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Appendix B: Additional Resources

James A. Bellanca Solution Tree Press ePub

Books and Articles

Barrows, H. (1985). How to design a problem-based curriculum for preclinical years. New York: Springer.

Bellanca, J. (2010). Enriched learning projects: A practical pathway to 21st century skills. Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree Press.

Bellanca, J., & Brandt, R. (Eds.). (2010). 21st century skills: Rethinking how students learn. Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree Press.

Bellanca, J., & Stirling, T. (2011). Classrooms without borders: Using Internet projects to teach communication and collaboration. New York: Teachers College Press.

Bloom, B., Englehart, M. D., Furst, E. J., Hill, W. H., & Krathwohl, D. (1956). Taxonomy of educational objectives handbook I: The cognitive domain. New York: Longman.

Brookhart, S. M. (2010). How to assess higher-order thinking skills in your classroom. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

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7 Cognitive Transfer

James A. Bellanca Solution Tree Press ePub

This proficiency includes skills involved in cognitive transfer and the practical use of what has been transferred. These skills will be used to transfer learning from one setting to another, to apply an idea, concept, or skill in ways that are useful and relevant. A simple example of transfer is learning math facts early in the school curriculum. These facts, once known, are transferred and used in computations and calculations in various school disciplines and in real-world scenarios for the rest of the students’ lives.

The three skills included in this proficiency are: (1) synthesize, (2) generalize, and (3) apply. Each contributes to the cognitive transfer of ideas, skills, and concepts. Synthesizing requires the blending of component parts to create a whole, leaving one with the core essence of the reading. Generalizing describes how the idea travels from one context to the next. For example, formulas taught in math class can later be used to determine how much paint to buy for a room. Finally, applying is the skill used to move ideas in the most practical ways.

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Appendix A: Reproducibles

James A. Bellanca Solution Tree Press ePub

Fishbone Diagram

Ranking Ladder

Four-Fold Concept Development

ABC Graffiti

Comic Strip Template

KWL Chart

Story Grid

Math Grid

Parts-of-Speech Grid

Book-Blurb Grid

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6 Communicative Thinking

James A. Bellanca Solution Tree Press ePub

What do researcher Michelle Dawson, inventor Temple Grandin, composer Hikari Ōe, wildlife illustrator Dylan Pierce, and Australian author Donna Williams have in common? All of these brilliant minds are challenged with autism. In their younger years, these famous individuals struggled to communicate by spoken word with most people who met them. The fault was not in the listeners, nor in the speakers. Each one of these people with high-functioning minds found it difficult to speak with precise language just what was on his or her mind.

Although these are special cases, there are many students who are inhibited by one challenge or another when explaining what they want others to understand. Communication doesn’t work well. Sometimes the break is with the spoken word. Other times, it is with the written word.

Teachers may often assume that this inability to communicate is due to the person’s mental ability. However, this is seldom the case. Some students have difficulty gathering the information they need to understand an idea. Blind and dyslexic students face this challenge. Others lack skill in processing information. Others still struggle with communicating. Teachers can help these students strengthen their communicative skills, especially in classrooms that intentionally adopt project-based learning and active inquiry instruction. Both models provide teachers with multiple opportunities to integrate written and spoken communication for daily instruction and practice.

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5 Collaborative Thinking

James A. Bellanca Solution Tree Press ePub

While collaboration is an acknowledged skill of the global community, it is also an essential skill of the school community. In fact, according to numerous studies (Johnson & Johnson, 1975, 2010; Joyce & Weil, 1995; Kagan, 1994; Marzano et al., 2001; Sharan, 1990; Slavin, 1996), it is the number-one proficiency in terms of student achievement. It is a proficiency with its own benefits—collaboration, problem solving, and leadership—but it also facilitates the implementation of other high-yield classroom strategies, like comparing and contrasting.

Collaboration has been examined for essential component parts that contribute to a successful structure: teamwork, communication, leadership, and conflict resolution. More specifically, teamwork refers to invested members working toward a common goal, communication refers to a skillfulness that fosters a back-and-forth sharing of ideas, leadership skills showcase the strengths and talents of each member, and conflict resolution skills allow teams to move forward despite differences.

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