370 Chapters
Medium 9781855206786

Chapter 10: Fuel System

Andrew Everett Brooklands Books ePub

The E30 range uses a variety of different fuel systems with three fuel injection systems, and a couple of carburettors too. Some of these are now getting rare and Bosch Motronic as used on all 1988 onwards cars is the most common.

All M10-engined 316 cars used a carburettor. The early cars in 1982 and early 1983 used the Pierburg 2B which was sort of okay but later cars used the dreaded Pierburg 2BE, the ultimate nightmare carburettor. BMW were forced by emissions regulations to use this carburettor when what they should have done is equip it with an injection system. A horribly complex device, it used various sensors, vacuum control units and was electronically controlled with a Bosch ECU. It really was a terrible thing and when it starts to malfunction, the only sensible course of action is to take it off, throw it away and fit a Weber replacement. Many of the repair parts are no longer available for the Pierburg and there is very little service information around. You would not be the first owner to spend £100 on parts, along with many hours of tearing your hair out, only to give up. If you can find one, you can go the second-hand route and try a different carburettor but there are not many good ones about. Even the 316s ending up in breaker's yards now seem to have had Weber carburettors fitted and, of course, these offer a good saving over new ones. As for buying new carburettor bits to try and make yours work, do not bother. The parts are very expensive and you have absolutely no guarantee that the damned thing will work. ECUs do not often fail but it is not unknown. Before assuming the carburettor is at fault, check all the ignition system, make sure the fuel pump is delivering enough fuel and check all the vacuum pipes and electrical connections you never know, you might be lucky. A carburettor and inlet manifold assembly from an old 2002 or E21 316 can be fitted but again, the age of these parts is against you. If ever there was a reasoned argument to buy a 318i, this is it!

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Medium 9780253220738

1 The Age of Steam

Edited by Don L Hofsommer and H Roger Indiana University Press ePub

Much of the history of Iowa is associated directly with the Railway Age. No one would deny that the railroad evolved into a magnificent means of long distance transportation, both for freight and passengers. The process began in the United States at about the point when the first Euro-American settlement occurred in the future territory and later the state of Iowa. By the time residents gained admission into the federal union in 1846, the railroad had emerged from its initial demonstration period. Notions about roadbed design and rails had been largely established, and motive power and rolling stock resembled equipment that for decades would dominate rail operations. As the state matured, so too did railways. On the eve of the Civil War railroad mileage in Iowa had reached 655 miles, but by 1890 trackage had soared to an astonishing 8,366 miles that fully covered the state.

Iowa was well suited for railroad construction. The general terrain in this “Beautiful Land” between the mighty Mississippi and Missouri rivers offered no major impediments for shaping paths for the iron horse. Of course, not all of the state was as flat as a floor, but the hills of the northeast, the “pot and kettle” sections elsewhere, especially in the southern tiers of counties, and the steep loess hills along the banks of the Missouri did not make for painfully difficult and costly construction, conditions that often confronted railroad builders in other sections of the country. After all, crossing the spine of the Allegheny Mountains, for example, had been time consuming and expensive, forcing such roads as the Baltimore & Ohio and the Pennsylvania to drive and maintain costly tunnels, deep cuts, and monumental bridges.

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Medium 9780253020635

18 J. B. Hunt Takes a Ride on the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe

RushJr. Loving Indiana University Press ePub


J. B. Hunt Takes a Ride on the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe


WHILE A FEW PEOPLE LIKE SWEENEY AND BILL JOHNSON wanted out of the business, other railroaders were struggling to decrypt the mysteries of the free market. Most still did not understand the key to the industry’s future—the intermodal business—and some did not want to. Many men like CSX’s Jim Hagen had always recognized its potential, if it could be priced high enough to bring in a reasonable profit.

Although intermodal traffic, especially trips combining transportation modes like boats and trains, had been in existence since the infancy of the railroads, mixing rail service with trucking was a late bloomer. Tractor-trailers, or semis, had been traveling America’s highways since the 1920s, and some, delivering new cars to dealers, had been operating since the invention of the automobile, two decades before that. Railroads had experimented with piggyback, or intermodal, as early as the 1930s. Yet, it was not until 1955 that the first batch of highway trailers was placed on regularly scheduled intermodal trains. The Pennsylvania Railroad opened the service with dedicated trains, one each way, each day, between New York and Chicago. The business grew, and other railroads expanded their own services.

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Medium 9780253017772

PORTFOLIO FOUR: FSA/OWI: The American Railroad in Color, 1940–1943

Reevy, Tony Indiana University Press PDF



Kodachrome, introduced in the mid-1930s, proved to be one of the best and most durable color films used for the next seventy years.1 The film was used for both still and motion picture cameras, and was available in a variety of formats. The rise of so-called “E-6” films such as Ektachrome and Fujichrome and the widespread adoption of digital media, combined with the complex methods required to process

Kodachrome, led to its discontinuance in 2009. Kodachrome’s widespread use in the decades after its introduction, along with its relative resistance to color-format challenges such as color shifts, is a boon to those interested in period, color documentation of the American scene from 1935 through 2010.

The introduction of Kodachrome coincided with the opening of the Historical Section in 1935. Although the vast majority of FSA/OWI images were shot in black-and-white, a substantive number of images were recorded using color film. According to the Library of Congress website, about 1,600 color FSA/OWI images were made between 1939 and 1944. Most of the FSA color images are color slides shot on Kodachrome 35mm film; others are color transparencies in sizes as large as 4 × 5 inches. The OWI images, which include most of Delano’s railroad-subject FSA/OWI images, are color transparencies in sizes up to

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Medium 9780253018663

7 Detailed Case Preparation

Howard H. Lewis Indiana University Press ePub


Detailed Case Preparation

What, then, was the task that now consumed my life—what were the flesh and bone of the argument that I had to make? On the one hand, there was the government’s scrap case, with all its discounts and unfavorable adjustments, which led them to offer the sum of $32 million for the entire Reading system, including all the leased lines such as the North Penn. On the other was our argument for value as an operating railroad with respect to the Class A and B properties and as scrap for the Class C properties. I really did not have much hope for the OCLDD valuation of $230 million, as the court had made it fairly plain that this would only serve as a backup in the event that there was no other way to “fairly” value the properties. There existed limited attacks on the government’s scrap value, as described earlier, but this wasn’t going to get us very far. Therefore, it was necessary to stress the continued valuation argument with respect to the Class A and B properties.

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