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21 Déjà Vu Once More

RushJr. Loving Indiana University Press ePub

CHAPTER 21

Déjà Vu Once More

ONE FIRST–CLASS PASSAGE

THE TURN OF THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY WAS LIKE throwing a huge switch that changed almost everything around us. To some of us who had lived in the 1930s it was wrenching. The culture of the land had changed, and one of the leaders of that metamorphosis was my own profession, the media.

Much to my dismay I had watched journalism change in the 1980s and 1990s. Soon after Watergate, I was asked to speak to a group of high school journalism students at the University of Richmond, and I recall warning them not to enter the profession if their sole interest was bringing down presidents. “Exposés are a crucial part of journalism but not its only function,” I said. “The task of journalists is much greater. Do not be lured by the idea you’re only going to win Pulitzers. That’s not the way journalists should think.”

In earlier times voters were left to form their own opinions and make their decisions on the stories journalists produced. Unfortunately after Watergate the profession had been taken over by people who thought their only job was to condemn and topple other people, especially those with whom they disagreed. Many journalists seemed to convey opinions rather than, as had we, report the facts. Especially in television news, reporting had become sloppy, and even top names in TV journalism were delivering erroneous reports. As one Washington news anchor put it, “There are very few fact-checkers these days.” Radio and the Internet had brought more changes. By 2000 the public was receiving much of its information from talk shows, commentators of the ultraright and ultraleft, and websites, many of them churning out rumors and unsubstantiated statements.

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Medium 9781574412383

“Legends of the Trail”

Kenneth L. Untiedt, editor University of North Texas Press PDF

LEGENDS OF THE TRAIL by Francis E. Abernethy

[A legend is a traditional prose narrative that has a historical setting and real people as characters. It deals with extraordinary happenings, even supernatural events, in a realistic way. Legends are folk history which document heroic or dramatic events of a culture’s life.—Abernethy]

The following happened in August of 1886 on the Camino

Real de los Tejas, where the Trail crosses Onion Creek southwest of Austin.

1886 was the drouthiest year in over a generation, and the wells had dried up, and the black land on Tobe Pickett’s farm had cracks in it wide enough to swallow a jackrabbit. María, who with her husband Pablo were Tobe’s hired help, walked alongside a great wide crack on her way to cut prickly pear for the hogs. As she looked into the depths of the crack, thinking to see a trapped jackrabbit, her eyes caught the gleam of old metal. A closer look revealed a crack’s-width view of a large chest with an iron chain around it.

María had found the chest of gold the Spaniards had buried on the Camino Real when they were attacked by bandits a hundred years earlier—before Spaniards became Mexicans. María marked the spot and told her husband, and they waited and planned how they would get the chest out when nobody could see them.

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Medium 9780253356963

5 - Ferryboats: Crossing the Rivers and Bays

John H.Jr. White Indiana University Press ePub

Crossing the Rivers and Bays

EVERY LARGE CITY OR TOWN ON A RIVER, LAKE, OR BAY WOULD likely have had a ferry at some time in its history. We discuss only some of these conveyances that helped travelers cross over the waters of America. The methods of propulsion – oars, poles, horses, river currents, and steam – illustrate the inventiveness of our ancestors. The type of boats and the nature of their operation will constitute the third general area of our discussion.

5.1. An elementary scow ferryboat of about 1800 by Thomas Bewick, a British engraver.

The ferry has been described as a floating section of highway. It has been useful but hardly ever beautiful. It has lacked the majesty of a great liner, the grace of a square rigger, and even the briskness of a tugboat. It has no knife-edge prow to cut through the ocean waves and almost no beauty of line or symmetry of proportion. The ferryboat emerged as a meek and lowly vessel, squat, humble, and often rather dingy in appearance. Its oval shape and rounded roof made it resemble a giant turtle. Even so, the humble ferryboat had its admirers. America's great poet Walt Whitman found the Brooklyn ferry a source of inspiration. He rode it daily to and from Manhattan in the 1850s and 1860s. In 1882 he recalled, “I have always had a passion for ferries; to me they afford inimitable streaming, never failing, living poems.” He would ride in the pilothouse, having made friends with the men at the wheel. In this elevated station he could view the fine harbor and its enormous maritime traffic. He would revel in the great tide of humanity in motion. The sights of the sloops, skiffs, and ocean steamers and the majestic sounds of the boats offered him a refreshment of spirit not found elsewhere. And all of this for a 2-cent fare. Other commuters on these “people's yachts” shared Whitman's appreciation for the ferry as a cruise ship and an opportunity to be out in the sun and fresh salt air. The view of the skyline, seagulls, and the wonderful variety of watercraft made this part of the commute pleasurable. Even the passage of a garbage scow reinforced an appreciation of the great cities’ complexity and many services. The ferry's steady motion offered a little quiet time to reflect and daydream.

