359 Chapters
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Medium 9780253005922

8 Postwar Metamorphosis

J. Parker Lamb Indiana University Press ePub

During my senior year in high school (1950–51), I was immersed in recording the diminishing presence of steam locomotives in Meridian. Unfortunately, the GM&O dropped its fires so quickly that I was never able to photograph one of its steam-powered trains in action. But there were still opportunities on the other three roads (SR, IC, and M&BR). I was extremely fortunate that the cold weather of the fall and winter of that school year gave me my only opportunity to record local steamers with billowing smoke plumes. Indeed, my rarest steam locomotive photo was taken on a frigid day when I casually dropped by the SR/IC yard for a quick inspection and saw, to my astonishment, a Birmingham train about to leave behind one of Southern’s largest engines, a simple articulated 2-8-8-2.

I had seen photos of these mountain engines operating in their usual territory between Birmingham, Atlanta, Knoxville, and Asheville, but I never expected to see one on the relatively flat lines of the AGS. In subsequent years I discussed this rarity with Frank Ardrey and other Southern observers, and none could recall such a movement. I finally concluded that this could have been just an unusual substitute engine for the normal 2-8-2 or a shakedown run for the articulated giant fresh from an overhaul at the Finley shops in Birmingham. But the real reason will always remain a mystery.

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Medium 9781855209701

Chapter 2: Buying an E36

Greg Hudock Brooklands Books ePub
Medium 9780253347572

26 “I Think We Want to Be Seen as Somewhat Crazy”

RushJr. Loving Indiana University Press ePub

David LeVan did not resemble a railroad chieftain. Looking a decade younger than his 50 years, LeVan sported a great bushy mustache that underlay his brown eyes and glasses. The only sign of age was his receding black hair. He had come to Conrail from one of the large accounting firms and was known in the company as a cost-fixated bean counter who harbored an incredible knowledge of finance.

His personal life was also a stark contrast to those of other railroad chief executives. Married to a young, attractive ski instructor, LeVan lived in a converted fire station in downtown Philadelphia. He and wife Jennifer spent much of their time skiing and riding some of the Harley-Davidson motorcycles that LeVan had collected and parked in the fire house.

During his first decade at Conrail, LeVan moved slowly through several modest posts in middle management, but then his understanding of finance, his smooth articulation, and his ability to think on his feet marked him as a comer. Each year since 1988 LeVan had been promoted—and in the process he had moved around the company’s upper sphere learning the art of running Conrail. Although inexperienced in railroad operations, LeVan had an instinct for people and understood the importance of personal contact and leadership in such a company. Said Conrail’s vice president for corporate communications, Craig MacQueen, “LeVan would go out in the middle of the night at a crew change and talk to the men. That’s what was different. It was leadership by example.”

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Medium 9780253353832

4 Triumph at Richmond

William D. Middleton Indiana University Press ePub

New York City began operating the first American animal-drawn street railway in 1832, and over the next several decades the horsecars had spread to other cities as the country’s urban population grew. By the beginning of the 1880s urban public transportation had grown into an enormous industry, and one that was steadily growing ever larger. In 1881, for example, there were some 415 street railway companies in the United States, and they operated 18,000 cars over 3,000 miles of line and transported well over one billion Americans every year.

But animal railways left much to be desired. They were slow, averaging only about 4 or 5 miles an hour, and the capacity of a car was limited. They were expensive as well. The work was extremely demanding for the animals, and it took great numbers of horses and mules to power them, usually requiring about eight to ten animals that had to be fed to keep each car in service. They could last only a few years in the arduous service, and thousands of new horses had to be acquired every year.1

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Medium 9781855209626

Chapter 1: E12

Andrew Everett Brooklands Books ePub
Medium 9781934009628

Appendix C: Sample Responses to Tasks and Reflections

r4Educated Solutions Solution Tree Press ePub

Appendix C

Sample Responses to Tasks and Reflections

Reflection 1.1

Some students transition to English very quickly because they are eager to learn, have supportive families, and are encouraged by teachers who care and provide appropriate instruction and a welcoming environment.

Task: Identifying Language Proficiency Levels

Case Study: Li

Early intermediate

Possible indicators:

•   Attempts to speak English but relies heavily on gestures and facial expressions

•   Becomes frustrated when solving word problems

•   Shows some understanding of the lesson vocabulary and concepts

Case Study: Heinz


Possible indicators:

•   Understands and uses academic language

•   Demonstrates understanding of abstract mathematical concepts

•   Functions on grade level

•   Uses advanced sentence structure, including academic language, in justifying answers

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Medium 9781574412383

“Back in the Saddle Again: Riding the Chrome-moly Horse”

Kenneth L. Untiedt, editor University of North Texas Press PDF

220 Still Movin’ On, Any Way They Can have since ridden over 5,000 miles of Texas back roads and streets with thousands of others astride chrome-moly mounts. It was here that I first discovered that today’s cyclists are yesterday’s cowboys.

