. Prior to the Upper Paleolithic, humans practiced only one form of bone processing, that of cold marrow extraction where the focus is the consolidated fatty deposits found in the large central, medullary cavities of the limb bones and mandibles (see review by Stiner 2002). A second method of bone-grease extraction, heat-in-liquid grease rendering, appeared during the Upper Paleolithic (see Audouze and Enloe 1991; Enloe 2003; Manne and Bicho 2009; Nakazawa et al. 2009; Stiner 2003; Weniger 1987; West 1997). This new form of bone processing allowed humans to take advantage of all body fats within a carcass and thus maximize the edible potential of their captured prey (Binford 1978; Brink 2002; Leechman 1951; Lupo and Schmitt 1997; Munro and Bar-Oz 2005; Saint-Germain 1997; Stiner 2002; Vehik 1977).

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Medium 9780253009913

7 - The New Family House and the New Middle Class

Fehérváry, Krisztina Indiana University Press ePub

In Dunaújváros, the old village sector of Pentele, once run down and neglected, quickly became one of the most prestigious places in town to live. With its newly paved or cobbled streets, renovated Catholic church and manor house, and recently opened private bakery, it was the only part of town that could be transformed into a piece of (presocialist) historic Hungary. The city's emerging elites had the connections and finances to buy scarce land here or in the gentrifying Garden City district on which to build their new, eye-catching houses. The breathtaking material difference of these houses from the gray, concrete buildings making up the socialist norm in town aligned them with illegitimate wealth rather than with respectable middle-class status (Plate 7a).

But there was another controversial transformation to the landscape around the new town, one that was emerging throughout the country: small but growing neighborhoods of new, detached family houses on the outskirts of nearby villages (Figures 7.1, 7.3, 7.5, and 7.6). Often painted bright white or in the “ice cream colors” (fagylalt színű) of lemon yellow, apricot, raspberry, pistachio green, and chocolate brown, they also stood out, but here against a rural backdrop of un-painted or soot-stained houses with faded gray and brown roofs. Newly available construction materials, technologies, and labor contributed to their distinctive appearance.1 Unsurprisingly, the eclectic architectural designs of new houses in Hungary in the 1990s, to varying degrees, were material condemnations of the straight-line and the rectilinear form. In subtle or dramatic fashion, these new houses incorporated organic, rounded, and often playful forms into their façades, including undulating roofs, convex mirrored glass, round columns, and arched windows. They also made prominent use of “natural” materials, such as wood, stone, and even reed thatch (Plates 8a and 8b). But these houses also marked their difference from their rural peasant or working-class neighbors through the material forms of the house and the new, leisure lifestyles they represented. Their cultivated lawns, gazebos, and rock gardens made them anathema to the rural peasantry, for whom the multiuse garage, productive garden, or livestock pen indexed a work ethic essential for respectability (Lampland 1995:316–23), but also to an older generation of city dwellers with weekend gardens, who were driven to tend, pick, and preserve whatever grew on their plots.

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Chapter 5. From Grinding Corn to Dishing Out Money A Long-Term History of Cooking in Xaltocan, Mexico

Sarah R. Graff University Press of Colorado ePub

Enrique Rodríguez-Alegría
UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS AT AUSTIN

Mexican cuisine is known for a variety of flavors (especially its heat) and dishes made from an endless list of plant and animal ingredients. Women are the ones responsible for such a great variety of flavors and ingredients. Women were the cooks in Aztec society, and they are the cooks in today’s Mexico. Many Mexican men cook, but they do so mostly in contexts where it will bring an income to the house, such as restaurants, markets, and food carts on the street. The majority of cooks in Mexican homes, whether upper-class or poor, are women. This means that technological changes related to cooking have affected women’s work the most, and they also have been mediated by women’s decisions. In this chapter I examine changes in cooking technologies over a very long period of time, focusing on the change from grinding corn with stone tools to buying ground corn and tortillas in markets. What factors affected the shift from grinding corn by hand to buying corn tortillas? Why did grinding continue for centuries, even though it is a difficult and time-consuming task? What roles did women, and men, play in changes in cooking technologies?

