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Medium 9780253356963

10 - Ocean Sail: At the Mercy of the Wind

John H., Jr. White Indiana University Press ePub

At the Mercy of the Wind

TRAVEL BY SEA WAS ESPECIALLY DIFFICULT FOR FIRST-TIME travelers. Almost no one was prepared for the constant motion of the ship, for even in a relatively calm sea it rolls and dips. The floors, always called decks, are on an angle. The vessel makes strange sounds as the rigging and sails rattle and sing. The timbers deep in the hull groan and creak. When you go outside, the scenery is not pastures and fields or streets and buildings but a vast expanse of water that heaves and rolls to a distant horizon. This is a bizarre and different world that frightens and disorients the average person. Yet there is no getting off. Once the ship leaves port, you are its prisoner, and no matter how unhappy, you are condemned to ride on until land is once again at hand.

Finding the way across the sea is an art known only to seafarers. Some of it is intuitive – you follow the winds and currents. Sailors from Columbus's time knew that the winds from North America blow in a westerly direction. The Gulf Stream flows north and then west to Europe. This made sailing to England and France simple as long as you followed the wind and current. It was fast and was called the downhill trip. Most sailing ships could go from New York to England in about twenty to thirty days. Typically they would follow the North American coast to the southwest tip of Newfoundland (Cape Race) then head out into the Atlantic Ocean and follow a curving path that led to Ireland. Some navigators preferred a more northerly course, claiming the sea was calmer away from the Gulf Stream. Coming back from Europe was slower, because both the wind and the currents were against the ship. This was the uphill trip. It took much longer to go westward. The time was generally reckoned at about thirty-nine days. The only fast western way across the Atlantic was offered by the trade winds. It was necessary to go along the African coast to the Canary Islands, where the trade winds would blow the ship westward at a good speed to the Caribbean. Columbus made use of these winds in 1492 but also knew enough to return to Spain by going north to take the westerly trade winds home.

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Medium 9780253019066

2 Development Delayed

Cordery, Simon Indiana University Press ePub

The earliest attempts to build steam-powered railroads in Illinois failed miserably. Several private projects laid a few miles of track before going bankrupt; two short coal lines used animals to haul wagons; and an ambitious state-funded network fell victim to an economic depression—called a “panic” at the time—in 1837. But the seed blown across the Atlantic Ocean from Britain fell on fertile soil. Railroads offered relatively fast, all-weather transportation for people and commodities. Engineering challenges, especially safely and reliably harnessing steam power, proved surmountable, and investment capital became available, but the development of the industry was neither smooth nor simple. The demand was fueled in part by roads so poor that Illinois became a notorious “mud state” when the weather turned foul. In the winter of 1848–49, for example, the people of McLeansboro found themselves isolated. Bereft of “coffee, sugar and other necessaries of life,” they survived on what they had stored from previous harvests until the roads dried out the following spring.1 This was a common occurrence in the harsh Illinois climate, and town and country alike needed a dependable, all-weather mode of transportation to combat snow, ice, and mud.

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Medium 9781855209510

Chapter 24 - In Conclusion

Gordon Lund Brooklands Books ePub

I am sure that you will appreciate this book for what it is. Many of the things I have written about I have tried to emulate. Not all of them I care to add but I hope that many will learn from the mistakes I have made in the past.

Writing the additional chapters within this edition of my book has been extremely pleasurable in that it gave me the opportunity to put down in words things that have happened over the years that have passed since I wrote the original book. My experiences with the Elan Sprint will always stay with me, even the untimely demise which has since culminated in the cars rebirth. That has excited me and given me the opportunity to share in the new owners’ relationship with the car in its new guise and to be able to compare the car as it was and as it is now.

New developments in the Elan Convertible and Estate car field have been extremely interesting and I wait to see what other developments await us in the future.

My research into long established and independent Lotus dealers has been extremely rewarding in that it has given me an appreciation of what these people and many more like them have contributed to the longevity and durability of these early cars. From the early days when Lotus was a bi-word for unreliability, they have proved to be as reliable, if not more so than other cars of the same period.