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Appendix Two: Roy Stryker’s FSA/OWI Shooting Scripts concerning American Railroads

Reevy, Tony Indiana University Press PDF

APPENDIX T WO

ROY STRYKER’S FSA /OWI SHOOTING SCRIP TS CONCERNING AMERIC AN RAILROADS

Historical Section head Roy Stryker prepared “shooting scripts,” also termed “assignments” or “outlines,” both for the photographers working for him generally, and also for named photographers being sent on specific assignments. A relatively large number of these shooting scripts – five are known to exist – concerned American railroads. They are both historically interesting and also of value for railroad-subject photographers today. All of the known railroad-subject shooting scripts are presented here together for the first time. They are reproduced as Stryker wrote them, with italics used here in place of his underlining.

A fascinating aspect of these scripts is the depth of railroad knowledge Stryker demonstrates; for example, his knowing the details of how men lived and ate in work trains at the time, and that there were hand-powered and motorized track inspection cars during this period.

Stryker also demonstrates a strong knowledge of existing photographic work concerning American railroads at the time; for example, see his mention in one of the scripts of the “wealth of material already in existence” depicting American locomotives.

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Medium 9780253007902

3   The Cars Roll Out

Lawrence A. Brough Indiana University Press ePub

No company records have survived the more than one hundred years since the Niles Car & Manufacturing Company began producing railway cars, so newspapers, trade journals, and traction line histories have been relied upon to determine what cars were built, and when. Often orders would be placed and reported in the trade journals but a few months later the order would be reduced or even canceled. And the date the cars were delivered was frequently not the same year in which they were ordered or built. Nevertheless the information reported here will give the reader a fairly good idea of the activity at the plant.

Niles was best known for its big interurban cars, and those were what the company preferred to concentrate on. However, the company was not about to turn down orders for smaller city cars that would keep the plant busy, and the Niles catalog included illustrations of several small single-truck car designs for city use. It was decided not to embark on the construction of motors or trucks (Baldwin trucks were preferred), but Niles would supply those components with the car bodies to give the buyer a ready-to-run product, if so desired. But in the interest of economy, traction lines frequently purchased only car bodies, to which they added trucks, motors, and other finishing materials in their own shops to complete the car, saving the markup (usually 10 percent above cost) that Niles would have applied to those components.

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Medium 9781855209701

Chapter 6: Brakes

Greg Hudock Brooklands Books ePub
Medium 9780253353832

4 Triumph at Richmond

William D. Middleton Indiana University Press ePub

New York City began operating the first American animal-drawn street railway in 1832, and over the next several decades the horsecars had spread to other cities as the country’s urban population grew. By the beginning of the 1880s urban public transportation had grown into an enormous industry, and one that was steadily growing ever larger. In 1881, for example, there were some 415 street railway companies in the United States, and they operated 18,000 cars over 3,000 miles of line and transported well over one billion Americans every year.

But animal railways left much to be desired. They were slow, averaging only about 4 or 5 miles an hour, and the capacity of a car was limited. They were expensive as well. The work was extremely demanding for the animals, and it took great numbers of horses and mules to power them, usually requiring about eight to ten animals that had to be fed to keep each car in service. They could last only a few years in the arduous service, and thousands of new horses had to be acquired every year.1

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1   The Curtain Rises

Lawrence A. Brough Indiana University Press ePub

The year was 1901. William McKinley, the favorite son of Niles, Ohio, began his second term in office as president of the United States. National unemployment was at 4 percent, and Marconi demonstrated his wireless by sending messages through the air from England to Newfoundland. The electric railway era was well along and, like the steam railroads before, electric lines were springing up all over the country in an attempt to connect nearly every town and hamlet. Did this look like an opportunity to invest in America’s future? It did to a group of Niles businessmen, and on May 3, 1901, they incorporated the Niles Car & Manufacturing Company, which, according to its Articles of Incorporation, intended to “manufacture and deal in all kinds of street and railway cars, motors, steam engines, water tanks, and acid tanks and for manufacturing and dealing in railway supplies and appliances of all kinds.” The company was capitalized at $200,000.

