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Medium 9781855209701

Chapter 15: E36 Facts & Figures

Greg Hudock Brooklands Books ePub
Medium 9781855206786

Chapter 8: Engine Types

Andrew Everett Brooklands Books ePub

The M10 engine used in the E30 powered the chrome bumper 318i and the carburettor 316 cars until September 1988. It is a direct descendant of the engine seen in 1962 with the first BMW 1500 and uses an iron block, alloy cylinder head with ‘hemi’ combustion chambers and a single, chain driven overhead camshaft. Over the years, a few of the ‘nice’ bits were robbed from the M10. The forged steel crankshaft was replaced by a grey cast-iron crank in around 1980, and the camshaft drive chain was reduced from a twin-row Duplex to a single-row chain at around the same time.

Even so the M10 is a class act. The 1766cc (1.8) version powered both the 316 and the 318i and the carburettor version with a very restrictive carburettor gave 90bhp when a 2-litre Ford engine was doing around 98bhp. The M10’s trump card is strength and reliability. Even with appaling neglect it will rattle on almost forever and it doesn’t really have any weak points. Continued neglect of the anti freeze strength will eventually lead to corrosion in the cylinder head water jackets, resulting in a major head gasket failure. The timing chain will be quite stretched at 150,000 miles, and the top chain wheel on the camshaft can wear badly. The block can sometimes crack across a cylinder head bolt hole, but this is normally due to the head bolts being refitted after a cylinder head job and the bolt holes not being cleared of oil. Water pumps are reliable, the camshaft oil spray bar doesn’t work loose but neglect of oil changes will lead to the oil holes blocking and starving the camshaft of oil.

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Medium 9780253020635

13 The Steadfast Colonel and the Unsteady Rock

Loving, Rush, Jr. Indiana University Press ePub


The Steadfast Colonel and the Unsteady Rock


THE PASSENGER BUSINESS WAS FARING NO BETTER THAN THE freight railroads of the Northeast. By 1974 Amtrak had been operating for three years, and the general consensus held that the railroad was a total disaster. There were reports of coaches in the South that lacked air conditioning and trains in the Northeast that were overcrowded and late. So, I decided to take a look.

The National Passenger Transportation Corporation, which was Amtrak’s legal entity, had been created by Congress in the wake of Penn Central’s bankruptcy filing. Initially it was to take over that road’s passenger trains because John Fullum, Penn Central’s bankruptcy judge, had threatened to shut down all passenger service. The potential plight of passengers along the Northeast Corridor and thousands of commuters from Boston to Washington caused Congress to create the company and expand it to take over the passenger trains of all but three of the nation’s railroads. For various reasons those three opted to run their own trains.

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Medium 9780253007902

7   The Survivors

Lawrence A. Brough Indiana University Press ePub

A number of cars produced by the Niles Car & Manufacturing Company have survived into the twenty-first century in various conditions, from derelict car bodies to fully functional cars. They are located in trolley museums from coast to coast.

FIGURE 7.1. Seattle Everett Traction Company No. 55, as delivered in 1910, is now preserved in Lynwood, Washington. Niles Historical Society.

FIGURE 7.2. Aurora Elgin & Chicago Railroad No. 20, preserved and operating at the Fox River Trolley Museum in South Elgin, Illinois. Built in 1902, it is believed to be the oldest operating interurban car in the United States. It has been modernized by replacing the original arch windows, a common rebuild practice with these old wood cars. Fox River Trolley Museum.

FIGURE 7.3. Rochester & Eastern Railway No. 157 of 1914, preserved inoperable in Rochester, New York. New York Museum of Transportation.

FIGURE 7.4. A “One Owner” car operating in Washington since it was built in 1909, on the traction line of the original purchaser, Yakima Valley Transportation Company, work car “A.” Author’s collection.

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Medium 9780253020635

11 The Merger That Worked

Loving, Rush, Jr. Indiana University Press ePub


The Merger That Worked


THE PENN CENTRAL CRASH WAS SO DEVASTATING MANY railroaders and some journalists, including this one, were wondering whether any railroad as large as Penn Central would ever work. But when the Northern Pacific, Great Northern, and Chicago, Burlington and Quincy roads all came together, creating Burlington Northern, the merger did.

I was on my way home from Chicago one afternoon in early spring of 1972 and stopped by United Air Lines to see Eddie Carlson, who had asked me to visit him next time I was in town. When it came time for my flight, Eddie offered to drop me off on his way home, and as we neared O’Hare, I mentioned I was searching for another story, preferably one on transportation. “I met a very interesting man named Lou Menk the other day,” said Eddie. “He’s president of Burlington Northern, and he’s put together a successful merger. You ought to meet him.”

