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Medium 9781576753194

♦ CHAPTER FIFTEEN ♦ Crime Wave The roots of the scandals of 2002

Nace, Ted Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

Some will rob you with a six-gun, and some with a fountain pen.
—Woody Guthrie

IT STARTED QUIETLY ENOUGH. On October 4, 2001, two executives of Enron Corporation worked the phones from the company’s Houston headquarters, breaking the news to analysts for the nation’s major credit-rating agencies that the company was expecting to report significant losses for its third quarter. Later that week, the company’s board of directors met and were also informed of the losses, which were described as significant—$600 million. For most companies, a loss of that magnitude would be a highly serious matter. But to Enron, it looked like little more than a speed bump. Company executives explained the losses as a onetime setback with no significant effect on the company’s future. The directors later said that they left the meeting feeling that the company was doing fine.

Enron, after all, was the epitome of success. For five years running, the company had been named “most innovative” by Business Week. Enron didn’t just dominate markets—it invented them. Around the world, the United States pushed governments like Argentina, Mozambique, the Philippines, and India to privatize key state enterprises and sell those enterprises to Enron. When financing was needed, the U.S. government provided the loans. No company in American history has ever been more closely connected at the highest levels of government. At least twenty-eight former U.S. officials worked for the company as employees, officers, directors, consultants, or lobbyists. The Bush administration counted five former Enron executives in its inner circles. Over the course of his career, Bush himself had received more money from Enron than from any other contributor: $572,000, according to the Center for 179Public Integrity. In preparing the administration’s energy policy, Vice President Dick Cheney’s staff met six times with Enron representatives. And on the recommendation of Enron CEO Kenneth Lay, President Bush chose Pat Wood as head of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, the main watchdog agency to keep tabs on Enron’s gas and electricity businesses. Of course, Enron knew better than to work with just one side of the political aisle. Its ties to Democrats, though weaker than to Republicans, were nevertheless significant. Three-quarters of the Senate had received contributions from the company’s PACs.

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Medium 9781626561069

1 Reciprocity Right-of-Way

Johansen, Bob Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

In which the complex notion of right-of-way is unpacked and put into play in search of growth and scale.

Right-of-way has multiple meanings. In law, it means a basic exclusivity where one person has permission to do something others cannot do. In California, Oregon, and some other states, pedestrians have the right-of-way over cars. According to Dictionary.com, right-of-way is defined as

1. a common law or statutory right granted to a vehicle, as an airplane or boat, to proceed ahead of another;

2. a path or route that may lawfully be used;

3. a right of passage, as over another’s land;

4. the strip of land over which a power line, railway line, road, etc., extends.

Right-of-way is an unrealized opportunity space where you can create a new large-scale practice of exchanging with others for mutual benefit. Right-of-way is the space within which you can create your reciprocity advantage. Indeed, a reciprocity advantage becomes possible only within your right-of-way. For example, consider the evolution of IBM over the last 30 years.

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Medium 9781567264128

CHAPTER 20: The Tradeoff Tactic

McIntyre, Legette Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

The tradeoff tactic is always insisting on reciprocity for any concession. Simply, never make a concession without getting something in return: “If we do this for you, what will you do for us”? Never unilaterally throw them an unreciprocated concession as a gesture of goodwill. Never give them something for nothing.

Simply asking for something in return may get you something. By asking for a tradeoff concession, you also increase your negotiating capital. When you give up something without getting anything in return, you deplete your negotiating capital.

Negotiation capital is simply the cumulative negotiation latitude you have created in your plan. Don’t deplete your “wiggle room” without at least attempting to get something in return. Doing so decreases your freedom to bargain and limits your other options, including which tactics you can employ. Always decide how much ground you can give up. Put a value, preferably a dollar value, on what you’re willing to give up so you can ask the other side to reciprocate.

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Medium 9781605096988

Chapter 3 The High-Emotion Index: Stock Market Gains from Emotion

Boatwright, Peter Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

Product emotions are valued, so products that deliver them should generate additional revenue. The previous chapter concluded that the costs of providing product emotions can be quite low, implying that product emotions can be profitable. In practice, what do we find? Are firms that successfully provide product emotions more profitable than those that do not?

In this chapter we look at the macro level of the firm. In particular we want to find out if those companies that are the best at creating emotion are also the most profitable. The goal is to measure the profitability of emotion, to determine a metric that verifies that emotion pays off for companies that invest in high-emotion strategies.

To do so, we conducted a large-scale research project that studies companies’ stock performance over time. We found that emotion pays off not just in times of prosperity, but also during economic downturns!

In our study, we first surveyed the marketplace to identify firms that provide more emotion and those that provide less. We used stock market performance as our basis for comparison. Stock performance is the ultimate measure of performance for a publicly owned firm, scrutinized by those inside and outside the firm.