The inclusion of the manufacture of water and acid tanks was no doubt influenced by the fact that Niles was located in what was then the heart of industrial America and was home to steel mills, rolling mills, and plants that produced glass, pottery, and firebrick—businesses that would require such equipment—and these tanks were made out of wood, as would be the trolley car bodies. Among the investors were F. J. Roller, superintendent of schools; B. F. Pew, a prominent Niles grocer; G. B. Robbins, director of the Dollar Savings Bank (whose brother, Frank Robbins, became President of Niles); and W. C. Allison, president of the Allison and Company planing mill, whose property would soon become the site of the Niles car factory.

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Medium 9780253019066

11 Excursions and Interurbans

Simon Cordery Indiana University Press ePub

Railroads created new markets by advertising special excursion trains for vacationers. Long-distance holiday services gained in popularity as Niagara Falls, the Florida coasts, and other locales became fashionable destinations for escape-minded Illinoisans. Growth in this area did not hinder the development of locally oriented interurban railroads around the turn of the twentieth century. Usually powered by overhead electrical wires and using lightweight equipment, interurbans attracted capital and customers in the first twenty or so years of the new century by offering speedy trips between towns. Illinois was home to two of the nation’s largest interurban networks, including one audacious but unsuccessful attempt to link Chicago with St. Louis. Interurbans signaled the desire for fast, frequent, comfortable services and, ultimately, for the types of freedom and mobility automobiles would offer.

Taking a vacation of any distance in the nineteenth century involved riding a train. Railroads catered to a growing taste for travel by operating popular and inexpensive excursions, giving rise to the somewhat exaggerated saying “it was cheaper to travel than to stay at home.” Excursions—literally, to run out—provided cheap vacations for people whose horizons might otherwise remain restricted to their immediate surroundings. Group outings were commonplace and often garnered positive press coverage, serving as early tourist advertisements. An account of a trip to Madison, Wisconsin, for example, described the destination as “the most attractive point for an excursion . . . the prettiest city in the northwest,” where the visitors were treated “with great cordiality.” Methodists created camp-meeting grounds across Illinois and hired trains to get there, highlighted by the Des Plaines gathering of 1860, which attracted twenty thousand people. The CRI&P offered Illinois Oddfellows special fares to Denver between September and October 1887, for example. The Chicago & Alton sold “excursion tickets” to any station within two hundred miles of its line, offered in cooperation with nine other railroads serving Kansas City. Organizations booked round-trip journeys to special events, as with the Chicago-area teachers’ “Grand Excursion” on the Michigan Central for the 1896 National Education Association convention in Buffalo, New York. This included a stop at Niagara Halt “overlooking the grandest panorama in the country.”1

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“Fannie Marchman’s Journey from Atlanta, Georgia to Jefferson, Texas”

Kenneth L. Untiedt, editor University of North Texas Press PDF

FANNIE MARCHMAN’S JOURNEY FROM

ATLANTA, GEORGIA TO JEFFERSON,

TEXAS—BY RAILROAD, STEAMBOAT, AND

HORSE AND WAGON, IN 1869 AND BEYOND by Ellen Pearson

Fannie Franks was born to Amanda and George Fowler on

Amanda’s mother’s plantation, near Holly Springs, Mississippi, on the 19th day of September, 1851. One year after the family returned to their own home in Holly Springs, George Franks went to New York City to buy goods for his store. He died there of pneumonia. Fannie and her mother moved back to the plantation.

Fannie’s mother died when she was three years old. Fannie’s only memories of her mother were, first, after the little girl had got into a hive of bees, looking up at a mirror and seeing her mother searching her “light curls” for the remaining bees and, second, of

Amanda’s sister taking Fannie to her mother’s bed, when she was dying. Amanda’s brother, Mitchell Fowler, and his wife took the girl to a suburb of Atlanta, Georgia, and raised her graciously and generously.

Fannie met her husband-to-be, William Riley Marchman, at her school, called Pantherville, ten miles from Atlanta. “Mr.

