370 Chapters
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Medium 9780253018663

9 The Rail Use Case: Ours and the Government’s

Howard H. Lewis Indiana University Press ePub

9

The Rail Use Case: Ours and the Government’s

It was essentially the transferors’ burden to demonstrate the value of their properties in continued rail service. The government’s primary contention, by contrast, was that absent Congressional action expressed in the Rail Act, the railroads in the Northeast would simply have disappeared, replaced by trucks on a much expanded highway system, ships on an enhanced intercoastal waterway, increased air freight, and I guess snowshoes. The government believed its role was counterpunching, that is, demonstrating that our contention would not have worked and that our properties would be largely ignored by profitable roads, or at best bought for a pittance no greater than what they would have yielded in liquidation for nonrail use.

My approach of beginning at the end of the case by imagining oral argument had the advantage of focusing my mind and the work product it developed, so that I didn’t range over a mass of fact and speculation trying to find the compelling argument emerging from the jumble like weeds sprouting in a yard. Admittedly, it had the disadvantage of limiting inquiry, so that I might well overlook a big piece of evidence which a less structured, more open investigation might have revealed. The truth is, however, I really had no choice, since the timetable set by the court effectively precluded any kind of full-range inquiry given the limited resources available to me and my own physical capacity.

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Medium 9780253337979

5. Not Quite Normalcy: 1919–1922

Jr.Herbert H. Harwood Indiana University Press ePub

When peace returned in 1919 the Lake Shore Electric faced a mixed but mostly sunny outlook. Entry into the general freight business came too late to contribute much for the war effort, but by the early 1920s that traffic was growing as fast as equipment, physical plant, and new interline arrangements permitted. For the first two years after the war, ridership, revenues and profits rose heartily; the profit growth was especially great.

But the picture was darkening on its outer edges. The general postwar business boom masked some subtle signs of trouble which were noticeable only in certain special types of business. The interurban’s managers discovered, for example, that the peak loads that they traditionally carried to fairs and on day-trip excursions were substantially smaller; many were driving autos to the events.

The two local city systems were their own special kind of problem. Unregulated jitneys continued to take passengers off the streetcar routes, some of which were economic albatrosses to begin with. Yet the cities seemed indifferent to regulating the competition and, especially Sandusky, hostile to fare increases or route adjustments.

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Medium 9781742207407

Yekaterinburg to Krasnoyarsk

Lonely Planet Lonely Planet ePub

This leg of the journey isn’t the most visually exciting, with little more to see than endless miles of semitaiga and farmland. Perhaps the best way to make the journey, then, is on a series of night trains – you won’t miss much in the way of scenery and you’ll save on hotels. If you do take day trains, there is admittedly a certain pleasure to be gained from the unchanging countryside and the opportunity it provides to reflect on Russia, life or whatever takes your fancy. After the historically important city of Yekaterinburg, your journey takes you into Siberia and eventually on to its buzzing capital, Novosibirsk. But the main attractions on this leg both require detours off the Trans-Siberian route. From oil-rich Tyumen, consider a trip to picturesque Tobolsk. Further on, branch lines will take you to the friendly student town of Tomsk.

AMay & Jun Grand WWII Victory Day celebrations take place in Novosibirsk.

AJul–Sep Travel across Siberia in glorious sunshine (just bring mosquito repellant).

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Medium 9780253007902

3   The Cars Roll Out

Lawrence A. Brough Indiana University Press ePub

No company records have survived the more than one hundred years since the Niles Car & Manufacturing Company began producing railway cars, so newspapers, trade journals, and traction line histories have been relied upon to determine what cars were built, and when. Often orders would be placed and reported in the trade journals but a few months later the order would be reduced or even canceled. And the date the cars were delivered was frequently not the same year in which they were ordered or built. Nevertheless the information reported here will give the reader a fairly good idea of the activity at the plant.

