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Medium 9780253005922

6 A Tumultuous Decade

J. Parker Lamb Indiana University Press ePub

Early operations of the Rebel streamliner (see Plate 1) proved to be the economic miracle hoped for by GM&N’S management. In 1935 its total cost was 44.4 cents per mile (including a direct operating cost of 31.8 cents), while it produced a surprising income of 59 cents. The excess of 14.6 cents per mile provided needed funds for general operations. But, more fundamentally, this surprising experience began to convince the road’s management that using diesel-electric locomotives for freight could also produce similar savings. It was a lesson they would not forget in the coming years.

An important event in 1936 was the road’s decision to create an independent highway subsidiary, Gulf Transport Co., thus consolidating and formalizing its earlier forays into supplementary highway transportation. The road’s management emphasized that this company would not seek new business but would be a low-cost supporting element of its rail-based operations. Consequently, the bus company was never a large moneymaker, but neither did it produce a drag on net income. However, it did go a long way in convincing shippers in its service area that GM&N valued their business (Oliver).

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Medium 9781457186431

9. Lighting It Up

John Baichtal Maker Media, Inc ePub

This chapter shows readers how to build and install a couple of decorative LED projects, beginning with small, battery-powered lights I call Poesies. Then, we’ll quickly ramp up the challenge with a DIY headlight that uses a high-brightness LED to illuminate the roadway ahead of you. The final project is an interactive LED strand (Figure 9-1) that responds to the bike’s movements by altering the color and pattern of lights.

The first light-up project is a fun little project that might be good for a kid’s (or a whimsical adult’s) bike. It’s a big watch battery–powered LED that is part of a laser-cut wooden flower, seen in Figure 9-2. You can also riff on it to make more sophisticated displays as you get more confident with electronics. For now, it’s just a very simple project to get you started.

You need just a few parts to build an LED Poesy:

Flower shape: I laser-cut fun shapes out of 3mm birch. You can download the shapes from my Thingiverse page or you can design your own.

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Medium 9781855209657

Chapter 7 Rear Suspension and Axle

Greg Hudock Brooklands Books ePub

The rear suspension consists of trailing arms, coil springs, hydraulic telescopic shock absorbers and a stabiliser (anti-roll) bar. The wheel hubs are fitted to the trailing arms and have wheel shafts with the wheel bearing inserted into the arm.

Note that the coil springs are not the same for all models. As many models are available, some with heavy-duty springs at the rear, some with heavy-duty suspension front and rear, it will be confusing to list them all. As a basic rule, always fit a spring with the same colour code if ever there is need to change one of the springs, or both.

Various special tools are used to carry out work on the rear suspension. An extensive tool kit is for example necessary to replace the rear wheel bearings, i.e. to remove the rear wheel hub out of the wheel bearing and to remove the rear wheel bearing out of the trailing arm. Various illustrations show the shape of these tools so that you may be able to substitute them with corresponding make-shift tools.

A large open-ended spanner may be required to hold the shock absorber against rotation when the bolt inserted from the bottom. Apply the spanner as shown in Fig. 7.1.

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Medium 9781855209510

Chapter 17 - Under the Bonnet

Gordon Lund Brooklands Books ePub

Hydraulics

In most cases old vehicles hydraulic systems will be suspect, with seals and cylinder bores all in need of replacement. If they all look as if they have not been renewed lately, then replace with new, including a new servo unit if one was fitted originally.

Original Girling Power Stop servo units are getting difficult to find as they are only available part exchange. They do turn up at brake specialists from time to time, if they get old ones back. So remember to return yours, another enthusiast may be dependent on you. Lockheed units can be made to fit but in slightly revised positions.

Fit all new hydraulic hoses in the engine compartment, and all new flexible hoses, preferably stainless steel braided, on the brakes and clutch slave cylinders. Fill the systems with Dot 4 brake fluid and bleed to remove all entrapped air.

Carburettors

Weber, Dellorto or Stromberg, there is not a lot to choose between the three. Weber DCO40s are the traditional fitment, with Dellorto filling gaps in when Weber could not supply for whatever reason. Strombergs were Lotus’ attempt at meeting emissions regulations and, without the re-circulation idler mixture system installed for the North American market, could be made to work just as efficiently as the 4-branch systems.

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Medium 9781742207407

Běijīng

Lonely Planet Lonely Planet ePub

For weary Trans-Siberian travellers, Běijīng (北京) will feel like the figurative pot of gold at the end of the rainbow. The 2008 Olympics were instrumental in transforming the Chinese capital, and perhaps for the first time since the Mongol invasion, Běijīng feels like a true international city, brimming with overseas business, cuisine of every kind, daring modern architecture and a thriving arts scene.

