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W

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W

  Waste management

See Recycling

 Water

A liquid resource containing hydrogen and oxygen that is essential for life and is widely used in tourism. Freshwater is indispensable for all forms of life and is needed, in large quantities, in almost all human activities. Yet many commentators have suggested that pressures of development, population growth, pollution and climate change will cause increased water scarcity in the 21st century. In many tourism destinations, water supplies are also under increasing pressure due to the demands put upon them by the tourism industry. These include parts of the Caribbean, the Mediterranean, the Middle

East, South Africa, East Africa and India. Tourism operators, in particular, play an important role in educating visitors on how to conserve a destination’s increasingly scarce water resources. The impacts of tourism on water availability, equity and quality are serious, especially with desalination coming under greater scrutiny due to its environmental impacts and economic cost.

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T

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T

  Technological fix

Using technology to solve a problem. In the tourism context, it is well-known as being propagated as a solution for the growing discrepancy between the current rapid growth of tourism transport-related CO2 emissions and the strong reductions required to avoid dangerous climate change. Mitigation methods are favoured by many industry representatives, specifically in aviation, but criticized for neglecting the forecasted growth in tourism volumes, which will likely outpace efficiency improvements. Generally, the effectiveness of technological fixes is over-estimated, while rebound effects and new problems introduced by the technology further reduce and deteriorate the real effects. Also, the laws of physics set limits to what can be achieved with technology

(Peeters, 2010). Introducing new technology faces a number of barriers, notably high investments, sunk costs in existing infrastructure and systems, which frequently makes it a medium-to-long-term option. Most likely only a combination of technological improvements and behavioural change, i.e. volume control, can lead to a decrease in tourism emissions.

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V

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V

 Values

A set of beliefs that govern desired end-states of behaviour, ordered by level of importance and which transcend situations. The formation of values takes its historical praxis from the philosophical line of enquiry of axiology (Perry, 1954; Frankena, 1962;

Brightman, 1967; Holbrook, 1999). Concerned primarily with the theory of value

(Hartman, 1967), axiology is of particular relevance to the fields of marketing and consumer research, although apparently a field that is largely ignored by marketing scholars (Holbrook, 1999). It is generally acknowledged, however, that values do differ from attitudes, and as such have considerable influences on the decisions we make in daily life. Historical insights into the conceptualization of value-related choices can be drawn from 18th century utilitarian discourses on the balancing of

‘pleasure’ and ‘pain’ (Woodall, 2003), where pleasure and pain act as determinants as to whether or not individuals engage in certain activities, and whether or not those activities are inherently ‘good’ or ‘bad’. However, these insights were limited in terms of telling us how value-related choices might be made. In the middle of the 20th century, Kluckholn (1951) defined a value as a ‘conception, explicit or implicit . . . of the desirable, which influences the selection from available modes, means and ends of action’. Of further interest was the role that object qualities play in our decision-making processes and the ways in which consumers seek out product and service attributes in order to bring about the best advantage to their lives (Frondizi, 1971). Stemming from this, and grounded largely by principles of economics, Woodall (2003, p. 21) describes values as a ‘personal perception of advantage arising out of a customer’s association with an organisation’s offering’. He notes that ‘use value’ and ‘exchange value’ have been found to inform what, for most of us, the concept of value appears to mean.

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Q

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Q

  Quadruple bottom line (QBL)

An approach to assessing the aggregate economic, environmental, social and cultural sustainability performance of an entity. QBL stems from the work of Wight (1993a) and Elkington (1998) who argue that corporations should focus not just on the economic value they add, but also on the environmental and social value they add – and destroy. QBL states that when businesses assess their performance they should consider their economic, environmental, social and cultural sustainability. QBL is a planning and reporting mechanism and decision-making framework used to achieve sustainable development in both private and public sector organizations – an internal management tool as well as an external reporting framework. QBL reporting aims to extend decision making and disclosure so that business decisions explicitly take into consideration the impacts on society and the environment, as well as on profit (Dwyer,

2005; Robins, 2006). QBL is an important means by which both the private sector and government bodies in tourism at all levels can demonstrate responsibility for sustainable development.

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R

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R

  Radiative forcing

A term used in climate sciences. Radiative forcing is the difference (measured at the tropopause in units of watts per square metre of Earth’s surface) between the radiative energy received by the Earth from the Sun and the energy radiated back into space.

Hence, it refers to an imbalance between incoming solar radiation and outgoing infrared radiation that causes the Earth’s radiative balance to move from its normal state. Radiative forcing determines the earth’s average temperature. Factors that influence the radiative balance are reflectivity of clouds or gases, absorption by various greenhouse gases and intensity of solar energy. Any of these changes is a radiative forcing and can result in different average temperatures.

See also Climate change

    CO

 Railway

Transportation using a fixed track, railways are a transport link for millions of people around the world. Travelling by train may be part of a daily commute, general use of the scheduled public transport system or as a means to reach distant places. Railways have been instrumental in the development of tourism since the era of industrialization, but now are often a heritage tourism attraction in their own right

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