Niles was best known for its big interurban cars, and those were what the company preferred to concentrate on. However, the company was not about to turn down orders for smaller city cars that would keep the plant busy, and the Niles catalog included illustrations of several small single-truck car designs for city use. It was decided not to embark on the construction of motors or trucks (Baldwin trucks were preferred), but Niles would supply those components with the car bodies to give the buyer a ready-to-run product, if so desired. But in the interest of economy, traction lines frequently purchased only car bodies, to which they added trucks, motors, and other finishing materials in their own shops to complete the car, saving the markup (usually 10 percent above cost) that Niles would have applied to those components.

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Medium 9780253020635

4 Al Perlman Buys a Hill

RushJr. Loving Indiana University Press ePub

CHAPTER 4

Al Perlman Buys a Hill

ONE FIRST–CLASS PASSAGE

SOON AFTER MY ARRIVAL AT THE MUSEUM, JOHN F. KENNEDY was shot, causing me to realize quite abruptly that there was a void in my life. I no longer was where the news was being made. To me this could be the biggest story of my lifetime, and I wasn’t involved, neither as a reporter nor as a desk editor. So wrenching was it that I returned to the Times-Dispatch a year later, at the start of 1965. Frank McDermott had been replaced by a new city editor, my old colleague Ed Swain, and my odyssey through corporate America and the railroads of the land was about to begin.

Another event while I was at the museum was of far less importance, but still a major happening in Virginia and a significant moment in railroad history. The Pennsylvania Railroad announced that Stuart Saunders had resigned as head of the Norfolk and Western Railway in Roanoke to become the Pennsy’s chairman. It was the beginning of a tempestuous saga that I soon would cover. In only a few years I would come to know Saunders and his most notable adversary, Alfred E. Perlman. These two men were to head Penn Central, the railroad they would create when they merged the Pennsylvania and the New York Central.

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Medium 9780253347572

6 “Where the Hell Is Harrisburg?”

RushJr. Loving Indiana University Press ePub

The merger started at 12:01 a.m. Thursday, February 1, 1968, a cold, rainy night in Philadelphia. The system that the marriage brought together was larger than anything American railroaders had ever seen. Penn Central was the longest investor-owned railroad in the world. If coupled end to end, its fleet of cars and locomotives would stretch from New York to Laramie, and its tracks could stretch all the way around the world and then some. In one day all its trains combined traveled the equivalent of halfway to the moon. Even if their cultures had not clashed and even if their computers had blended, they were not prepared, and combining everything the first day made Penn Central almost impossible to manage.

No sooner had they merged than they were plunged into chaos. “It was just a goddamned operating mess,” said one veteran railroader. Routes were changed immediately for some types of shipments, but none of the classification clerks had been taught the 5,000 new combinations of routings. By the thousands, cars began flowing into the wrong yards. As the yardmaster at Selkirk described it: “They’d get a car for Harrisburg, which wasn’t on the old Central, and they’d say, “Where the hell is Harrisburg? I know where Pittsburgh is. Shit! I’ll send it to Pittsburgh.’”

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Medium 9780253337979

8. The End of the Line: 1930–1938

Jr.Herbert H. Harwood Indiana University Press ePub

The stock market had taken a dive, to be sure, but most people believed it was only a temporary hiccup — perhaps a little worse than in 1921, but nothing for serious concern. Even so, interurban lines like the Lake Shore had much to worry about. On January 18, 1930, Fred Coen wrote his mysterious master, “A. Hayes,” and began:

The time is not far distant when the question of the future policy to be followed in regard to the Lake Shore Electric must be determined. In other words, whether this railway can be rejuvenated and rebuilt so that it would be the same as an electrified steam railroad and made a profitable institution or whether it is to be abandoned, or partially abandoned, and recover therefrom as much as possible in the way of salvage or sale as a going concern.

He went on to propose a consulting study to determine the LSE’s fate. Coen then hinted at his own feelings by recommending the consultants who had helped Samuel Insull successfully rebuild and modernize his Chicago, North Shore & Milwaukee and Chicago, South Shore & South Bend — implying that perhaps the LSE might be made into “an electrified steam railroad.” Whether or not there was any such hope, the letter clearly recognized that continuing to operate the system as it then existed was undoubtedly doomed.

