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Chapter 1: The Challenges Facing English Language Learners and Their Teachers

r4Educated Solutions Solution Tree Press ePub

1

The Challenges Facing English Language Learners and Their Teachers

Every student should have equitable and optimal opportunities to learn mathematics free from bias—intentional or unintentional—based on race, gender, socioeconomic status, or language. In order to close the achievement gap, all students need the opportunity to learn challenging mathematics from a well-qualified teacher who will make connections to the background, needs, and cultures of all learners.

—National Council of Teachers of Mathematics

Reflection 1.1

Choose one or more of the following questions, and respond in the margin. Write from your heart, your beliefs, and your past experience. Compare your answers to those on page 131.

•   Why do some students transition to English very quickly while others attend English-speaking schools for many years without acquiring academic English?

•   How can we make grade-level mathematics accessible to all students regardless of language proficiency?

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Medium 9781934009628

Chapter 5: Applying Strategies for ELLs: A 5E Lesson

r4Educated Solutions Solution Tree Press ePub

5

Applying Strategies for ELLs: A 5E Lesson

Learning without thought is labor lost; thought without learning is perilous.

—Confucius

In the first four chapters, we examined the needs of English language learners and how to support them in the affective, linguistic, and cognitive domains. The question now arises of how to incorporate the tools, practices, and strategies into practical classroom use. Perhaps you are asking yourself:

•   What does a lesson look like that meets the needs of my English language learners?

•   How can I meet the needs of my English language learners and still meet the needs of other students in my classroom?

Echevarria, Vogt, and Short (2004) identify the critical instructional features necessary for the academic and language development of English language learners.

Lesson preparation: Planning should result in lessons that enable students to make connections between their knowledge and experiences and the new information being taught.

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Appendix D: Reproducibles for Lesson on Three-Dimensional Figures

r4Educated Solutions Solution Tree Press ePub

Appendix D

Reproducibles for Lesson on Three-Dimensional Figures

Who Am I?

Making Math Accessible to ELLs (K–2) © 2010 r4 Educated Solutions • solution-tree.com Visit go.solution-tree.com/ELL to download this page.

Cooperative Grouping Guide Cards

Making Math Accessible to ELLs (K–2) © 2010 r4 Educated Solutions • solution-tree.com Visit go.solution-tree.com/ELL to download this page.

Vocabulary Organizer

Making Math Accessible to ELLs (K–2) © 2010 r4 Educated Solutions • solution-tree.com Visit go.solution-tree.com/ELL to download this page.

Three-Dimensional Geometric Figures Cards

Making Math Accessible to ELLs (K–2) © 2010 r4 Educated Solutions • solution-tree.com Visit go.solution-tree.com/ELL to download this page.

Three-Dimensional Geometric Figures

Making Math Accessible to ELLs (K–2) © 2010 r4 Educated Solutions • solution-tree.com Visit go.solution-tree.com/ELL to download this page.

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Medium 9781935543060

7 - Think Big, Start Small

Gayle Gregory Solution Tree Press ePub

Think Big, Start Small

Think big, start small, act now.

—Barnabas Suebu

Good teachers take all they know about the brain, researched best practices, and student differences and creatively plan multiple opportunities for students to be successful. In addition, educators must acknowledge the differences in learners of the 21st century. With the daily use of technology, students’ brains are wiring in new and unique ways. By considering some of the major differences, we may be able to understand how this generation is changing how school must be done. In his book Grown Up Digital, Don Tapscott (2009) summarizes eight differentiating characteristics of our students:

1. They want freedom in everything they do, from freedom of choice to freedom of expression.

2. They love to customize, personalize.

3. They are the new scrutinizers.

4. They look for corporate integrity and openness when deciding what to buy and where to work.

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Medium 9780253020635

12 The Dinner Debate with Graham Claytor

RushJr. Loving Indiana University Press ePub

CHAPTER 12

The Dinner Debate with Graham Claytor

ONE FIRST–CLASS PASSAGE

PENN CENTRAL WAS NOT THE ONLY TROUBLED RAILROAD IN the Northeast. Smaller lines there and in the Midwest were ill as well. By late 1972, seven of the Northeast’s eleven largest railroads were in bankruptcy, and two were tottering so badly their creditors were demanding that they be liquidated. They were suffering because trucks were draining their traffic base and they were burdened by too many routes. Worse yet, the regulators in Washington were indifferent when the roads pled to abandon excess tracks and money-losing services or to offset higher costs by raising their rates.