Despite its headlong rush into the future, though, the best of Běijīng lies in its links to the past. Magnificent historical sights such as the Forbidden City, Temple of Heaven Park, the Summer Palace and, of course, the Great Wall, will keep you busy for days. And ducking into the fast-disappearing hútòng (narrow alleyway) neighbourhoods is a magical experience, and the best way to discover Běijīng at its most intimate.

Come evening, choose from a million or so drinking spots and shout 'gān bēi!' (bottoms up!) as you toast the end (or beginning) of your epic cross-continental journey.

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Medium 9780253355485

15 Epilogue: Ghost Hunting Along the South Penn

Jr., Herbert H. Harwood Indiana University Press ePub

Many historians seem to take it for granted that the original Pennsylvania Turnpike alignment followed the defunct railroad right-of-way. It did, but mostly only in a general way, not as a duplication of the line that was surveyed and partly built. As we have just noted, except for the tunnels and a few short stretches here and there, there was very little precise correlation between the two. (There is even less now, since three tunnels—Sideling Hill, Rays Hill, and Laurel Hill—were bypassed between 1964 and 1968.) The South Penn’s engineers aimed for a maximum grade of 1 percent, with the exception of the east slope of Allegheny Mountain (at 1.8 percent) and the west slope of Laurel Hill, where 6 miles of 2 percent were necessary. To accomplish this, the railroad constantly curved through the rugged mountain territory to build up its grades gradually and avoid more hills. The Turnpike engineers could get away with triple the railroad’s ruling grade and so could cut a straighter path, deviating from the rail line as much as 3 miles. That left a lot of cuts, fills, and culverts out there that have been untouched since 1885. Not even in those relatively flat, easy areas where the South Penn had fixed a route but never built—such as the Cumberland and Raystown-Juniata valleys—did the Turnpike precisely follow the railroad survey.

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Medium 9780253019066

13 Progressive Regulation

Cordery, Simon Indiana University Press ePub

The perceived excesses symbolized by the Reid-Moore syndicate’s bleeding of the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific Railway contributed to a political and social climate conducive to further regulation. Behind this renewed regulatory fervor was a fear of dependence on enormous economic entities. Corporations appeared to be getting too big, too powerful, and too likely to control an entire industry. Democratic republics were not supposed to give rise to monopolies dominating entire sectors of the economy, but that is precisely what seemed to be happening. When Minnesota-based railroader James J. Hill and Wall Street banker J. P. Morgan merged the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy into a holding company already containing the Northern Pacific and the Great Northern Railroads, the government called foul. President Theodore Roosevelt, spurning Morgan’s gentlemanly offer to “send your man to see my man and tell him to fix it up,” instead mobilized the might of the federal government and established a precedent for future trust busting.

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Medium 9780253007902

4   The Slow Decline

Lawrence A. Brough Indiana University Press ePub

After an auspicious start in 1902–1903, the next two years of very low production must have been somewhat disheartening. During the business slump after the 1903 financial crisis, car builders everywhere were hurting and a proposal surfaced in 1905 to combine twenty car builders, including Niles, into one giant car-building syndicate. It came to naught but created a lot of excitement at the time. But looking ahead, the directors apparently had enough confidence that business would improve that they authorized an increase in capitalization and an enlargement of the factory.

The years 1906–1907 were just the opposite of the previous two years and it looked like the traction industry was playing catch-up with the huge volume of orders for new cars. In January of 1908, Niles directors authorized the payment of dividends on both common and preferred stock and predicted fair business for the coming year. Orders, however, fell off sharply, but the firm still managed to deliver nearly eighty cars to willing buyers. During the year, an order was received from California for six cars to be used in the San Diego area on the San Diego Southern Electric Railway, which had just changed its name from the National City and Otay Railroad. The cars cost $6,571.15 each ($3901.29 for the body and $2669.86 for the trucks and electrical equipment). The cars were 45 feet 10 inches long and of the California type peculiar to that state, with a closed center section and open sections on both ends. The center section held twenty-eight seats and the open ends twelve seats each.

