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Medium 9780253011817

4 Surveys, Finances, and Construction

H. Roger Grant Indiana University Press ePub

4

SURVEYS

Essential to achieving the objective of the Knoxville Railroad Convention was locating the exact route for the Louisville, Cincinnati & Charleston Rail Road (LC&C). The geography of this vast proposed service area meant that decision makers needed to make choices, and often their choices became contentious. Robert Hayne and his supporters strongly favored the French Broad River valley for crossing the spine of the Southern Appalachians. Such a pathway would benefit South Carolinians, both Charlestonians and residents of other important communities in the Palmetto State. Routing options included possible service to Columbia, Greenville, Spartanburg, and York.1

This building strategy through the Midlands and Upstate South Carolina would permit several transportation-starved counties in western North Carolina to receive rail service. As for a route through the western section of the Tar Heel State, rumors flew. Some believed that the LC&C presence would be more extensive. The longer path, it was reported, would enter the state near Rutherfordton before turning generally westward over the crest of the mountains toward Asheville and the French Broad River. So many were hopeful.2

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Medium 9780253347572

18 Selling the Shiny Silver Sphere

Rush, Jr. Loving Indiana University Press ePub

Still pushing his scheme, William T. Coleman approached the chairmen of the Norfolk and Western and the Chessie System. The N&W’s John Fishwick already had some idea of what was to be proposed. Some time earlier at a Washington dinner he had sat next to one of Jim McClellan’s old friends from the New York Central, David DeBoer, now one of the Federal Railway Administration’s top planners and analysts. DeBoer had mentioned the idea of Controlled Transfer, of which he was an avid proponent, and later he had met one Saturday in an Alexandria, Virginia, hotel room with Fishwick’s top lobbyist and outlined the idea in further detail. The lobbyist had expressed interest.

When Coleman met with Fishwick and the Chessie’s Hays Watkins, he did most of the talking while the two railroad chief executive officers listened. Coleman offered each railroad half of all the bankrupt properties and a gift of $500 million to cover the cost of refurbishing the lines. In addition, each would get $2 billion in low-interest federal loans. The two executives told the transportation secretary they would consider his offer and have their answers in a couple of weeks.

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Medium 9780253008329

5 In the Land of the Sooners

Don L. Hofsommer Indiana University Press ePub

EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITY AT OKLAHOMA STATE University presented itself during the first portion of the 1970s. Stillwater was Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe (AT&SF or Santa Fe) country, located on a spur from what once had been a concave but through route from Newkirk, Oklahoma, to Pauls Valley, Oklahoma, parallel to the east of Santa Fe’s main gut from Newton, Kansas, to the Gulf of Mexico. Passenger service had ended November 10, 1956, but local customers still provided attractive freight revenue.

Santa Fe was a well-managed company with premier routes from Chicago to Los Angeles and Chicago to South Texas. In a relative sense, it was prosperous compared to many other railroads at the time. Yet the mood across the industry was grim, and it got worse as the decade of the 1970s wore on. Causes of financial anemia were many and varied among particular companies, but a popular prescription among virtually all carriers was abandonment of line segments, especially branches and redundant secondary routes. Santa Fe was not immune in this regard.

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Medium 9781770906730

18: BUBBA AND THE PROFESSOR

Neil Peart ECW Press ePub

FEBRUARY 2014

CAN’T YOU JUST PICTURE the ’60s sitcom, or wacky road movie, that would follow that title? Why, I can hear the theme music. The story would hinge on the classic “odd couple” setup, where a methodical, high-minded would-be aesthete and intellectual is handcuffed to an easygoing Neanderthal everythingaholic drummer.

Or a Nabokovian, Jekyll-Hyde twist, where the two polar sides of one character are tricked into sharing a long, difficult journey?

Oh wait—that’s my life.

What tales our nicknames can tell. The two in this title have been conferred upon one individual—your reporter—at different times in his life. You may imagine they come with a story or two.

I often think back to a “road lesson” involving one of my oldest friends, Jimmy Johnson. He and I met around 1968, when J.J. joined my second band, the Majority (ha—our booking agency’s genius slogan was “Join the Majority!”), as a “roadie.” A few tumultuous years later (for both of us), when I joined Rush, J.J. became Alex’s guitar tech for many years—many hilarious years. The two of them were a fine comedy duo.