One night I was having dinner in New York with Graham Claytor and several of his top officers. As usual we began tossing ideas back and forth. This evening, as we began our appetizers, Claytor launched into a long spiel about the bankruptcy problem. As he went on laying out the dilemma that faced the industry, his concern became increasingly visible, for some legislators were even talking of nationalizing all the railroads, a prospect that disturbed both of us.

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7 The Locomotive That Sashayed

RushJr. Loving Indiana University Press ePub

CHAPTER 7

The Locomotive That Sashayed

ONE FIRST–CLASS PASSAGE

TO BE SUCCESSFUL, THE N&W-CHESSIE MERGER WOULD HAVE to depend on a new tool, the computer. Until the mid-1960s most railroads used their computer systems almost solely to manage their finances. Although the railroads had been leaders in technological change in the 1800s, most modern railroaders were slow to adapt. One exception was the Southern Railway’s Bill Brosnan. He introduced railroad operations to computers, taking the Southern into a new era.

The first computer I had ever seen had stood in a basement room in one our buildings at Fort Devens. Compared with the machines NSA operates today, that contraption was inconsequential, yet I had been immensely impressed. Now I was about to meet computers far more sophisticated, machines that would do as much to transform railroad operations as early computers had done for code breaking.

Not long after I began to increase our coverage of railroads, our publisher, Tennant Bryan, returned from a directors meeting of the Southern Railway System. For years a representative of Richmond Newspapers had sat on the Southern’s board. Bryan’s predecessor had been Dr. Douglas Southall Freeman, the Pulitzer Prize–winning Civil War historian, who had edited the News-Leader. At their gathering, Brosnan had shown his directors a new computer system, and on his return to Richmond Bryan suggested to my boss, John Leard, that I go down to Atlanta and see it.

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10 “The Greatest Thing Since Sex and Watermelon”

RushJr. Loving Indiana University Press ePub

CHAPTER 10

“The Greatest Thing Since Sex & Watermelon”

ONE FIRST–CLASS PASSAGE

ONCE THE SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION AND THE Interstate Commerce Commission had verified my Penn Central exposé, I was able to take on Gil Burck’s mantle as the magazine’s transportation specialist, and I went at it with exultation. The first piece was about United Air Lines. Six months after Penn Central’s fall, recognizing they should avoid the mistakes of the railroad’s board, United’s directors had staged a coup, replacing the company’s president with the man who ran a hotel chain the airline owned—Edward E. Carlson, who became one of the best chief executives in the air transport industry. Eddie, who started as a bellhop, turned around United in a year.

It was the makings of a magnificent story, and adding to it, I was able to ferret out how the directors had come to this wrenching decision. It was a drama from inside the boardroom, a place where reporters never ventured. The story caused a sensation, stirring the directors of Pan American World Airways to oust their CEO and causing other publications to begin producing boardroom dramas.

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14 “Who Knows Hays Watkins?”

RushJr. Loving Indiana University Press ePub

CHAPTER 14

“Who Knows Hays Watkins?”

ONE FIRST-CLASS PASSAGE

ALL INDUSTRIES AT ONE TIME OR ANOTHER ARE VICTIMS OF changes in technology, and sometimes it can be fatal. Some of my wife’s ancestors were wagon makers. They were said to be one of the South’s largest producers of wagons, turning out 15,000 a year, and, when the public began buying automobiles and trucks, the men running the company thought them a passing fad. Despite their prediction, the market for cars and trucks took off, and in the 1940s Nissen wagons finally succumbed to the new competition.

Newspapers, magazines, and railroads were created by new technology and could die by the same hand. The train had replaced the canal boat and the stagecoach, but by the 1970s it was losing to trucks, automobiles, and airliners. In fact, when the Post Office shut down its mail cars and moved all its intercity mail to trucks and airliners, the railroads’ traditional businesses of express packages and less-than-carload freight were shifting to the highways, and once again it was made possible by another innovation, the interstate highway system.