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3 - Socialist Modern and the Production of Demanding Citizens

Fehérváry, Krisztina Indiana University Press ePub

IN 1963, THE Dunaújváros newspaper published a particularly strident article on home décor, part of a nationwide campaign to convince residents moving into new apartments to rid themselves of their old, heavy furniture and adopt more appropriate tastes for their new surroundings. The author begins with “What there should not be!” She denounces the complete bedroom set, the permanent dining room, the display cabinet, and the “monstrous wardrobe” (Bars 1963). In the “apartment of today,” she proclaims, “furnishings cannot be monofunctional display items but must be useful objects.” They cannot have “useless decorations, carved angels, and twirled columns…. The fashion is clean lines, low sizes…easy to use and clean.” To create the all-important open room plan, “furniture is placed against the wall so that the center is left free…allowing space for movement, work, comfort, hominess.” One multifunctional room, the writer insists, will “better suit the family's time together and the working person's needs,” as long as the residents “avoid all that is superficial.” She concludes by assuring readers that “lighter, brighter forms and colors will satisfy the modern person's demands (igény) for a home.”

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Medium 9781902375014

3.6 Case studies

Low Sui Pheng Chartridge Books Oxford ePub

CHAPTER 3

Managing change under ISO 9000

3.1 Introduction

An effective quality management system is one which adopts customer-oriented strategies and has an organisational form which can respond efficiently to customer preference. It should also encourage innovations - new technologies, new markets, new customer applications of existing products, new products, new organisational forms, new requirements for entrepreneurial activities - and be flexible enough to meet social and economic changes in the environment. The improvement of existing quality management systems through flexibility and innovation will increase product and service quality. This will in turn enhance and advance the organisation’s business objective.

The “segmentalist” and “integrative” concepts are examined in this chapter using detailed case studies of two construction firms. These should be removed from or implemented into the organisation where necessary. Organisations must adopt the “integrative” approach which looks ahead to the challenges of the future rather than the “segmentalist” approach which is contented with past accomplishments. A corporate renaissance must be created within the organisation to take on these challenges and implement change and innovation. It is therefore necessary to develop the humanistic factors and a “participatory management” environment. However, in so doing, the technical aspects are also of importance and should not be totally ignored. These are collectively the key elements to maintaining a quality management system effectively.

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Medium 9781902375014

5.7 Contractors’ site staff

Low Sui Pheng Chartridge Books Oxford ePub

CHAPTER 5

A case study of ISO 9000 in large scale projects

5.1 Introduction

Although quality management systems were introduced more than a decade ago in the construction industries of the developed countries (in the United Kingdom, for example), the implementation of quality management systems in some less developed countries is still a relatively new phenomenon.

While quality management systems are now slowly making their presence felt in the less developed countries, there has been a lack of study of the problems faced by practitioners in implementing quality management systems for building projects during their infancy stage in the industry. This vacuum was, likewise, felt in the more developed countries like the United Kingdom when quality management systems were first introduced to their construction industries. This lacuna at the infancy stage means that the lessons and experiences learnt from implementing quality management systems in one particular building project are not necessarily transferred to benefit other projects. Apart from filling this vacuum, the aims of this chapter are to:

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Medium 9781902375014

3.2 ISO 9000 Quality Management System

Low Sui Pheng Chartridge Books Oxford ePub

CHAPTER 3

Managing change under ISO 9000

3.1 Introduction

An effective quality management system is one which adopts customer-oriented strategies and has an organisational form which can respond efficiently to customer preference. It should also encourage innovations - new technologies, new markets, new customer applications of existing products, new products, new organisational forms, new requirements for entrepreneurial activities - and be flexible enough to meet social and economic changes in the environment. The improvement of existing quality management systems through flexibility and innovation will increase product and service quality. This will in turn enhance and advance the organisation’s business objective.