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Medium 9781855209510

Chapter 2 - The Car - It’s Lineage

Gordon Lund Brooklands Books ePub

Back street special to Supercar status

A legend in its own lifetime – enigma or hype. The Lotus Elan was a natural progression of what was a course of classic lateral thinking. Up until the mid-1950s, the accepted path to automobile performance was big is beautiful. In the austerity years just after the war, enthusiasts were making their mark in racing and trials with derivations of small family saloons. These set the stage to prove that good things come in small packages. The most famous exponent of the genre was, of course, Anthony Colin Bruce Chapman. His quick succession of mark/type developments indicated that the man thought on his feet. His successes in motor racing proved this point for so long by his being one jump ahead of the competition most of the time. Occasionally he made a blunder but then he who never made a mistake never did anything.

Lotus 9 Sports race car. Lotus Enthusiasts Car Show. Newark 2000

The stories surrounding the formative years at Lotus are many, and legendary, I do not intend to go into great depth here as there are many histories available. The birth of the Elan came out more of frustration than anything else. Chapman’s fledgling company had achieved acclaim and success within a very short space of time. His attempts to bring the company into mainstream car production had nearly bankrupted him. The Climax Elite was way ahead of its time and would have been a headache for a large company to produce, never mind a small, under-funded concern like Lotus. Then again, the large companies would never have considered it in the first place.

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Medium 9780253019066

18 Salvation

Simon Cordery Indiana University Press ePub

The collapse of the Rock Island and the failure of Penn Central sent shockwaves throughout the railroad industry and beyond. The former suggested that recovery would be a slow process, while the latter indicated that mergers alone could not save the trains. A dramatic shift was needed or they would vanish completely. The ICC paid attention to the consequences of delaying merger proposals, and a period of consolidation followed. Then, in 1980, reacting to the continued decline of the industry, the federal government passed legislation to deregulate railroads. The new law, called the Staggers Act in honor of one of its House sponsors, generated an immediate and positive upswing in virtually all railroad indices. The number of railroad corporations and route mileage in use continued to shrink, but the survivors enjoyed a renaissance, competing effectively with long-distance trucking, creating new markets for their services, and finding favor with Wall Street. Profitability followed.

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Medium 9781855209510

Chapter 12 - Fitting the Body

Gordon Lund Brooklands Books ePub

This is relatively straight forward as it is practically a reversal of the dismounting procedure. Much more care should be exercised, as you would not want any damage to occur to it at this stage. This is done in two stages, one to mark out the fixing holes in the chassis, and the final fitting when the holes have been drilled and tapped.

Body of the Sprint just mounted on the completed rolling chassis

Glue down the felt to the chassis backbone, not forgetting to cut the holes for the front propshaft access and the seat belt anchors. Then with your army of helpers, lift the body sufficiently to clear the engine and rear uprights, and lower down gently onto the chassis. The body will attempt to find its own location guided by the rear chassis tubes and the interference of the felt. With your band of lifters taking the weight of the body, make sure that the body is as far forward as it will go to ensure that the body bobbins in front of the parcel shelf are in contact with the chassis. If you fail to do this, the body will be stressed in these areas and could cause localised cracking.

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Medium 9780253347572

18 Selling the Shiny Silver Sphere

RushJr. Loving Indiana University Press ePub

Still pushing his scheme, William T. Coleman approached the chairmen of the Norfolk and Western and the Chessie System. The N&W’s John Fishwick already had some idea of what was to be proposed. Some time earlier at a Washington dinner he had sat next to one of Jim McClellan’s old friends from the New York Central, David DeBoer, now one of the Federal Railway Administration’s top planners and analysts. DeBoer had mentioned the idea of Controlled Transfer, of which he was an avid proponent, and later he had met one Saturday in an Alexandria, Virginia, hotel room with Fishwick’s top lobbyist and outlined the idea in further detail. The lobbyist had expressed interest.

When Coleman met with Fishwick and the Chessie’s Hays Watkins, he did most of the talking while the two railroad chief executive officers listened. Coleman offered each railroad half of all the bankrupt properties and a gift of $500 million to cover the cost of refurbishing the lines. In addition, each would get $2 billion in low-interest federal loans. The two executives told the transportation secretary they would consider his offer and have their answers in a couple of weeks.

