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23 Relationships of Climate Variability and Change to Development

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Relationships of Climate Variability and Change to Development

Anthony J. Vegaa1 and Robert V. Rohlib

Clarion University of Pennsylvania, USA; bLouisiana State University,

Baton Rouge, USA

Introduction

Any thoughtful and complete discussion of sustainable development in any region must

­ include consideration of the environmental

­

­controls that exist in that region. The long-term characterization of weather at a place, including the average, extremes and variability in weather parameters such as temperature, humidity, precipitation, fog and severe weather – the climate – is the primary environmental control. Climate affects and is affected by all other components of the natural environment. Therefore, geographers and environmental scientists usually consider the climate system, which includes not only the atmospheric features but also the components of the natural environment that interact with the atmosphere, such as ice-covered parts of the earth, the oceans and the terrain, rather than just the atmosphere in environmental analysis.

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20 Energy Production and Consumption and Sustainable Development

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Energy Production and Consumption and Sustainable Development

Anthony J. Vegaa1 and Robert V. Rohlib

Clarion University of Pennsylvania, USA; bLouisiana State University,

Baton Rouge, USA

Introduction

Accessibility to economically feasible energy resources is arguably the most pressing international problem today. Given increasing human populations and evolution to higher-order Malthusian stages of demographic transition, the ever-growing need for energy has created a situation in which present fossil-fuel resources are becoming depleted and/or ultimately untenable due to geopolitical and or environmental reasons, even as ‘virtual’ trade has increased. Today, approximately 80% of all energy used globally is derived from fossil fuels. Another 7% is from nuclear sources which, although they create no direct pollution, carry substantial environmental risk and increasing cost.

Energy consumption has skyrocketed in the recent past, especially among the increasing populations in the developing world. Globally, energy use has increased since the year 2000 by approximately 22%. Disturbingly, more of this increase has been through unsustainable sources than through sustainable sources, with fossil fuel consumption during this period increasing by 24% and renewable energy increasing by about 21% (Evans, 2007).

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21 The Challenges of Climate Change on the Livelihood and Sustainable Development of Selected Coastal Communities in Nigeria’s Niger Delta (1990–2015)

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The Challenges of Climate Change on the Livelihood and Sustainable

Development of Selected Coastal

Communities in Nigeria’s Niger Delta

(1990–2015)

Ambily Etekpe1

Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Bayelsa State, Nigeria

Introduction

The term climate change is referred to as ‘a significant change in the average wealther that is being experienced by any given temperature, precipitation and wind patterns, and it involves changes in the variability in the state of the atmosphere’ (UNCED, 1992, p. 12). It may be changes in the average weather conditions, or in the distribution of weather around the average condition. In the Niger Delta, ‘the change usually takes place over a period of time, ranging from a decade to 150 years with significant effects on the ecosystem’ (Efe, 2011, p. 43). When this occurs on a global scale, it is known as ‘global climate change’ (Ayoade, 2003, p. 15). Ayoade

(2003) went further to argue that the change can be caused by dynamic processes on earth by external forces, including variations in sunlight intensity, and more recently by human activities.

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22 Human Rights Violation in a Bid for Sustainable Development: the Case of Tokwe-Mukosi Dam Construction in Chivi District in Masvingo Province in Zimbabwe

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Human Rights Violation in a Bid for

Sustainable Development: the Case of

Tokwe-Mukosi Dam Construction in Chivi

District in Masvingo Province in Zimbabwe

Nyasha Madzokere1

Great Zimbabwe University, Masvingo, Zimbabwe

Introduction

Human rights, like globalization, are topical in the 21st century. Violation of human rights has now became an area of serious debate at local, regional and international platforms throughout the world, for most countries are now signatories to various conventions of the United

Nations (UN) that promote human rights.

The basic human rights are: food, shelter, clothing, water, education and many others

(UNDHR, 1948; Muyebe and Muyebe, 1994).

Many governments in the world struggle to meet the expectations of the UN on human rights. Although most of the governments in the developed world seem to be coping, those of the developing world are groaning bitterly, especially in Africa. Zimbabwe, which is a signatory to the UN conventions on human rights, drowns in a quagmire in its bid to observe the rights of its citizens.

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19 Oil, Conflict and Sustainable Development in Nigeria

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Oil, Conflict and Sustainable

Development in Nigeria

James Olusegun Adeyeri1

Lagos State University, Ojo, Nigeria

Introduction

The search for crude oil in Nigeria dates back to

1908 via the efforts of a German firm, the Nigerian Bitumen Corporation (Shrivastava, 2007).

Eventually, oil was discovered in commercial quantity at Otagbagi near Oloibiri, present-day

Bayelsa State, in February 1956 (Preboye,

2005). Nigeria joined the ranks of oil-producing states with the maiden shipment of Nigerian oil to Europe by Shell BP in 1958. Other firms, including Mobil, Texaco, Agip and ELF etc. made their entry into the nascent Nigerian oil industry afterwards. Due to the desirability of effective state participation and control in the industry, the Federal Government of Nigeria (FGN) created the Nigeria National Oil Corporation (NNOC) in

1971 to undertake exploration, prospection, production, transportation, storage and marketing of crude oil and its refined products. As a result of operational difficulties-induced inefficiency of the NNOC, the government abolished the outfit in 1977 and replaced it with a new one, the

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