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Medium 9780253020635

18 J. B. Hunt Takes a Ride on the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe

RushJr. Loving Indiana University Press ePub

CHAPTER 18

J. B. Hunt Takes a Ride on the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe

ONE FIRST–CLASS PASSAGE

WHILE A FEW PEOPLE LIKE SWEENEY AND BILL JOHNSON wanted out of the business, other railroaders were struggling to decrypt the mysteries of the free market. Most still did not understand the key to the industry’s future—the intermodal business—and some did not want to. Many men like CSX’s Jim Hagen had always recognized its potential, if it could be priced high enough to bring in a reasonable profit.

Although intermodal traffic, especially trips combining transportation modes like boats and trains, had been in existence since the infancy of the railroads, mixing rail service with trucking was a late bloomer. Tractor-trailers, or semis, had been traveling America’s highways since the 1920s, and some, delivering new cars to dealers, had been operating since the invention of the automobile, two decades before that. Railroads had experimented with piggyback, or intermodal, as early as the 1930s. Yet, it was not until 1955 that the first batch of highway trailers was placed on regularly scheduled intermodal trains. The Pennsylvania Railroad opened the service with dedicated trains, one each way, each day, between New York and Chicago. The business grew, and other railroads expanded their own services.

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Medium 9780253018663

3 A Time of Waiting

Howard H. Lewis Indiana University Press ePub

3

A Time of Waiting

Following the 1974 opinion came a time of waiting and regrouping during which nothing much happened of a formal nature until the government produced the Final System Plan as required by the Rail Act. During that period, however, we set about preparing for the oncoming deluge. One obvious question was who was going to try the case in the almost certain event that the government’s offer of compensation proved to be inadequate. I remember receiving a telephone call from Paul Duke, then head of Penn Central’s in-house legal department, asking what firm was going to try the Reading’s case and who would be the lead litigator. I replied, “Well, Paul, I guess we are and I am.”

There was a stunned silence. “Howard, I always thought of you more as a business lawyer. Have you had much litigation experience?”

“None whatever.”

“I see. Well, we’re going with the very distinguished firm of Covington and Burling in Washington with their superb Litigation Department.”

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Medium 9780253018663

5 The Plot Thickens

Howard H. Lewis Indiana University Press ePub

5

The Plot Thickens

With conveyance now past, everything changed. No longer charged with the obligations of providing rail service, both freight and passenger, the company became an entirely different entity. Instead of some two thousand employees, there were three people—Bill Hesse as president, Lock Fogg as secretary and general counsel, and John Brennan as chief financial officer—plus a very small support staff. In addition, there were the two trustees, Drew Lewis and Joe Castle, who were part-time, and me as outside lawyer with my staff, by which I mean Jim. Instead of occupying a large Edwardian pseudo-Moorish building at Twelfth and Market Streets in Philadelphia, the company had a small suite of offices at Plymouth Meeting, Pennsylvania. Instead of operating a railroad, the company devoted its entire energies to getting value for its remaining assets, above all its claim for compensation for the taking of its rail property into Conrail.

The assets, other than its claim, were principally a small, profitable trucking company, which it sold, some miscellaneous pieces of real estate, and the Reading Terminal Market and adjoining property, whose fate had to await the removal of the commuter service from the terminal. This was to follow the completion of a commuter tunnel linking the Reading and Penn Central passenger service, now, postconveyance, the sole responsibility of SEPTA. Still, unlike the Penn Central, these nonrail assets of Reading were of minor importance, so our claim against the government dominated everything else.

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7 Detailed Case Preparation

Howard H. Lewis Indiana University Press ePub

7

Detailed Case Preparation

What, then, was the task that now consumed my life—what were the flesh and bone of the argument that I had to make? On the one hand, there was the government’s scrap case, with all its discounts and unfavorable adjustments, which led them to offer the sum of $32 million for the entire Reading system, including all the leased lines such as the North Penn. On the other was our argument for value as an operating railroad with respect to the Class A and B properties and as scrap for the Class C properties. I really did not have much hope for the OCLDD valuation of $230 million, as the court had made it fairly plain that this would only serve as a backup in the event that there was no other way to “fairly” value the properties. There existed limited attacks on the government’s scrap value, as described earlier, but this wasn’t going to get us very far. Therefore, it was necessary to stress the continued valuation argument with respect to the Class A and B properties.