The “segmentalist” and “integrative” concepts are examined in this chapter using detailed case studies of two construction firms. These should be removed from or implemented into the organisation where necessary. Organisations must adopt the “integrative” approach which looks ahead to the challenges of the future rather than the “segmentalist” approach which is contented with past accomplishments. A corporate renaissance must be created within the organisation to take on these challenges and implement change and innovation. It is therefore necessary to develop the humanistic factors and a “participatory management” environment. However, in so doing, the technical aspects are also of importance and should not be totally ignored. These are collectively the key elements to maintaining a quality management system effectively.

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Medium 9780253337566

The American Landscape

Henry Glassie Indiana University Press ePub

The purpose of this excursion has been to understand the choice that made the American landscape. Living in villages in Jamestown and Plymouth, English people understood village life, and they knew of an alternative: enclosure. In both places, they abandoned the village for separate farms. They did not risk their lives on a black ocean to repeat the old but to create the new. They came to get rich. Religious rhetoric and the resistance of the native people could retard but not stop the spread of enclosure.

Jamestown and Plymouth might have been twin points of origin for a landscape unified by enclosure. Instead, history led to regional difference. In New England, the Puritans fought dispersal and isolation, returning by choice to the openfield village. They located a meetinghouse at the center of town and scattered tillage in strips through the open fields, rededicating themselves to the way of the Lord. New England developed in tension between the opposed energies of compression and dispersal. Villages predominated in some areas, notably the lowlands of the Connecticut Valley. In other places, high, rough, and marginal, the farmhouses stood alone. The scene in the South was simpler. Houses, churches, and even courthouses stood apart. Old Virginia was the first impeccably capitalistic landscape.

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Medium 9780253010469

10 Preservation in Our Parks: A Natural Fit

Nancy R Hiller Quarry Books ePub

Vicki Basman & Benjamin Clark

From its flat, lake-studded terrain in the north to the rolling hills of the Ohio River valley in the south, the Hoosier state is composed of an extraordinary variety of natural landscapes. The dense forest, meandering creeks, and rugged ground that so tried the determination of early nineteenth-century settlers have been prized for their beauty by generations since.

Many of Indiana’s most striking places would not be intact for us today had it not been for the efforts of a German expatriate. Richard Lieber, educated son of a genteel Dusseldorf family, visited Indianapolis in 1891 at the age of twenty-two and decided to stay. He quickly became involved in various entrepreneurial ventures, most notable among them the Richard Lieber Company, which bottled soft drinks and medicinal waters and later added imported wines, whiskies, and champagne.

On two vacations to the western United States – the first to California in 1900, the second to Montana and Idaho in 1904 – Lieber witnessed the grandeur of Yosemite and other undeveloped lands – the “high-vaulted temples of nature,” he called them. Awed by their majesty, and acutely aware that these, like so many other places, were threatened by short-sighted policies that viewed genuine riches in mere financial terms, Lieber became passionately involved in conservation.

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Medium 9781902375014

6.1 Introduction

Low Sui Pheng Chartridge Books Oxford ePub

CHAPTER 6

ISO 9000 for small construction firms

6.1 Introduction

The application of ISO 9000 Quality Management Systems (QMS) seems to be confined presently to the larger construction firms and not their smaller counterparts. However, many of the smaller firms are employed by large construction firms as their subcontractors. It therefore appears that QMS should also be extended to the smaller construction firms if the long-term objective of developing a construction industry which is capable of producing consistently good quality work is to be achieved (Low, 1995). This chapter presents the findings of a survey which examined the reasons why small construction firms are not receptive to ISO 9000. It also suggests measures to overcome some of the hurdles currently faced by small construction firms when developing and implementing quality management systems within their organisations. Total Quality Management within the construction industry can be achieved only when both large and small contractors have implemented quality management systems in their operations.

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Medium 9780253011428

3. Inside the Magic Circle: Conjuring the Terrorist Enemy at the 2001 Group of Eight Summit

Edited by Arijit Sen and Lisa Silverman Indiana University Press ePub

EMANUELA GUANO

The arena, the card-table, the magic circle, the temple, the stage, the screen, the tennis court, the court of justice, etc., are all…forbidden spots, isolated, hedged round, hallowed, within which special rules obtain. All are temporary worlds within the ordinary world, dedicated to the performance of an act apart.