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Medium 9781770906730

9: WITNESS TO THE FALL

Neil Peart ECW Press ePub

WITNESS TO THE FALL

NOVEMBER 2012

IT WAS A CHILLY, RAINY DAY in mid-October, amid the radiant fall colors of Ontario’s Muskoka region, the lower belt of the boreal forest. Boreal means “northern,” as aurora borealis means northern lights, and true boreal forest stretches only across Canada, Scandinavia, and Russia. Other northerly regions offer spectacular displays in this season, like the brilliant yellow aspens and larches in the mountains of the West, or the more muted but still colorful palette down through the Appalachians, but nowhere else does the mix of tree species create this splendid autumn variety of yellow, gold, orange, and crimson.

To capture this image, your intrepid reporter had to park his motorcycle at the roadside and climb high through wet underbrush and slippery mud to the rocks in the foreground, the Canadian Shield, sculpted by glaciers and erosion. Standing above the rain-shiny road as it curved around Lake Windermere, I waved down to the waiting Brutus to ride through the shot a couple of times.

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Medium 9781742207407

Ulan-Ude to Vladivostok

Lonely Planet Lonely Planet ePub

The Trans-Siberian’s last leg covers a staggering 3648km as it rolls into Russia’s ‘wild east’. This region has always lived by its own rules. ‘Moscow is far’ runs the local mantra. The people, like the countryside, are a bit wilder and more rugged than their Western brethren. Travelling this way before the Trans-Siberian was built, Anton Chekhov wrote that it ‘seethes with life in a way that you can have no conception of in Europe’. And that’s still apt.

Out the window, the taiga and Stalin-era housing blocks may seem similar to back west, but off the tracks lurk surprises such as Blagoveshchensk, a border town of tsar-era buildings on the Amur River; Birobidzhan, Stalin’s failed ‘Zion’; and the charming riverside city of Khabarovsk. The railway ends at the stunning mountains-meet-ocean setting of Vladivostok, a once-closed navy port that today is Asia’s uniquely Russian rising powerhouse.

AFeb–Mar Still the season for snowy delights, yet not too dark or too slushy.

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Medium 9781770906730

18: BUBBA AND THE PROFESSOR

Neil Peart ECW Press ePub

FEBRUARY 2014

CAN’T YOU JUST PICTURE the ’60s sitcom, or wacky road movie, that would follow that title? Why, I can hear the theme music. The story would hinge on the classic “odd couple” setup, where a methodical, high-minded would-be aesthete and intellectual is handcuffed to an easygoing Neanderthal everythingaholic drummer.

Or a Nabokovian, Jekyll-Hyde twist, where the two polar sides of one character are tricked into sharing a long, difficult journey?

Oh wait—that’s my life.

What tales our nicknames can tell. The two in this title have been conferred upon one individual—your reporter—at different times in his life. You may imagine they come with a story or two.

I often think back to a “road lesson” involving one of my oldest friends, Jimmy Johnson. He and I met around 1968, when J.J. joined my second band, the Majority (ha—our booking agency’s genius slogan was “Join the Majority!”), as a “roadie.” A few tumultuous years later (for both of us), when I joined Rush, J.J. became Alex’s guitar tech for many years—many hilarious years. The two of them were a fine comedy duo.

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Medium 9781935543060

3 - Engaging, Exciting, and Energizing the Learner

Gayle Gregory Solution Tree Press ePub

Engaging, Exciting, and Energizing the Learner

One principle that propels the digital revolution is our brain's craving for new, exciting, and different experiences…. Whether excessive or subtle, the instinct to pursue new and exciting experiences frequently drives our behavior.

—Gary Small

One of the more difficult aspects of teaching can be getting students’ attention so that they attend to and ultimately learn the lesson and task. Knowing what types of stimuli will engage the brain can help teachers plan strategies to get their students’ attention. When not involved in survival issues, such as reacting to perceived threats, our brains are most sensitive to novelty and changes that arouse curiosity. New and unexpected sensory input in the environment will immediately get our brains’ attention. Even slight changes in one's surroundings will create curiosity, and the brain will reorient toward the new information. Developing novel situations and using a variety of differentiated strategies can increase a teacher's chances of shifting students from disinterested to excited and energized!

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Medium 9781855209510

Chapter 6 - Bite the Bullet - Reflect - Get Stuck In

Gordon Lund Brooklands Books ePub

Assess the Situation

Now you have the time to look at what you have bought in the cold light of day. Take your time. The old adage “Rome wasn’t built in a day” never rang so true. You have done your homework. You know what has to be done. Do not, I repeat, do not start pulling the car apart straight away. Think long and hard about it and in what order it should be done.