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Medium 9781576756171

Chapter XI Step 2 Extend an Invitation

Owen, Harrison H. Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

Effective self-organization in human systems starts with voluntary self-selection in response to a genuine invitation. This contrasts dramatically with the common practice in which the manager in charge identifies the needed individuals and assigns them to a project. While this makes sense given the traditional understanding of the nature of organizations, it is the direct antithesis of self-organization.

A genuine invitation is one that can be refused. And to whatever extent the invitation is actually a veiled command, space is closed and the likelihood of fully functional self-organization diminished. One might think of the old joke in which the manager says, “I need four volunteers——You, You, You, and You!” That is not an invitation!

A real invitation carries certain risks. After all, people might choose not to come. But it also carries a genuine benefit, for it assures that those who do come actually care to come. Caring, or personal commitment, carries with it an essential ingredient for superior performance in any project, which is the passion of those involved.150

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Medium 9781609947101

9 CASE STUDY Fail Faster: An Interview with Liz Smith, CEO of Bloomin’ Brands

Bell, Chip R. Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

Interview with Liz Smith, Chairman of the Board of Directors and CEO of Bloomin’ Brands

How would you characterize or describe your most important mentor?

My most important professional mentor is Irene Rosenfeld, chairman and CEO of Kraft Foods. I worked with her at Kraft over the course of my fourteen years there. With Irene, what you see is what you get. She never has a personal agenda. She’s smart, objective, and fair-dealing. She is also a very courageous leader. She’s not afraid to put any truth on the table, no matter what it looks like. She always operates with transparency.

 

What were the traits you found most instrumental in your mentor’s work with you?

When I first worked with Irene, I was a brand manager, and she came into the Desserts Division as the division president. There were many levels between us. At the time, the Desserts Division was struggling, and she was brought in to turn it around. Irene values a flat organization. By that, I mean she makes herself accessible and wants to hear from everyone in the organization to better understand what is going on. Although I was still just a brand manager, I spent a lot of time with her discussing the business and what I thought the issues were. This was the first time I’d seen a division manager at that level work so far down in the organization to make sure she had a read on the business, that she knew the people, that she was current. She is what I call a “level-less” leader. She doesn’t communicate through hierarchy or bureaucracy. I felt like (1) I could tell her the truth about what was happening. I didn’t have to spin anything. And (2) I knew she would listen. This made a big impression on me, and has always stayed with me. In every job I’ve had, I’ve made sure that I had a strong connection at every level in the organization.

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Medium 9781626563339

11 The Refiring Gang

Blanchard, Ken Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

In time, the Last-Minute Gang evolved into a Refiring Gang—a group devoted to supporting each other in approaching life with gusto, energy, and zest.

Instead of getting together at their house for the midsummer meeting of the gang, Larry and Janice encouraged their friends to participate in a walk-run 5K to stop diabetes in its tracks, followed by a potluck in the park. To their delight, everyone cleared their calendars for the event.

“Seen any good animated films lately?” Larry asked as he caught up with his friend Rob, who was moving along at a brisk pace.

Rob and Larry were in the lead, Janice and Alice were following at a good clip, Kelly was taking up the rear, and Phil—who was no longer using a cane—would be joining them for the last mile.

“I’m watching a lot fewer movies and doing a lot more walking,” said Rob, slightly out of breath. “The more I do this, the stronger I feel.”

“I see the finish line and the park up ahead,” said Larry. “I have to admit, I’m really ready for that potluck.”

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Medium 9781576753606

8. Living the Answer to the Purpose Question

Steffen, James Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

RAY SAID to Mary and Mike, Coach Eric told us how important it is to implement the Aligned Thinking tools. We appreciate your sharing your insights so generously and especially value the copy of your life purpose.

You can borrow whatever you want, Mary said. We borrowed freely from Coach and some of the people who helped us.

Well do that, Carol replied. On the way home, Carol and Ray agreed that the next morning they would devote the first two hours after church to answering the purpose question.

The following summer day dawned clear and turned into a glorious Sunday. The deck was a warm, peaceful place in the late morning. As planned, Carol and Ray created their own life purposes.

Thirty minutes later they compared purposes. They discovered they had both borrowed generously from Mike and Mary, with some variations. Carol proposed, I dont think its critical that our life purposes or missions be the same. I think we should agree its okay to be different.

Ray agreed and added, I suggest with differences, we ask how we can support the other person getting what they want.

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Medium 9781881052432

3. Review of Research on Diversity and Organizational Performance

Cox, Taylor Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

Chapter Two discussed the moral, legal, and economic performance factors that make working and managing diverse workgroups a core competency issue for leaders in the 1990s. With regard to the economic performance of organizations, the logic of the EOMC and VID perspectives was explained. Although the logic itself should provide substantial motivation for investment in organization change to create a positive diversity climate, I have found that individuals often ask for empirical evidence of the relationships discussed in Chapter Two. This chapter will provide some assistance by responding to this concern.

