222 Chapters
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Medium 9780253220738

1 The Age of Steam

Edited by Don L Hofsommer and H Roger Indiana University Press ePub

Much of the history of Iowa is associated directly with the Railway Age. No one would deny that the railroad evolved into a magnificent means of long distance transportation, both for freight and passengers. The process began in the United States at about the point when the first Euro-American settlement occurred in the future territory and later the state of Iowa. By the time residents gained admission into the federal union in 1846, the railroad had emerged from its initial demonstration period. Notions about roadbed design and rails had been largely established, and motive power and rolling stock resembled equipment that for decades would dominate rail operations. As the state matured, so too did railways. On the eve of the Civil War railroad mileage in Iowa had reached 655 miles, but by 1890 trackage had soared to an astonishing 8,366 miles that fully covered the state.

Iowa was well suited for railroad construction. The general terrain in this “Beautiful Land” between the mighty Mississippi and Missouri rivers offered no major impediments for shaping paths for the iron horse. Of course, not all of the state was as flat as a floor, but the hills of the northeast, the “pot and kettle” sections elsewhere, especially in the southern tiers of counties, and the steep loess hills along the banks of the Missouri did not make for painfully difficult and costly construction, conditions that often confronted railroad builders in other sections of the country. After all, crossing the spine of the Allegheny Mountains, for example, had been time consuming and expensive, forcing such roads as the Baltimore & Ohio and the Pennsylvania to drive and maintain costly tunnels, deep cuts, and monumental bridges.

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Medium 9780253005922

10 Another Renaissance

J. Parker Lamb Indiana University Press ePub

Congressional passage of the Staggers Rail Act of October 1980 was the most extensive overhaul of the nation’s railroads in over half a century. At once it redefined the rules by which railroad commerce was carried out by erasing many of the restrictions that remained from the early twentieth-century era of railroad dominance in interstate transport, a period characterized by the involvement of the Interstate Commerce Commission in virtually every strategic move by a railroad company. In the wake of this deregulation, rigid ICC control was replaced by the less restrictive policies of the Surface Transportation Board. The Staggers Act also allowed more aggressive marketing by railroads and redefined the playing field with respect to consolidations. One of its overall benefits was to transform rail investment into a more attractive market.

An anticipated effect of this loosened federal control was an acceleration of mergers by the nation’s largest companies, themselves formed from an earlier round of mergers during the 1970s. The first of these mega-mergers was the 1980 formation of CSX, which combined lines of the Chessie and Seaboard systems. The former was composed of Chesapeake & Ohio, Baltimore & Ohio, and Western Maryland, while the latter included the Seaboard Coast Line and affiliated lines such as L&N, Clinchfield, and the West Point route.

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Medium 9780253019066

14 World War I and the 1920s

Simon Cordery Indiana University Press ePub

The First World War—or the “war to end all wars,” as President Woodrow Wilson called it—nearly brought private ownership of the railroads to an end. Refusing to cooperate and unwilling to coordinate train movements, the lines became so congested in the East and so empty in the West that the federal government took them over. Plans were prepared, and seriously considered, to leave the trains in government hands at war’s end. But the probusiness Republican Party regained power in 1920 and the owners regained their property. The 1920s witnessed a massive program of railroad improvements when as much total capital was expended on railroad physical plant and rolling stock as had been the case during the entire history of the industry up to 1920. Yet even as the railroads improved, public policy turned slowly toward highways. During the 1920s the state of Illinois ranked first in the nation for miles of concrete roadways, and a vibrant auto-building industry developed.1 The Good Roads movement continued to gain adherents, and traffic switched slowly but surely from rail to truck, car, and bus with devastating long-term effects for Illinois railroads.

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Medium 9780253019066

18 Salvation

Simon Cordery Indiana University Press ePub

The collapse of the Rock Island and the failure of Penn Central sent shockwaves throughout the railroad industry and beyond. The former suggested that recovery would be a slow process, while the latter indicated that mergers alone could not save the trains. A dramatic shift was needed or they would vanish completely. The ICC paid attention to the consequences of delaying merger proposals, and a period of consolidation followed. Then, in 1980, reacting to the continued decline of the industry, the federal government passed legislation to deregulate railroads. The new law, called the Staggers Act in honor of one of its House sponsors, generated an immediate and positive upswing in virtually all railroad indices. The number of railroad corporations and route mileage in use continued to shrink, but the survivors enjoyed a renaissance, competing effectively with long-distance trucking, creating new markets for their services, and finding favor with Wall Street. Profitability followed.