The Importance of Photography

Obtain plenty of film for your camera. Then get snapping. Take pictures of the car from every angle, inside and out. Remove the bonnet, take every conceivable angle, where you can get a good view in good light, of every component that will be removed. Use flash if you have to.

Many people will make the mistake of removing parts from a car, convinced that they will remember where it came from. Wrong! This tip is the best advice I can give to anyone. It will be obvious also from this statement that photographs taken at every stage of the restoration will be useful, the build stage in particular. These photographs will be worth more than any stack of bills that you collect throughout the whole project. If at any time you have to sell the car, they will be worth their weight in gold.

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Medium 9780253008329

4 In the Land of the Gophers

Don L. Hofsommer Indiana University Press ePub

A MOVE TO ALBERT LEA IN SOUTH-CENTRAL MINNEsota offered a fresh vantage point from which to view the rapidly changing railroad landscape in the second half of the 1960s.

A Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul & Pacific (CMStP&P or Milwaukee Road) predecessor had pioneered railroad transportation in the area with a horizontal-axis route that led from the Mississippi River at La Crescent through Albert Lea to Wells in 1866–70 and later pushed completely across the southern part of the state and into Dakota Territory. In 1907, Milwaukee Road also completed a forty-mile feeder from Albert Lea northwestward to St. Clair.

Second on the scene was Minneapolis & St. Louis (M&StL), which reached Albert Lea in 1877. Three years later, it had punched on southwestward to reach Fort Dodge, Iowa. Eventually, it cobbled together a through route from Minneapolis and St. Paul to Des Moines via Albert Lea, which, in the process, was vested as a crew-change point with active yarding chores.

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Medium 9780253355485

9 The Second Front

Jr., Herbert H. Harwood Indiana University Press ePub

The South Penn was surely the most dramatic and expensive element in William Vanderbilt’s war with the Pennsylvania. But as the South Penn’s contractors were blasting through the mountains, he, Franklin Gowen, and General George J. Magee of the Fall Brook Coal Company were also invading Pennsylvania Railroad territory in the even wilder northern part of the state.

The project started off as a joint venture between Vanderbilt and the coal operators in Tioga County, Pennsylvania, particularly General Magee’s huge Fall Brook company and its associated railroads that he had inherited from his family and greatly expanded on his own. (The “General” title came not from any genuine military service but from a political appointment in 1869 as paymaster general for New York State.) Vanderbilt’s railroad was concerned about a reliable steam locomotive fuel supply, and the mine owners needed a cheaper outlet.

The northern Pennsylvania incursion is its own complex story with mostly its own cast of characters, not the least of which was General Magee, who became a close Vanderbilt ally and a South Penn investor. It had almost nothing in common with the South Penn except that it formed the second prong of a two-front Vanderbilt attack into PRR territory in the state and another collaboration with Gowen to help the Reading break out of its eastern Pennsylvania box. Although its full history is a sidestep from the South Penn story, some essentials must be told.

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Medium 9780253008329

1 In the Land of the Hawkeyes

Don L. Hofsommer Indiana University Press ePub

CALLENDER, IOWA: M&STL, THE HOME ROAD

The steam-car civilization came to Callender, Iowa, in the fall of 1870 when Des Moines Valley (DMV) pushed its existing line from Keokuk to Des Moines northwestward from Iowa’s capital city through Perry to Fort Dodge. Kesho, the original townsite, simply picked up and moved across the tracks to the west and rechristened itself Callender. Early train service included a through-passenger run from Keokuk plus scheduled freights.

Des Moines Valley unfortunately was unhealthy. Out of it in 1874 came two roads: Keokuk & Des Moines (K&D), which inherited DMV’s avenue between those points, and Des Moines & Fort Dodge (DM&FtD), which acquired the northern section through Callender. DM&FtD advertised itself as “The Fort Dodge Route – The Great Throughfare between Des Moines and the North and Northwest.” Heady stuff that, but, in fact, the company was no more robust than DMV, its predecessor. Giant Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific (Rock Island) took lease of it in 1887, the lease in 1905 passing to Minneapolis & St. Louis (M&StL), which some years later bought the property.