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Medium 9780253220738

5 Working on the Railroad

Edited by Don L Hofsommer and H Roger Indiana University Press ePub

The distinguished American railroad historian Richard C. Overton liked to make the point that “the railroad was commonly the first wage-earning experience for farm boys.” And that statement frequently held true for Iowans. Farm lads often found agricultural work unattractive; the monotony of farm life, with its seasonal and daily cycles of often backbreaking toil, was hardly enjoyable. For decades the chance to become a railroader held bright promises. The likelihood of a steady job in an expanding industry, which by 1920 employed more than two million workers nationally, looked good indeed. As railroad unions or “brotherhoods” gained strength, pay increased and for some railroaders this meant having the means to buy a home and to have other extras for the family. Over time brotherhoods contributed to an improved work environment, including safer conditions. Then there was the excitement of the work, especially in train service, for virtually every day would hold different experiences. Furthermore, at a time when most people did not journey far from home and when paid vacations and leisure weekends had not yet evolved, a railroader could travel great distances at little or no cost, often using a trip or annual pass, or perhaps by showing a brotherhood membership card to an accommodating train crew. “There were a lot of thrills being a railroader and I was glad that I made that choice,” opined a former Appanoose County farm boy who, as a teenager with only a country school education, became a fireman and later a locomotive engineer for the Wabash Railroad in Moulton.

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Medium 9780253005922

1 Antebellum Beginnings

J. Parker Lamb Indiana University Press ePub

Development of permanent communities in most of the Gulf states began with the Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek, signed in 1830 at the end of the War of 1812. This agreement ceded to the U.S. government lands previously controlled by indigenous tribes of Choctaws, Chickasaws, and others. Credit for establishing Meridian’s predecessor, a settlement known as Sowashee, belongs to Richard McLemore of Virginia, who purchased several thousand acres and began recruiting new settlers. The village was named for a nearby stream that flooded the area regularly. Thus, the Choctaws had given it the name “Angry Water.”

Eventually, McLemore sold large plots around the village to two ambitious businessmen, Lewis Ragsdale and John Ball, who soon began to lead in the development of a larger town. By late 1833 much of McLemore’s original tract had been incorporated into Lauderdale County, which by 1850 included five villages, with Marion as the county seat.

The initial line to reach east-central Mississippi began in the port of Mobile, Alabama. Always considered a poorer cousin to its western neighbor near the mouth of the Mississippi River, Mobile found its shipping tonnage in a declining position in the mid-1840s after its ranking among U.S. ports dropped from third (behind only New Orleans and New York City) to sixth position in a scant six years. Much of this was due to the rapid expansion of railroad building along the Eastern Seaboard during this period, as the complementary roles of railroads and waterborne transportation began to evolve. Such activity had been largely absent along the Gulf, as the major cotton states (Alabama, Louisiana, and Mississippi) contained a total of only 165 miles of trackage in 1848.

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10 Another Renaissance

J. Parker Lamb Indiana University Press ePub

Congressional passage of the Staggers Rail Act of October 1980 was the most extensive overhaul of the nation’s railroads in over half a century. At once it redefined the rules by which railroad commerce was carried out by erasing many of the restrictions that remained from the early twentieth-century era of railroad dominance in interstate transport, a period characterized by the involvement of the Interstate Commerce Commission in virtually every strategic move by a railroad company. In the wake of this deregulation, rigid ICC control was replaced by the less restrictive policies of the Surface Transportation Board. The Staggers Act also allowed more aggressive marketing by railroads and redefined the playing field with respect to consolidations. One of its overall benefits was to transform rail investment into a more attractive market.

An anticipated effect of this loosened federal control was an acceleration of mergers by the nation’s largest companies, themselves formed from an earlier round of mergers during the 1970s. The first of these mega-mergers was the 1980 formation of CSX, which combined lines of the Chessie and Seaboard systems. The former was composed of Chesapeake & Ohio, Baltimore & Ohio, and Western Maryland, while the latter included the Seaboard Coast Line and affiliated lines such as L&N, Clinchfield, and the West Point route.

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