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Medium 9780253337979

Appendix 1: Equipment Rosters

Jr.Herbert H. Harwood Indiana University Press ePub

Abbreviations used in these Rosters




American Car & Foundry Company


American Car Company, St Louis, Mo.


The Barney & Smith Car Company, Dayton, Ohio


Baldwin Locomotive Works, Philadelphia, Pa.


The J. G. Brill Company, Philadelphia, Pa


Cincinnati Car Company, Cincinnati, Ohio


A. B. DuPont, designer


Fruehauf Corporation


General Electric Company Schenectady, N.Y.


Haskell Car Works, Michigan City, In.


Jewett Car Company, Newark, Ohio


G. C. Kuhlman Car Company, Cleveland, Ohio


Lake Shore Electric Railway, Cleveland, Ohio


Master Car Builder


McGuire-Cummings Manufacturing Company


Niles Car Company, Niles, Ohio


Peckham Truck Company, Kingston, N. Y.

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Medium 9781935543060

5 - Extending and Expanding Learning for Every Student

Gayle Gregory Solution Tree Press ePub

Extending and Expanding Learning for Every Student

The mission for a school of the future (or the present?) should be to optimally meet children's learning needs. That carries the implicit recognition that every child's brain is unique. And whereas most brains follow a normal developmental trajectory, each is also idiosyncratic in its strengths and weaknesses for learning particular types of information

—John Geake

This chapter will address some common strategies for modifying tasks and concepts for students who are working below the basic expectations or struggling with learning differences. Included are proven differentiated strategies that should be used at RTI Tier 1 every day. Teachers must also add to their bags of tricks a variety of ways to provide lateral enrichment opportunities for students as they meet the standards and expectations. To provide all students with a level of challenge appropriate for their abilities, teachers must learn how to raise the bar and extend the learning beyond the grade-level standards.

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Medium 9780253007902

7   The Survivors

Lawrence A. Brough Indiana University Press ePub

A number of cars produced by the Niles Car & Manufacturing Company have survived into the twenty-first century in various conditions, from derelict car bodies to fully functional cars. They are located in trolley museums from coast to coast.

FIGURE 7.1. Seattle Everett Traction Company No. 55, as delivered in 1910, is now preserved in Lynwood, Washington. Niles Historical Society.

FIGURE 7.2. Aurora Elgin & Chicago Railroad No. 20, preserved and operating at the Fox River Trolley Museum in South Elgin, Illinois. Built in 1902, it is believed to be the oldest operating interurban car in the United States. It has been modernized by replacing the original arch windows, a common rebuild practice with these old wood cars. Fox River Trolley Museum.

FIGURE 7.3. Rochester & Eastern Railway No. 157 of 1914, preserved inoperable in Rochester, New York. New York Museum of Transportation.

FIGURE 7.4. A “One Owner” car operating in Washington since it was built in 1909, on the traction line of the original purchaser, Yakima Valley Transportation Company, work car “A.” Author’s collection.

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Medium 9781934009628

Appendix F: A 5E Lesson Plan Template

r4Educated Solutions Solution Tree Press ePub

Appendix F

A 5E Lesson Plan Template

A 5E Lesson Plan Template

Making Math Accessible to ELLs (K–2) © 2010 r4 Educated Solutions • solution-tree.com Visit go.solution-tree.com/ELL to download this page.

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Medium 9780253019066

7 Illinois Railroad Labor

Simon Cordery Indiana University Press ePub

As Confederate forces were winning the Battle of Chancellorsville and Union troops prepared to lay siege to Vicksburg, a group of disgruntled railroad engineers met secretly in Marshall, Michigan. Unhappy about the treatment they were receiving at the hands of their supervisors, they decided to assert their republican rights and defend themselves from arbitrary rule. They formed the Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers (BLE), a fraternal order fighting for decent working conditions and offering insurance protections. Firemen, conductors, trainmen, and other groups created their own organizations in the 1860s, challenging the conventional belief that capital and labor shared a common interest in the profitable operation of railroad corporations.