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Medium 9780253356963

8 - Lake Steamers: On the Inland Sea

John H., Jr. White Indiana University Press ePub

On the Inland Sea

NATURE KINDLY DUG FIVE LARGE LAKES ALONG THE NORTHERN border of the United States about twelve thousand years ago. Humans have used these convenient waterways as a means to get around the region since the ice age finally released its frigid grip on North America. The Great Lakes are the largest reservoir of fresh water in the world. They measure from east to west about 1,500 miles long (fig. 8.1). They rank in size, starting with the largest, from Lake Superior to Huron, Michigan, Erie, and Ontario. Superior has places that are 1,000 feet deep; Ontario's mean depth is 400 feet, while Erie's mean depth is only 90 feet. Erie's shallow waters are more easily disturbed by winds, making it stormier than its sisters. She is considered treacherous and dangerous to navigate and so is disliked by sailors. The other lakes can swell up in a grand fury, though they are somewhat more pacific than the Erie. All of the lakes are graveyards of sunken ships and lost seamen.

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Medium 9780253005922

9 More Changes

J. Parker Lamb Indiana University Press ePub

Two alternative modes of transportation appeared during the postwar period. Expansions of America’s highway and airway systems would soon sweep away the centurylong monopoly of rail travel, resulting in a steady decline in passenger train service. Additional financial underpinning for such trains was removed with the cessation of mail-hauling contracts as well as railway post office (RPO) service by the nation’s postal department. As the number of daily trains decreased steadily during the 1950s, the cavernous waiting room at Meridian’s 1906 Union Station fell silent for hours on end. Indeed, the beginning of the end of the city’s passenger train era was the 1960 destruction of the old station. A smaller replacement was rebuilt from one of its single-story wings, while passenger sheds were removed from boarding platforms, leaving a strange, denuded atmosphere suggestive of an empty yard. Although such downsizing was repeated countless times throughout the nation, it was even worse for many towns and villages. For them, neither the service nor any replacement structures were left in the aftermath of this sea change in American travel.

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Medium 9781574412383

“Gone to (South) Texas”

Kenneth L. Untiedt, editor University of North Texas Press PDF

GONE TO (SOUTH) TEXAS by Janet McCannon Simonds

The lore of the nineteenth century Texas frontier includes many stories of pioneers leaving their homes in the North to seek new homes in Texas, and of their difficult journeys and more difficult lives after arrival. Regardless of the motivation, it took great courage to leave the known—families, friends, homes, businesses, and their very ways of life—for the unknown, which was often full of discomfort and privation. This pioneer spirit and courage, however, did not stop at the end of the nineteenth century. In the early twentieth century, vast areas of Texas were yet unsettled, and there were still people in the northern United States with the same courage, adventurous spirit, and desire to make a new start that characterized their predecessors. The Rio Grande Valley of Texas was one of those last twentieth-century frontiers, and a destination of many such pioneers.

The area of South Texas between the Rio Grande and Nueces

Rivers was for many years after the Texas Revolution a contested area called the Nueces Strip, maintaining a virtual dual nationality even after the 1836 Texas Revolution when Mexican President

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Medium 9781855209510

Chapter 2 - The Car - It’s Lineage

Gordon Lund Brooklands Books ePub

Back street special to Supercar status

A legend in its own lifetime – enigma or hype. The Lotus Elan was a natural progression of what was a course of classic lateral thinking. Up until the mid-1950s, the accepted path to automobile performance was big is beautiful. In the austerity years just after the war, enthusiasts were making their mark in racing and trials with derivations of small family saloons. These set the stage to prove that good things come in small packages. The most famous exponent of the genre was, of course, Anthony Colin Bruce Chapman. His quick succession of mark/type developments indicated that the man thought on his feet. His successes in motor racing proved this point for so long by his being one jump ahead of the competition most of the time. Occasionally he made a blunder but then he who never made a mistake never did anything.

Lotus 9 Sports race car. Lotus Enthusiasts Car Show. Newark 2000

The stories surrounding the formative years at Lotus are many, and legendary, I do not intend to go into great depth here as there are many histories available. The birth of the Elan came out more of frustration than anything else. Chapman’s fledgling company had achieved acclaim and success within a very short space of time. His attempts to bring the company into mainstream car production had nearly bankrupted him. The Climax Elite was way ahead of its time and would have been a headache for a large company to produce, never mind a small, under-funded concern like Lotus. Then again, the large companies would never have considered it in the first place.

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