Hear me out before you protest.

As we near the end of this century in a society that now rewards conformity over individuality, individualists still find ways to retain their independence. At the turn of the century, many individualists found solitude in becoming cowboys. Others became explorers who set out on their horses to discover new territory.

Both found particular pleasure in sharing an intimacy with the land, its people, and the abundance of nature. Today’s fenced-in, paved-over environment inspires corporate farming and cattle raising. Ours is a place hostile to the horse and cowboy. I believe these same individualists have found the bicycle.

Now I’m going to give you some numbers. But I must warn you that the only accurate horseflesh numbers come from those compiled at the turn of the century. That’s when statisticians, and other authority types, considered the horse an agricultural commodity. Today horses are no longer considered an agricultural commodity. Horses are considered recreational. Therefore, no one keeps tabs on the overall number of horses or horseback riders.

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Medium 9780253006332

3 Communities

H. Roger Grant Indiana University Press ePub




When railroads made their debut, there were Americans who seemed uncertain about this exotic transportation form, failing to foresee that rail lines would rapidly become the nation’s economic arteries. Individuals occasionally expressed real hostility. “If God had designed that His intelligent creatures should travel at the frightful speed of 15 miles an hour by steam, He would clearly have foretold it through His holy prophets,” charged a resident of Lancaster, Ohio, in 1838. “It is a device of Satan to lead immortal souls down to hell.”

Then there were those individuals, even with a more enlightened view of religion, who had philosophical differences with railroad promoters and worried about the implications of a potential sea change in domestic transportation. In the late 1830s Andrew Johnson, a future president of the United States, blasted the internal improvement program in his native Tennessee. Like fellow Jacksonians he considered charters granted to railroad companies to be unconstitutional because they created monopolies and perpetuities. Johnson also believed that a railroad would destroy much of the business of wayside taverns, throw out of work those men who depended on the “six-horse teams,” introduce fatal diseases, and “violate the laws of nature” by pulling down hills and filling up valleys.

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Medium 9781855209718

Chapter 6 - Front and Rear Suspension

PR Pub PR Pub Brooklands Books ePub
Medium 9780253005922

3 A New Century

J. Parker Lamb Indiana University Press ePub

Although traffic levels on the Mobile & Ohio had increased substantially after the reorganization of 1879 and later completion of the line to Saint Louis, the road hovered near insolvency during the 1890s. It was hemmed in by Illinois Central lines on the west and those of Louisville & Nashville to the east. Many contemporary observers suggested that Mobile & Ohio needed a powerful partner to assure its future success. Not surprisingly, the growing Southern Railway system seized this opportunity to expand its influence by offering a stock swap to M&O owners, exchanging a share of M&O for a share of Southern Railway Co.– Mobile & Ohio. This led to acquisition of 90 percent of M&O stock by April 1, 1901, with the level reaching 94 percent by 1929. With this bold move, the moribund M&O became a member of the Queen & Crescent system, solidifying Meridian’s role as a Q&C hub.

The Southern undoubtedly expected this move to lead to outright merger, but there was opposition from elected officials in Mississippi who were unwilling to accept control of a homegrown railroad by a Virginia company. To non-southerners this might seem surprising in view of the two states being political allies during the Confederacy period. However, in hindsight it appears that opposition was rooted in the extreme dislike by average southerners for large corporations (especially railroads) in the wake of the distasteful times of Civil War Reconstruction. More details of what became known as the Mississippi Merger Suit will be discussed in a later section. Needless to say, Southern Railway put a positive spin on its control of M&O, noting publicly that the two roads enjoyed a harmonious relationship in their operations (Harrison, First Supplement).

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Medium 9781855209718


PR Pub PR Pub Brooklands Books ePub
Medium 9780253008329

6 In the Land of the Longhorns

Don L. Hofsommer Indiana University Press ePub

WORK OPPORTUNITY AT PLAINVIEW, TEXAS, PREsented itself in 1973 and would result in a fourteen-year stay in the Lone Star State. Plainview, like Stillwater in Oklahoma, was Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe (AT&SF or Santa Fe) country, served, as it was, by a primary north–south line linking Amarillo and Lubbock, completed in 1907–10, and a stub southeastward to Floydada, twenty-seven miles, in 1910. Fort Worth & Denver (FTW&D or Denver) also occupied the territory in 1929 with an extension from its Amarillo–Fort Worth main at Estelline to Lubbock, with a spur to Plainview and on northwest to Dimmitt.