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Medium 9781855209718

0 - Introduction

PR Pub PR Pub Brooklands Books ePub

0. INTRODUCTIONOur Owners Manual are based on easy-to-follow step-by-step instructions and advice, which enables you to carry out many jobs yourself. Moreover, now you have the means to avoid these frustrating delays and inconveniences that so often result from not knowing the right approach to carry out repairs that are often of a comparatively simple nature.Whilst special tools are required to carry out certain operations, we show you in this manual the essential design and construction of such equipment, whenever possible, to enable you in many cases to improvise or use alternative tools. Experience shows that it is advantageous to use only genuine parts since these give you the assurance of a first class job. You will find that many parts are identical in the range covered in this manual, but our advice is to find out before purchasing new parts.Always buy your spare parts from an officially appointed dealer.0.0. General InformationThe manual covers the listed Mercedes-Benz commercial vehicles with 2.2 and 2.7 litre direct injection diesel engine, fitted with Common Rail injection system. The following models are covered:

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23 “We Will Fight with Every Means at Our Disposal”

RushJr. Loving Indiana University Press ePub

There were 14 bidders in all, each offering more than $1 billion for 85 percent of Conrail. Two railroads were in the race; the others ranged from a hotel magnate to the owner of several TV stations. Most offers were for paper, but Norfolk and several others made cash bids, each for roughly the same amount—$1.2 billion. Yet that was not an impressive sum, because—even though Conrail still could show no five-year record of consistently strong earnings—the company was worth more than that. It had $800 million in the bank, which was more than half what Norfolk and the others were offering. To keep Norfolk Southern from getting the entire company, CSX had sent in its own bid, but it consisted of a promise to pay off Conrail’s debts and provide some stock.

The battle lines now were beginning to form between NS and CSX, but neither Hayes Watkins nor Bob Claytor wanted war. CSX still hoped that NS would agree to a split, and John Snow was telling reporters that he was certain the other side would ultimately see good sense. NS remained paranoid about CSX’s size, hoping the other company would keep nursing its idea of a partnership and refrain from any open combat while Norfolk bought up Conrail and sold any duplicate routes to small regional railroads, thereby keeping CSX out altogether and establishing NS’s ultimate supremacy.

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Introduction: A Mix of Love and Luck

RushJr. Loving Indiana University Press ePub

INTRODUCTION

A Mix of Love and Luck

ONE FIRST-CLASS PASSAGE

PROBABLY I WOULD NOT HAVE BECOME A SUCCESSFUL WRITER if my parents had not brought me up on Shakespeare and the King James Version of the Bible. The Bible is a wonderful collection of great stories. And it pictures a lot of chaos, stories of people slaying each other and begetting everybody.

But it also has some parts that inspire order out of the chaos, much like the rulebook of a railroad: the Ten Commandments, for one thing. They can be very useful to anyone who tries to establish any order in a chaotic world. After all, the Ten Commandments have been the mainstay of Western civilization.

My friend Walter Wells recently told me an interesting story about the Ten Commandments. Walter, who retired not too many years ago as executive editor of the International Herald-Tribune to oversee his world-class vineyard in Provence, is a vestryman at an Anglican church in Paris. He said that the senior warden at St. Cuthbert’s, somewhere in England, came across their vicar and found the man to be most distraught. It seems his bicycle had disappeared, and he could only conclude that it had been stolen by someone in his congregation. The vicar had only recently arrived in that parish and felt he was at a disadvantage.

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“The Ford Epigram”

Kenneth L. Untiedt, editor University of North Texas Press PDF

THE FORD EPIGRAM by Newton Gaines

A unique form of American folk-lore is the Ford epigram. It may be defined as a short saying, witticism, epithet, or slogan written on the side, fender, cowl, hood—indeed anywhere on the “Model T”

Ford.1 Although truly folk-lore, its first notable characteristic is that it is written, a characteristic which it shares, I believe, only with the disreputable writing on walls and fences. Another characteristic is that it is a by-product of a mechanical triumph. This distinction it shares with the railroad song. It happened that one Henry Ford and his engineers developed a gasoline engine that lasted longer than the body of the car it propelled. When the sad appearance of the family Ford caused Dad to buy a new machine, perhaps graduating to a Chevrolet or Buick, the son of the family fell natural heir to the old “Model T” to do with as he liked.

He could do but little with it, though, for his purse was flat. A coat of enamel or Duco was out of the question. A sufficient quantity of either would cost too much at one time. As it stood, the old

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Medium 9781855209626

Chapter 2: E28

Andrew Everett Brooklands Books ePub

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