A few weeks later I was at BN’s headquarters in St. Paul talking to Louis W. Menk, and what I was finding confirmed that the merger was indeed working. The company’s 1971 ordinary earnings had totaled $35 million, a healthy 34 percent increase over 1970, the year in which the roads had merged. They were saving $4.4 million a year by combining local freight trains and another $7 million by laying off duplicate office workers.

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Medium 9781855209718

0 - Introduction

PR Pub PR Pub Brooklands Books ePub

0. INTRODUCTIONOur Owners Manual are based on easy-to-follow step-by-step instructions and advice, which enables you to carry out many jobs yourself. Moreover, now you have the means to avoid these frustrating delays and inconveniences that so often result from not knowing the right approach to carry out repairs that are often of a comparatively simple nature.Whilst special tools are required to carry out certain operations, we show you in this manual the essential design and construction of such equipment, whenever possible, to enable you in many cases to improvise or use alternative tools. Experience shows that it is advantageous to use only genuine parts since these give you the assurance of a first class job. You will find that many parts are identical in the range covered in this manual, but our advice is to find out before purchasing new parts.Always buy your spare parts from an officially appointed dealer.0.0. General InformationThe manual covers the listed Mercedes-Benz commercial vehicles with 2.2 and 2.7 litre direct injection diesel engine, fitted with Common Rail injection system. The following models are covered:

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Medium 9781574412383

“The Ford Epigram”

Kenneth L. Untiedt, editor University of North Texas Press PDF

THE FORD EPIGRAM by Newton Gaines

A unique form of American folk-lore is the Ford epigram. It may be defined as a short saying, witticism, epithet, or slogan written on the side, fender, cowl, hood—indeed anywhere on the “Model T”

Ford.1 Although truly folk-lore, its first notable characteristic is that it is written, a characteristic which it shares, I believe, only with the disreputable writing on walls and fences. Another characteristic is that it is a by-product of a mechanical triumph. This distinction it shares with the railroad song. It happened that one Henry Ford and his engineers developed a gasoline engine that lasted longer than the body of the car it propelled. When the sad appearance of the family Ford caused Dad to buy a new machine, perhaps graduating to a Chevrolet or Buick, the son of the family fell natural heir to the old “Model T” to do with as he liked.

He could do but little with it, though, for his purse was flat. A coat of enamel or Duco was out of the question. A sufficient quantity of either would cost too much at one time. As it stood, the old

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Medium 9781770906730


Neil Peart ECW Press ePub


CAN’T YOU JUST PICTURE the ’60s sitcom, or wacky road movie, that would follow that title? Why, I can hear the theme music. The story would hinge on the classic “odd couple” setup, where a methodical, high-minded would-be aesthete and intellectual is handcuffed to an easygoing Neanderthal everythingaholic drummer.

Or a Nabokovian, Jekyll-Hyde twist, where the two polar sides of one character are tricked into sharing a long, difficult journey?

Oh wait—that’s my life.

What tales our nicknames can tell. The two in this title have been conferred upon one individual—your reporter—at different times in his life. You may imagine they come with a story or two.

I often think back to a “road lesson” involving one of my oldest friends, Jimmy Johnson. He and I met around 1968, when J.J. joined my second band, the Majority (ha—our booking agency’s genius slogan was “Join the Majority!”), as a “roadie.” A few tumultuous years later (for both of us), when I joined Rush, J.J. became Alex’s guitar tech for many years—many hilarious years. The two of them were a fine comedy duo.

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Medium 9780253337979

1. Genesis: 1901–1903

Jr., Herbert H. Harwood Indiana University Press ePub

The year was 1901, the first year of the twentieth century. Ohio’s own William McKinley was in the White House and Victoria was Queen of Great Britain and Ireland, Empress of India, and monarch of Britain’s other dominions beyond the seas — including Canada. Neither would survive the year — McKinley felled by an assassin’s bullet and Victoria of the more natural effects of age. She was 82, had reigned for 64 years, and had defined an entire age.

And in Ohio, reigning over a wholly different empire — which also included Canada — were Henry A. Everett and Edward W. Moore, two Cleveland entrepreneurs who were rapidly moving to exploit the latest and most promising technological development — the electric railway. By the dawn of the new century steam railroads overwhelmingly dominated American intercity transportation; virtually all overland travel and freight movement was by rail. To get anywhere beyond a few miles, there was no other way.