—Johan Huizinga, Homo Ludens: A Study of the Play-Element in Culture

Held in Italy shortly after the election of Silvio Berlusconi's second conservative government, the 2001 Group of Eight (G8) summit went down in history as the battle of Genoa due to the violent clashes and the extreme brutality of state repression. From July 20 through July 22 the leaders of the eight wealthiest countries in the world conducted their debates inside a militarized citadel—a magic circle—at the heart of downtown Genoa. In the meantime, the rest of the city became the theater of a guerrilla warfare and a police and army violence that had few antecedents in recent Italian history. While most protesters sought to hold their demonstrations peacefully, anarchists known as the Black Bloc carried out hit-and-run attacks on the police as well as on civilian targets, ravaging and burning down parked cars, banks, and small businesses. Instead of seeking to contain the Black Bloc's offensive, police and army corps responded by indiscriminately beating all of the protesters who happened to be in their way. Over three hundred of them were illegally detained; more than four hundred had to be hospitalized; and one young man, Carlo Giuliani, was fatally shot in the head.

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Medium 9780253337566

Vernacular Architecture

Henry Glassie Indiana University Press ePub

BUILDINGS, LIKE POEMS and rituals, realize culture. Their designers rationalize their actions differently. Some say they design and build as they do because it is the ancient way of their people and place. Others claim that their practice correctly manifests the universally valid laws of science. But all of them create out of the smallness of their own experience.

All architects are born into architectural environments that condition their notions of beauty and bodily comfort and social propriety. Before they have been burdened with knowledge about architecture, their eyes have seen, their fingers have touched, their minds have inquired into the wholeness of their scenes. They have begun collecting scraps of experience without regard to the segregation of facts by logical class. Released from the hug of pleasure and nurture, they have toddled into space, learning to dwell, to feel at home. Those first acts of occupation deposit a core of connection in the memory.

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Medium 9781902375014

5.4 Method statements and work procedures

Low Sui Pheng Chartridge Books Oxford ePub

CHAPTER 5

A case study of ISO 9000 in large scale projects

5.1 Introduction

Although quality management systems were introduced more than a decade ago in the construction industries of the developed countries (in the United Kingdom, for example), the implementation of quality management systems in some less developed countries is still a relatively new phenomenon.

While quality management systems are now slowly making their presence felt in the less developed countries, there has been a lack of study of the problems faced by practitioners in implementing quality management systems for building projects during their infancy stage in the industry. This vacuum was, likewise, felt in the more developed countries like the United Kingdom when quality management systems were first introduced to their construction industries. This lacuna at the infancy stage means that the lessons and experiences learnt from implementing quality management systems in one particular building project are not necessarily transferred to benefit other projects. Apart from filling this vacuum, the aims of this chapter are to:

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Medium 9781902375014

4.6 Acceptance and specifications

Low Sui Pheng Chartridge Books Oxford ePub

CHAPTER 4

Legal implications for the construction industry

4.1 Introduction

Traditionally, a client’s expectations with regard to quality in construction works are ensured and upheld by building contracts. With the recent emergence of ISO 9000 quality management systems, however, the definition and assurance of quality have taken on a new dimension. Many contractors have since applied quality management systems in their organisations without understanding its intricate relationship with the building contract used. This chapter examines the likely conflicts and compatibility between Standard Forms of Building Contract and quality management systems. An understanding of the possible legal obligations that may arise from adopting a quality management system contractually will help contractors and clients protect their interests when defects arise. In addition, many contractors are in the process of establishing their quality management systems to increase their competitive and bidding edge.

This trend has raised questions as to the application of quality systems to Standard Forms of Building Contracts in the construction industry. There is a tendency for both the Quality Manager and Construction Manager to consider quality systems and their associated legal obligations separately from building contracts. This may be acceptable when the quality system is still in its infancy stage. As the quality system matures, however, there would be unavoidable interaction between quality systems and contractual/legal obligations at different levels, especially when there is evidence of reliance by the purchaser on certification such as ISO 9000.

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