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17 Experiences of Marine Adventurers in the Canadian Arctic

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17

Experiences of Marine Adventurers in the Canadian Arctic

Margaret E. Johnston,* Elsa De Souza and

R. Harvey Lemelin

School of Outdoor Recreation, Parks and Tourism, Lakehead

University, Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada

Introduction

Marine tourism in the Canadian Arctic is changing in important ways, partly because of changing environmental conditions. Summer

­ ice coverage has declined considerably, resulting in greater accessibility for ships, but tourism vessels have been the greatest beneficiaries

(­Pizzolato et al., 2014). With improved physical access, global attention on climate change in the Arctic has enhanced motivational access through increased awareness of the region as a destination. With marine tourism growing, so too has the interest of governing agencies and other stakeholders trying to exploit new opportunities and more effectively managing the costs of tourism-related change. Marine tourism development in the Canadian Arctic has developed slowly, focusing on land-based activities and air accessibility due to distances and lack of roads. It has been limited because the extent of ice has prevented vessels without ice-reinforced hulls from travelling very far. The voyage of the expedition cruise ship M/S Lindblad Explorer in

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19 Tourism Experiences in Post-Soviet Arctic Borderlands

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19

Tourism Experiences in Post-Soviet

Arctic Borderlands*

Peter Haugseth** and Urban Wråkberg

UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Kirkenes, Norway

Introduction

The Euroarctic today has a rich and complex cultural heritage (Elenius et al., 2015) that is often overlooked in favour of its impressive natural attractions. Euroarctic tourism, accordingly, would gain from more knowledge about northern nomadizing peoples, acculturation processes, waves of immigration, geopolitical trends and periods of economic boom and bust.

These phenomena, which reveal a layered and convoluted cultural heritage imbued with flexible meanings for different observers, will be explored here in the context of guided tours conducted in Russia’s Murmansk region. In recent times the sparsely populated tundra and borderlands of the Euroarctic have transitioned from an almost completely closed, Cold War border zone between NATO member Norway and the Soviet Union (Tjelmeland, 2012) to a zone of geopolitical reconciliation. More specifically, the establishment of the so-called Barents

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16 Long Way Up: Powered Two-wheeled Journeys in Northern Peripheries

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16

Long Way Up: Powered Twowheeled Journeys in Northern

Peripheries

Carl Cater*

Aberystwyth University, Aberystwyth, UK

Introduction

The opening of the continental Arctic for tourism has been largely facilitated by the extensive road building programmes of the 20th century.

While primarily aimed at the economic development and resource exploitation of these peripheral regions, the visitor economy has followed the branches of this network, and in many Arctic areas tourism is now a significant driver of development. The flexibility afforded by drive tourism in places that have traditionally been relatively inaccessible by public transport has particularly favoured the development of this sector. Drive tourism in general has received some scrutiny (for example Prideaux and

­Carson, 2011) as part of ‘the recognition that growing numbers of people desire a free and independent travel experience’ (Shih, 2006:

1029). Further, this freedom means that drive tourism is influential in the regional dispersal of tourism and is therefore particularly important for peripheral destinations. A specific subsector that has seen notable growth is that of motorcycle tourists, who have found a powerful attraction in the open and dramatic spaces of the continental Arctic.

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18 Arctic Tourism in Russia: Attractions, Experiences, Challenges and Potentials

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18

Arctic Tourism in Russia:

Attractions, Experiences,

Challenges and Potentials

Sergey Ilkevich*,1 and Per Strömberg2

1Russian

State University of Tourism and Service, Moscow Region,

Russia 2University College of Southeast Norway, Bø, Norway

Introduction

For a westerner, Arctic tourism in Russia is generally associated with atomic icebreaker vessels, pristine natural landscapes in vast peripheral areas with extreme conditions that are suitable for hunting and fishing, indigenous communities isolated from modern centres and, finally, in the far north, post-Soviet nostalgia related to abandoned military establishments. Of course, this represents only part of the picture of Russian Arctic tourism and is not dissimilar to other parts of the Arctic involved in tourism. However, there are many more nuances of tourism in the Russian Arctic that remain under-utilized or under-recognized. The Russian Arctic is one of the last great wildernesses on Earth and geographically encompasses the largest part of the

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20 Arctic Tourism Experiences: Opportunities, Challenges and Future Research Directions for a Changing Periphery

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20

Arctic Tourism Experiences:

Opportunities, Challenges and

Future Research Directions for a

Changing Periphery

Young-Sook Lee,*,1 David B. Weaver2 and

Nina K. Prebensen1,3

1UiT

The Arctic University of Norway, Alta, Norway; 2Griffith

University, Australia; 3Buskerud and Vestfold University College,

Borre, Norway

Introduction

Macro-level issues such as climate change and heightened efforts for sustainable future life have focused attention on the Arctic. It is not uncommon to be presented with comparable before-and-now photos of some Arctic scenes to demonstrate fast-melting ice and snow in the region and the subsequent effects such as rising sea level (Hodell et al., 1991), changing flora and fauna (Chapin et al., 2012), and subsidence and other changes associated with rapidly melting permafrost (Romanovsky and Osterkamp, 1997). In tandem with these macro-level climatological and geophysical trends, the Arctic has also been increasingly in the limelight as a tourist destination (Pashkevich, 2014). Much of the attention given to the Arctic in tourism studies, indeed, can be attributed to the omnipresent effects of climate change, which is felt imminently and acutely in the region. However, the bigger and more ominous matter of global climate change and sustainable future life seem to occupy most research and business efforts, so that parallel efforts to understand their implications for Arctic tourism are still rather limited.

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