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Medium 9780253008329

5 In the Land of the Sooners

Don L. Hofsommer Indiana University Press ePub

EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITY AT OKLAHOMA STATE University presented itself during the first portion of the 1970s. Stillwater was Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe (AT&SF or Santa Fe) country, located on a spur from what once had been a concave but through route from Newkirk, Oklahoma, to Pauls Valley, Oklahoma, parallel to the east of Santa Fe’s main gut from Newton, Kansas, to the Gulf of Mexico. Passenger service had ended November 10, 1956, but local customers still provided attractive freight revenue.

Santa Fe was a well-managed company with premier routes from Chicago to Los Angeles and Chicago to South Texas. In a relative sense, it was prosperous compared to many other railroads at the time. Yet the mood across the industry was grim, and it got worse as the decade of the 1970s wore on. Causes of financial anemia were many and varied among particular companies, but a popular prescription among virtually all carriers was abandonment of line segments, especially branches and redundant secondary routes. Santa Fe was not immune in this regard.

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Medium 9781855209510

Chapter 13 - Electrics

Gordon Lund Brooklands Books ePub

Heater

Replace the baby Elan heater intake plenum chamber if it has been removed. Ensure that the drain hose at the bottom is intact and mates up with the hole in the body and is adequately sealed with silicone sealant. Pour water into the plenum to test this feature or the carpets will never be dry. Before fitting the plenum chamber, fit any soundproofing that you may have removed against the engine bulkhead.

The heater unit on the baby Elan is a simple affair that is easily stripped down. Clean it out and pressure test to make sure there are no water leaks. Test the fan motor for quiet operation on both speeds. Rectifying faults like these at this stage are much easier than finding them in a fully assembled car. The same applies to the +2 heater but this is a little more complex. Connect the heater pipes to the heater unit ensuring the pipe runs do not interfere with other dashboard fitted items, such as the radio on the baby Elan. The +2 heater pipe connections are made on the engine side of the bulkhead and are just as inaccessible when the carburettors are in place.

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Medium 9781855209657

Chapter 8 Wheels and Tyres

Greg Hudock Brooklands Books ePub

Tyre pressures and the condition of the tyres should be checked once a week. Remember that the tyre is the only contact with the road surface.

Inspect the tyre walls for cracks, splits or bad damage. If the tyres are worn on one side, in most cases on the outside, check the front wheel alignment. Normally the toe-in setting will need adjustment.

Excessive wear on both sides of the tyre indicates driving with an under-inflated tyre. Excessive wear in the centre of the tread indicates an over-inflated tyre.

Damage can also be caused by sharp objects or contact with kerb stones. A clear tread pattern should always be visible.

Do not drive with tyres if the depth of the tread is less than 1.6 mm (0.06 in.).

Check the tyre pressures once a week in accordance with the figures given in your Owners Manual and on a sticker attached to the vehicle. If the tyres lose more than 2 psi. per week, then the tyre has a puncture or the seal on the wheel rim is damaged. Take the faulty wheel to a tyre specialist. Always keep the valve caps in place as these will prevent leakage of air from the valves. Do not forget to replace them after you have checked the tyre pressures.

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Medium 9781855209657

Chapter 4 Drive Shafts

Greg Hudock Brooklands Books ePub

The drive shafts are the same on both sides. The front suspension is fitted with torsion bars. These bars are under tension and the upper wishbone is pushed down by the tension of these bars. If you are familiar with earlier T4 models, you may know that special support struts were required to release the tension of the torsion bar. This is no longer required on models covered in this manual. A few additional operations are required to remove the drive shafts, if an automatic transmission is fitted.

Note: The wheel bearings must not be placed under load when the drive shaft is removed, i.e. never lower the vehicle back onto its wheels after you have removed a drive shaft. From model year 2001 new wheel bolts are fitted. Section “Front Suspension” gives details.

Proceed as follows to remove a drive shaft from a model with manual transmission, but note that some of the operations are only referred to, but not described in detail. Detailed descriptions of these operations can be found in the “Front Suspension” section.

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