Still another aspirant in the region was Quanah, Acme & Pacific (QA&P or Quanah Route), which, in fits and starts (1903–1909), pushed a line of road west from Quanah to Paducah and finally to Floydada (1929). St. Louis–San Francisco’s (SLSF’s or Frisco’s) western reach from St. Louis and Kansas City through Tulsa and Oklahoma City stubbed at Quanah. Predictably, Frisco took an interest in and then took control of QA&P as a logical extension of its strategic aspirations. In time, and for several years, Frisco and Santa Fe teamed on long-distance, expedited traffic moving over the Floydada Gateway. Indeed, QLA and QSF were a couple of Frisco’s hottest freights; they were authorized forty-nine miles per hour across QA&P’s 110-mile route between Quanah and Floydada. But in 1973, Frisco and Santa Fe agreed to move their joint business up to the Avard Gateway in Oklahoma, and QA&P faced an uncertain future. Local business ebbed and flowed, but mostly ebbed. Abandonment was sought and permission gained, at least west of Paducah to Floydada, sixty-seven miles. The final run was made on May 5, 1981.

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Medium 9781855209510

Chapter 2 - The Car - It’s Lineage

Gordon Lund Brooklands Books ePub

Back street special to Supercar status

A legend in its own lifetime – enigma or hype. The Lotus Elan was a natural progression of what was a course of classic lateral thinking. Up until the mid-1950s, the accepted path to automobile performance was big is beautiful. In the austerity years just after the war, enthusiasts were making their mark in racing and trials with derivations of small family saloons. These set the stage to prove that good things come in small packages. The most famous exponent of the genre was, of course, Anthony Colin Bruce Chapman. His quick succession of mark/type developments indicated that the man thought on his feet. His successes in motor racing proved this point for so long by his being one jump ahead of the competition most of the time. Occasionally he made a blunder but then he who never made a mistake never did anything.

Lotus 9 Sports race car. Lotus Enthusiasts Car Show. Newark 2000

The stories surrounding the formative years at Lotus are many, and legendary, I do not intend to go into great depth here as there are many histories available. The birth of the Elan came out more of frustration than anything else. Chapman’s fledgling company had achieved acclaim and success within a very short space of time. His attempts to bring the company into mainstream car production had nearly bankrupted him. The Climax Elite was way ahead of its time and would have been a headache for a large company to produce, never mind a small, under-funded concern like Lotus. Then again, the large companies would never have considered it in the first place.

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Medium 9780253020635

19 Two Empty Limousines

RushJr. Loving Indiana University Press ePub


Two Empty Limousines


WHILE J. B. HUNT WAS RIDING THE SANTA FE, I WAS CONSULTING a mix of clients and watching the transportation industry enter an era of dramatic change. The intermodal business was taking off. American retailers were importing a growing array of products from Asia, and many other goods were coming into West Coast ports and crossing the continent by train for European-bound container ships. The United States was exporting as well, shipping such raw materials as cotton and scrap metal. The United States had become a major link in the global marketplace, and its intermodal trains were the lynchpin.

One of my assignments, restructuring the corporate communications department of Sea-Land, took me to the burgeoning container port of Rotterdam and then to Hong Kong. There I rode up and down the ramps of an eleven-story warehouse where customers loaded containers for Sea-Land’s east-bound vessels. Goods were coming from inland factories and stacked in bays, where they were packed into containers. It was a graphic, firsthand view of the new market that was reshaping the economies of the world.

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Medium 9780253355485

2 The Back Story

Jr., Herbert H. Harwood Indiana University Press ePub

In picking up the South Pennsylvania’s corporate charter and its negligible other assets, Vanderbilt and his allies bought into a legacy of doomed dreams. Until then the history of efforts to build a rail route across Pennsylvania’s “southern tier” had been long and notably unproductive, if not downright dismal.

The first try came in 1837, when the new Cumberland Valley Railroad opened its line through the broad valley between Harrisburg and Chambersburg, Pennsylvania, and began setting new goals. One ambitious idea was to build west from Chambersburg to Pittsburgh, and gathering political support from communities such as Bedford and Everett, the CV managed to persuade the state to survey a route. The state in turn hired a 37-year-old Danish-born civil engineer, Hother Hage, to run the first railroad survey between the Susquehanna River and Pittsburgh in 1837-38. Hage, who came to the United States in 1819, had worked on building the Pennsylvania state canal system and had become chief engineer of the pioneering West Feliciana Railroad in Louisiana in 1835. A year later he was back in Pennsylvania as chief engineer of the Franklin Railroad, which was to form the southern extension of the Cumberland Valley from Chambersburg to Hagerstown, Maryland, and the Potomac River at Williamsport.

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