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Medium 9780253020635

18 J. B. Hunt Takes a Ride on the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe

Loving, Rush, Jr. Indiana University Press ePub

CHAPTER 18

J. B. Hunt Takes a Ride on the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe

ONE FIRST–CLASS PASSAGE

WHILE A FEW PEOPLE LIKE SWEENEY AND BILL JOHNSON wanted out of the business, other railroaders were struggling to decrypt the mysteries of the free market. Most still did not understand the key to the industry’s future—the intermodal business—and some did not want to. Many men like CSX’s Jim Hagen had always recognized its potential, if it could be priced high enough to bring in a reasonable profit.

Although intermodal traffic, especially trips combining transportation modes like boats and trains, had been in existence since the infancy of the railroads, mixing rail service with trucking was a late bloomer. Tractor-trailers, or semis, had been traveling America’s highways since the 1920s, and some, delivering new cars to dealers, had been operating since the invention of the automobile, two decades before that. Railroads had experimented with piggyback, or intermodal, as early as the 1930s. Yet, it was not until 1955 that the first batch of highway trailers was placed on regularly scheduled intermodal trains. The Pennsylvania Railroad opened the service with dedicated trains, one each way, each day, between New York and Chicago. The business grew, and other railroads expanded their own services.

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Medium 9781934009628

Chapter 5: Applying Strategies for ELLs: A 5E Lesson

r4Educated Solutions Solution Tree Press ePub

5

Applying Strategies for ELLs: A 5E Lesson

Learning without thought is labor lost; thought without learning is perilous.

—Confucius

In the first four chapters, we examined the needs of English language learners and how to support them in the affective, linguistic, and cognitive domains. The question now arises of how to incorporate the tools, practices, and strategies into practical classroom use. Perhaps you are asking yourself:

•   What does a lesson look like that meets the needs of my English language learners?

•   How can I meet the needs of my English language learners and still meet the needs of other students in my classroom?

Echevarria, Vogt, and Short (2004) identify the critical instructional features necessary for the academic and language development of English language learners.

Lesson preparation: Planning should result in lessons that enable students to make connections between their knowledge and experiences and the new information being taught.

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Medium 9780596008710

1. Car Power Basics

Damien Stolarz O'Reilly Media ePub
Medium 9781855209718

Chapter 7 - Steering

PR Pub PR Pub Brooklands Books ePub
Medium 9780253011275

Chapter 5 The Road to Ride

Bill Marvel Indiana University Press ePub

The Rock Island was usually not the shortest, nor the fastest, nor the most prosperous railroad between the cities it served. So it had to try harder.

Even in the worst of times, the railroad did its best to field a fleet that gave passengers a run for their money. And when times were flush, the Rock Island often ran ahead of the pack. It was among the first with onboard dining and streamliners. It innovated restlessly, if not always wisely. Its trains might run in the red, especially toward the end, but they ran.

As soon as the track was down and open for business in 1852, two daily trains left Chicago for Joliet. Within months the dozen passenger cars provided by contractors Henry Farnam and Joseph Sheffield could no longer meet demand, and 16 additional cars were ordered. Trains ran full, hauling passengers from Chicago’s passenger house to the end of track, wherever that might be. By 1856 the road was advertised “the Shortest, Quickest and Safest Route” to Kansas and Nebraska—though it had reached neither destination. The roadbed was raw, the crude wooden benches were hard, but tens of thousands of immigrants were already riding Rock Island trains on the first leg of their journeys to the Great American Frontier. Within the decade, they would ship their produce to eastern markets via Rock Island.

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Medium 9781855209701

Chapter 4: Body Restoration

Greg Hudock Brooklands Books ePub
Medium 9781457186431

3. Gallery of Cool Bikes

John Baichtal Maker Media, Inc ePub

Now that you’ve had a chance to get in the bike-hacking mindset, here’s some inspiration: a dozen interesting bikes that have been (or are screaming to be!) hacked and modded.

Peter Wagner converted a typical unicycle (Figure 3-1) into a mini bike by bolting on a set of handlebars and a child-size front wheel. Best of all, if you loosen some bolts, the front pops off easily, restoring it to its one-wheeled glory.

This project exemplifies the possibilities of hacking a bike’s frame, mixing and matching parts to create new and crazy variants. In Chapter 7, I offer tips on doing just that, as well as walking you through the steps to weld up your own.

The Puch Chopper shown in Figure 3-2 is begging to get hacked! Sometimes quirky old bikes like this one make the best fodder for modification.

I’d love to see the seat itself get reupholstered, maybe vinyl with some swank ’70s pattern. The wheels could use a refresh as well, looking kind of sad…maybe some knobby offroaders would work. However, I wouldn’t repaint the lovely frame for the world.

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