There is research evidence to support the idea that affective and achievement outcomes of individuals are influenced by dimensions of diversity such as gender, racioethnicity, and age. For example, in a recent study of compensation among 503 MBAs of various industries, Cox and Harquail (1991) found that female MBAs earned less than male MBAs from the same business school even after controlling for seniority, industry, job performance, and other factors that determine salaries. Other researchers have found similar results (Reder, 1978; Strober, 1982; Devanna, 1984; Olson & Frieze, 1987).

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Medium 9781523097593

Chapter 3 Occupational Bias

Jana, Tiffany; Mejias, Ashley Diaz Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

In the book that preceded this one, Overcoming Bias: Building Authentic Relationships across Differences, the very first exercise we featured was called Job Association. We listed a handful of occupations then left a blank space for people to write the first word or phrase they associated with the named occupation. The examples included teacher, doctor, lawyer, politician, and used-car salesman.

People typically make associations with jobs and job titles. Sometimes they are limited to gender expectations and sometimes, as in the case with used-car salesman or politician, people’s assumptions include values-based judgements of character. A great example of this is the oft-told riddle about the man and his son who were in a car accident. The son was badly injured and the father died. When the boy was taken to the emergency room the surgeon said, “I cannot operate on him, he is my son.” The question is who is the surgeon? The boy’s father died in the car accident. If you don’t know the answer we will give you a moment.

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Medium 9781780647357

10: Augmented Reality Application to Museum Visitor Experiences

Albrecht, J.N. CABI PDF

10

Augmented Reality Application to Museum Visitor Experiences

Azizul Hassan1* and Haywantee Ramkissoon2

Cardiff Metropolitan University, UK; 2School of Marketing, Curtin Business School,

BehaviourWorks Australia, Monash University, Australia

1

10.1  Introduction

Augmented reality (AR) is a technology that is gaining significant interest across diverse areas of the tourism industry. This is particularly true for museums since these are associated with knowledge, learning and experience sharing (Morabito,

2014). Indeed, cultural heritage attractions such as museums no longer serve only as an agent of conservation but also seek to provide visitors with an authentic experience (Prentice, 2001; Harrison, 2005). Evidence shows that museums now offer consumptive activities combined with personal experiences to appeal to a wide audience

(Prideaux and Kinnimont, 1999; Siu et al., 2013).

Visitors in such museums often experience and learn about history, and the use of technology here presents a range of opportunities to create interest among visitors. Unlike conventional museums, a growing number now focus on elevating the museum experience, allowing visitors to retain a high level of knowledge and experience sharing. This allows for a better interpretation of the origins of museum artefacts (Ramkissoon and Uysal, 2011). A generic concern among museum curators is to create an interaction between visitor experience and technology application, and technology can become the single most influential factor in a tourist destination determining its popularity (Buhalis and Law, 2008).

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Medium 9781567261462

CHAPTER 2: Six Sigma As a Metric

Neuendorf, Steve Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

Measures are raw data; metrics comprise one or more measures expressed in a context that gives them meaning or usefulness that the measures by themselves may not have.1

Metrics can be grouped into categories according to what types of activities and decisions they tend to reflect and support. Figure 2-1 identifies the general categories of measurement. Interestingly, the six sigma metric DPMO can be considered in the efficiency measurement category, especially when we look at the efficiency of matching the defect removal rate to the defect introduction rate for products and services. Alternatively, it can be considered in the effectiveness measurement category, where eliminating the production of defects is considered the right thing to do.

FIGURE 2-1 Categories of Measurement

At its roots, six sigma is a metric; that is, two measures are used to derive the sigma value for quality for any given product or process:

The number of defects in that product or within an execution of that process

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Medium 9780253009722

13 Justice and Home Affairs

Andreas Staab Indiana University Press ePub

13

Justice and Home Affairs

The Maastricht Treaty added a further dimension to the construction of Europe: Justice and Home Affairs (JHA), which brings together the member states’ ministries of justice and the interior. JHA allows for dialogue and cooperation between justice departments, the police, customs as well as immigration services. The areas JHA covers are vast and include all internal security issues. Among the most significant are matters related to EU citizenship, asylum, immigration, and police and judicial cooperation. Those areas are examined in this chapter by addressing the following questions:

1. Why do member states cooperate in JHA?

2. How meaningful is the concept of EU citizenship?

3. How unified are asylum and immigration policies across the EU?

4. How has the EU responded to the events of 9/11?

5. What were the effects of the “big bang” enlargements of 2004 and 2007?

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Medium 9781567262094

Appendix D: Decision Log Template

Hass, Kathleen B. Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub
Medium 9781576750506

Photo Essay

Wheatley, Margaret J. Berrett-Koehler Publishers PDF

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