But a different kind of railroading had suddenly evolved during the decade just past. Electricity was applied to urban street railways beginning in 1888, radically changing their form and potential. Now no longer limited by the speed and stamina of horses, these street railways were built outwards from the cities over increasingly longer distances. By the mid-1890s some were beginning to link towns and cities and distinguishing themselves from ordinary streetcar lines with a new name — interurbans. By the turn of the century the development of high-voltage three-phase alternating current transmission made long-distance electrified lines practical, and proved the key to interurban expansion.

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Medium 9780253356963

6 - Canals: The Low & Slow Way to Go

John H., Jr. White Indiana University Press ePub

The Low & Slow Way to Go

THE CANAL IS AN ANCIENT FORM OF OVERLAND TRANSPORTAtion. Examples can be found in Egypt at the time of the pharaohs and in Rome when Caesar was alive. In the Far East, China's Grand Canal was being enlarged while Europe slumbered in a dark age. The Renaissance brought forward an Italian engineer named Leon Batista Alberti, who built a lock to raise or lower canal boats. Jean Colbert, Louis XIV's minister of finance, began construction of a canal network for France. England caught up with the canal mania a century later and had an extensive system of artificial waterways by 1830.

6.1. A typical American canal boat of about 1830 from an engraving of the period. Notice the steersman's shelter at the rear of the boat and the three-horse team on the tow path.

(Author's collection)

Young America adopted the canal because it was a proven and timetested technology that could move heavy loads over long distances with minimum power. It could be built and operated by unskilled labor. Since canals were man-made, they could be built in a direct line of commerce between major cities in relatively straight lines. Rivers run where gravity dictates. They twist and turn and are very long and indirect pathways. In addition, canals are pacific by nature while rivers are ungovernable. Canals have a uniform depth. They are derived of rocks, sandbars, sunken logs, and currents. The canal was a good fit for an agricultural nation such as the United States of 1800, because it was so low tech. It was little more than a trench dug in the earth, made watertight by a thin layer of clay. The locks were built of native stone; the lock gates and boats were made of local timber. Power was furnished by horses and mules, draft animals well known to both farmers and city folk of the time (fig. 6.1). The boat crews and maintenance gangs were ordinary yeomen. Canal promoters ignored the canal's several defects, notably its slow speed and high cost of construction. Hilly territory drove up construction costs considerably and slowed traffic because many locks were needed to overcome the changing elevations. Mountains made canals uneconomic, and dry terrain made canal operations difficult because they required a good water supply to replace water lost through leaks, breaches in embankments, and evaporation.

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Medium 9780253020635

16 The Lawyer’s Son from Buffalo

Loving, Rush, Jr. Indiana University Press ePub


The Lawyer’s Son from Buffalo


MEANWHILE, THE FORTUNES OF TWO MAJOR WESTERN railroads were going through a reversal that was bringing trauma to one and riches to another. Ben Biaggini’s Southern Pacific, which had lorded over the three other major western roads in the 1960s and 1970s, was now the weakest of the four lines. By contrast, the Union Pacific, which had been a dependable but lackluster operation, had moved from fourth place to become the West’s predominant railroad.

The UP’s transformation was due to the son of a Buffalo lawyer. Tall, big-boned, and balding, John Cooper Kenefick loved trains. Other railroad executives like the Claytor brothers and Al Perlman loved them, too, but no one’s devotion exceeded that of Kenefick. He knew his business, all aspects of it. That was the reason I had gone to Omaha to tap John Kenefick’s knowledge when we were putting together the story on western railroads for Fortune’s experimental biweekly. He was smart, a Princeton graduate, a protégé of Perlman, and he had two powerful backers at Union Pacific Corp., the men who ran the road’s parent company, Frank Barnett and Robert Lovett.

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Medium 9781935543060

3 - Engaging, Exciting, and Energizing the Learner

Gayle Gregory Solution Tree Press ePub

Engaging, Exciting, and Energizing the Learner

One principle that propels the digital revolution is our brain's craving for new, exciting, and different experiences…. Whether excessive or subtle, the instinct to pursue new and exciting experiences frequently drives our behavior.

—Gary Small

One of the more difficult aspects of teaching can be getting students’ attention so that they attend to and ultimately learn the lesson and task. Knowing what types of stimuli will engage the brain can help teachers plan strategies to get their students’ attention. When not involved in survival issues, such as reacting to perceived threats, our brains are most sensitive to novelty and changes that arouse curiosity. New and unexpected sensory input in the environment will immediately get our brains’ attention. Even slight changes in one's surroundings will create curiosity, and the brain will reorient toward the new information. Developing novel situations and using a variety of differentiated strategies can increase a teacher's chances of shifting students from disinterested to excited and energized!