A period of often dramatic conflict on the railroads followed formation of the brotherhoods. Wage cuts and layoffs led to strikes but owners and managers fought back. The proud industrial peace of the railroads was shattered by walkouts and murders. Financial panics and technological change led to violence and confrontation in Illinois, most notably in 1877, 1888, and 1894. These were the visible manifestations of a seemingly limitless well of unhappiness and subterranean conflict. But the railroads could bring the nation’s economic activity to a virtual standstill, hastening the quest for alternatives. Worse for the industry, federal regulators responded to public complaints about monopoly power by restricting managerial autonomy. The peace of pioneer railroading had been shattered.

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Medium 9780253020635

21 Déjà Vu Once More

RushJr. Loving Indiana University Press ePub


Déjà Vu Once More


THE TURN OF THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY WAS LIKE throwing a huge switch that changed almost everything around us. To some of us who had lived in the 1930s it was wrenching. The culture of the land had changed, and one of the leaders of that metamorphosis was my own profession, the media.

Much to my dismay I had watched journalism change in the 1980s and 1990s. Soon after Watergate, I was asked to speak to a group of high school journalism students at the University of Richmond, and I recall warning them not to enter the profession if their sole interest was bringing down presidents. “Exposés are a crucial part of journalism but not its only function,” I said. “The task of journalists is much greater. Do not be lured by the idea you’re only going to win Pulitzers. That’s not the way journalists should think.”

In earlier times voters were left to form their own opinions and make their decisions on the stories journalists produced. Unfortunately after Watergate the profession had been taken over by people who thought their only job was to condemn and topple other people, especially those with whom they disagreed. Many journalists seemed to convey opinions rather than, as had we, report the facts. Especially in television news, reporting had become sloppy, and even top names in TV journalism were delivering erroneous reports. As one Washington news anchor put it, “There are very few fact-checkers these days.” Radio and the Internet had brought more changes. By 2000 the public was receiving much of its information from talk shows, commentators of the ultraright and ultraleft, and websites, many of them churning out rumors and unsubstantiated statements.

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Medium 9780253220738

4 Shipping by Rail

Edited by Don L Hofsommer and H Roger Indiana University Press ePub

The bread and butter for railroads in Iowa involved freight, including carload and less-than-carload shipments. Simply put: freight paid most of the bills. It was common for the early carriers to dispatch only a single daily except Sunday freight train that conducted switching chores at the various stations. As a system of trunk carriers matured, however, long distance or through trains traveled main lines and likewise the number of local freights increased. On branch lines and shortlines, however, the freight volume generally remained light, with perhaps only a lone movement. And these poky freights might even provide space for passengers, either in an attached coach or caboose, thus becoming “mixed trains” that accommodated “hogs and humans,” as the expression went. Since some traffic moved seasonally or was tied to the vagaries of the local, regional, or national economy, extra trains accommodated these needs. This was particularly true for the annual grain rush that followed the summer and fall harvests and for such shipments as blocks of ice that were cut during the winter months and coal that increased during the heating season.

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Medium 9780253356963

14 - Passenger Trains: First Class

John H.Jr. White Indiana University Press ePub

First Class

HISTORICALLY, TRAVEL HAS BEEN TEDIOUS, UNCOMFORTABLE, and slow. At times it is also dangerous. How to temper or reverse these negatives has been a dilemma for transport professionals since ancient times. The top level of society could generally find a comfortable way to get around; for them, cost was not a problem. However, the problem of making quality travel affordable for the masses remains largely unsolved. Yet for those able and willing to pay, a smooth and pleasant trip was possible in Victorian times, as it is today.

14.1. Woodruff sleeping cars were introduced on the New York Central Railroad in the late 1850s with considerable success. The berths were folded up, and the lower berth was converted into seats for daytime travel.