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Medium 9781855209718

Fault Finding Section - Index

PR Pub PR Pub Brooklands Books ePub
FAULT FINDING SECTION The following section lists some of the more common faults that can develop in a motor car. References to diesel engines are not aimed at the CDI system as this can only be checked out properly in a workshop dealing with this type of injection system, but many of the faults will be the same in all types of diesel engines. The section is divided into various categories and it should be possible to locale faults or damage by referring to the assembly group of the vehicle in question.The faults are listed in no particular order and their causes are given a number. By referring to this number it is possible to read off the possible cause and to carry out the necessary remedies, if this is within the scope of your facilities.ENGINE FAULTS1, 2, 3, 45, 6, 7, 81, 2, 35, 6, 9, 105, 6, 8, 115, 6, 11, 125, 6, 7, 10 to 15, 21, 225, 6, 12, 225, 6, 8 to 11, 13, 15, 16, 21 and 223, 5 to 11, 13 to 15, 225 to 8, 12, 14 to 165 to 8, 10, 12, 13 to 15, 223, 5, 6, 15, 1616 to 197, 11 to 13, 16, 20 to 22 See All Chapters
Medium 9780253337979

11. Passenger Services

Jr., Herbert H. Harwood Indiana University Press ePub

The historical text of this book broadly described the Lake Shore Electric’s interurban services. But for those more specifically interested in the subject, this chapter takes a more detailed look at these schedule and general service patterns. Even so, it should be remembered that the LSE’s passenger schedules were often adjusted for traffic peaks, valleys, and shifts in riding patterns — sometimes on an ad hoc basis. This was especially so in the summer, when hordes would head for Cedar Point and the numerous parks and resort communities lining Lake Erie’s shore.

The primeval Sandusky, Milan & Norwalk’s earliest known timetable is dated December 1, 1893, and shows not only the line’s service but the specific car numbers for each run. Cars 9 and 11 alternated, with runs every two hours between Sandusky and Norwalk; the 18-mile trip took an extremely leisurely one hour and 50 minutes, a terminal-to-terminal average of ten mph. (For some SM&N riders the specific car numbers were relevant, since combine No. 9 carried baggage; coach No. 11 did not.) Virtually every run connected with one or more steam railroad local trains, which also were shown on the timetable. SM&N cars regularly exchanged passengers with trains of the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern and the Wheeling & Lake Erie at Norwalk, the W&LE’s Huron branch at Milan, the Nickel Plate at Avery, and no less than five railroads at Sandusky — the LS&MS, Big Four, Lake Erie & Western, Baltimore & Ohio, and Sandusky & Columbus Short Line (later Pennsylvania Railroad).

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Medium 9780253011817

3 Knoxville, 1836

H. Roger Grant Indiana University Press ePub



While not all railroad projects conceived during the Railway Age resulted from special conventions, many did. As late as the first decade of the twentieth century – the twilight era of railroad construction in America – promoters and enthusiasts, at times in large numbers, repeatedly gathered to discuss and organize schemes for steam railroads or for rural trolleys and electric interurbans. Yet as the nineteenth century progressed, the impact made by these railroad conventions diminished. Declared a contemporary: “Railroads were not likely to be prodigiously advanced by conventions.” But prior to the Civil War these assemblages were common and occasionally attracted hundreds of delegates and interested observers. Inevitably they were prolific in oratory and resolutions. “There have been railroad conventions without end,” editorialized the New York Herald in 1859, hardly an exaggerated statement.1

Conventions made sense. They offered forums to discuss the pros and cons of a specific railroad proposal. These gatherings, moreover, reflected the democratic spirit of the maturing republic. Participants were commonly elected by communities, counties, legislatures, or private organizations. They congregated in public places – meeting halls, churches, or other buildings – and in appropriate locations, usually the town or city on the projected route. These railroad conventions paralleled such contemporary assemblies as the nation’s first presidential nominating convention, organized by the Anti-Masonic Party in 1832, or the landmark woman’s rights convention that took place sixteen years later. Whether railroad or otherwise, conventions universally attracted the attention of the press and the general population. Once decisions had been reached, it was hoped that the enthusiasm generated could be translated into tangible results; organizers considered the “hoopla” factor important.

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