(Frank Leslie's Illustrated Weekly, April 30, 1859) passenger Trains

Our ancestors were tough realists, but they were also given to idealist notions about “democratic” travel. We needed no first- or second-class cars in America, because, rich or poor, every native son was a gentleman. Nabobism belongs to the Old World. The British and European railways might have three or even four classes. Democratic travel was largely a canard in America. A few years after the first passenger trains began rolling across American soil, first- and second-class cars had been adopted by a majority of American lines. Von Gerstner reported many instances of dual class operations in his voluminous report of 1842. The Niles Register was talking about palace cars a decade earlier. The talk of democratic travel persisted. Anthony Trollope was more than a little annoyed by this false belief, saying it confused social and political equality. We should be equals before the law, but as individuals we are very different in terms of intelligence, physical strength, health, and much more. He also noted in an 1862 book on North American travel that we accept first-class houses, meals and horses, so why not a first-class railway car?

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Medium 9780253347572

20 Son of Penn Central

RushJr. Loving Indiana University Press ePub

Just as Penn Central’s woes had spawned Amtrak and the government-run passenger system, Conrail brought on rail deregulation. The new railroad could not turn a profit, and while there were a number of causes, the nation’s strangling regulatory system was at the heart of them, dooming any chance for success.

USRA had laid out a business plan for Conrail that foresaw losses during the railroad’s start-up years, but everyone had hoped the red ink would soon fade. Nevertheless, at the beginning of its third year of operation, Conrail continued to lose money at the same rate Penn Central had hemorrhaged—$1 million a day. At Conrail’s start, Ed Jordan had amazed many by integrating the marketing, operating, and financial departments of five railroads with no disruptions. Now he was waging a valiant effort to stem the losses, but he never seemed to make much progress. So hopeless was Conrail’s plight, Jordan and his chief financial officer were refusing to certify that the company’s financial performance was in line with the business plan that USRA and Congress had mandated.

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Medium 9780253020635

20 “They Nod Off Regularly on the Job”

RushJr. Loving Indiana University Press ePub


“They Nod Off Regularly on the Job”


WITH HOPE OF ACQUIRING THE SANTA FE DEAD, REBENSDORF went to Davidson, urging him to reopen the discussions with the Southern Pacific. Worrying that the SP’s plant and equipment had deteriorated too far, Davidson resisted, but Rebensdorf argued that this was their only choice. Both men were right, especially Rebensdorf, because if UP wanted to avoid becoming a poor second to Burlington Northern Santa Fe, it needed the Southern Pacific. Several weeks after Lewis dropped his bid, Davidson and Rebensdorf went to Bethlehem and urged him to consider meeting again with the Anschutz. Wary, Lewis finally agreed and resumed the talks not long afterward, but the discussions soon fizzled out.

Meanwhile, Union Pacific bought its partner in the Powder River coal market and best connection to the Windy City, the Chicago & North Western. It was an end-to-end merger and should have gone through with few ripples, but flawless it was not. Problems had been made worse because weeks after the two roads were put together Davidson moved to the corporate headquarters in Bethlehem and Lewis replaced him in Omaha with a man who knew nothing about railroads and was totally out of touch with their culture—Ronald J. Burns, who had been president of an oil company. Burns lasted only 463 days.

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Medium 9780253020635

10 “The Greatest Thing Since Sex and Watermelon”

RushJr. Loving Indiana University Press ePub


“The Greatest Thing Since Sex & Watermelon”


ONCE THE SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION AND THE Interstate Commerce Commission had verified my Penn Central exposé, I was able to take on Gil Burck’s mantle as the magazine’s transportation specialist, and I went at it with exultation. The first piece was about United Air Lines. Six months after Penn Central’s fall, recognizing they should avoid the mistakes of the railroad’s board, United’s directors had staged a coup, replacing the company’s president with the man who ran a hotel chain the airline owned—Edward E. Carlson, who became one of the best chief executives in the air transport industry. Eddie, who started as a bellhop, turned around United in a year.

It was the makings of a magnificent story, and adding to it, I was able to ferret out how the directors had come to this wrenching decision. It was a drama from inside the boardroom, a place where reporters never ventured. The story caused a sensation, stirring the directors of Pan American World Airways to oust their CEO and causing other publications to begin producing boardroom dramas.

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