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Medium 9781855206786

Chapter 1: E30 - The Models

Andrew Everett Brooklands Books ePub

This is, in E30 terms, the bottom of the barrel although it’s a good car in its own right. Powered by the good old M10 engine, production started in January 1983 and ran right up to September 1988 with the last year’s production being the facelift plastic bumper model. Available in two- and four-door versions, you might even find a rare Baur Cabriolet but they are not worth that much.

Advantages? Many! For a start, they are now very cheap. Fuel economy is pretty fair (you should get 25mpg) and when the carburettor is playing the game, performance is surprisingly good with crisp throttle response and good torque. It is also pretty reliable and mechanically unbreakable. The M10, given an oil change every 6000 miles, just goes on forever. The timing chain will begin to rattle at anything over 100,000 miles, but the simple expedient of fitting a stronger spring in the tensioner will keep that quiet for a bit longer. With only 90bhp available, the mechanical components are very under-stressed.

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Medium 9780253017772

PORTFOLIO ONE: The Farm Security Administration Photos, 1940–1942

Reevy, Tony Indiana University Press PDF

PORTFOLIO ONE

THE FARM SECURIT Y ADMINISTRATION PHOTOS, 1940 –1942

Figure 1.1. Washington, DC. Portrait of

Jack Delano, Office of War Information photographer. September 1942. John Collier.

Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Division, FSAOWI Collection, Reproduction Number LC-USF34-014739-E.

In February 1940, Roy Stryker, chief of the FSA Historical Section, wrote to John R. Fischer, director of the Division of Information:

We are going to have to move fast to get a new man on the payroll to replace Arthur Rothstein. As you know, it is not going to be the easiest thing in the world to find a man to take hold of Arthur’s job and get into the swing of production in the manner of Lee, Rothstein, and

Post. . . . We have already found the man, Mr. Jack Delano. . . . We have an outstanding person. He is an artist by training, and has used the camera for several years. He did one of the finest jobs on the story of the coal miners in the anthracite region that I have ever seen. A man that can turn out as excellent a job is not to be lost.1

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Medium 9781855206786

Chapter 5: Suspension and Steering

Andrew Everett Brooklands Books ePub

These shafts contain two universal joints and a rubber flexible disc coupling and most are getting a bit ragged now. Like a prop-shaft front coupling, the disc is made by SGF Jurid of nylon-reinforced rubber. Eventually the rubber perishes and can break, leading to very vague steering. Control is maintained, but only just. You have two options when this happens. The expensive one is a new shaft assembly from BMW. The cheap option, costing about six pints of beer and two hours work, is an SGF coupling repair kit containing a new rubber disc and four nuts and bolts. The repair disc differs from the original because it is fitted with steel sleeves for the bolts.

Taking off the shaft can be difficult. Remove the top and bottom pinch bolts and nuts, wedge an old screwdriver into the expansion slots in the top and bottom joint and give it a good hammering. This loosens the joint from the rack and the column. Now soak both joints in penetrating oil and go and make a cup of tea. After five or ten minutes go back and get the shaft off. Using a hammer and a long bar, drive the shaft down onto the rack but go carefully hit it too hard and you might damage an expensive steering rack. Plenty of penetrating oil and moderate taps are all that is required. After a while, the shaft will drop away from the column. From underneath, tap the shaft back up off the rack and free.

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Medium 9780749472481

03 Client-centred learning and coaching

John Miller Kogan Page ePub

03

Client-centred learning and coaching

In todays society, most people receive information in a completely passive way from TV or computer, rather than taking an active part in the learning process. In the driver training context they often expect to remain in the passive role and be taught how to pass the test. Coaching is a method that helps to take the pupil (or coachee) out of this passive role and encourages awareness and responsibility in the person who is being coached so that they understand how to make safe decisions when driving on their own.

According to HERMES, an EC-funded project and report on possible changes to the methods of driver training, Coaching is a learner-centred method that develops awareness and responsibility with an equal relationship between coach and learner. For example, with a complete novice you would establish how they learnt best and then use the most appropriate method to teach them. Rather than giving a lesson with an explanation covering the cockpit drill and all the controls of the vehicle you might agree to let the pupil have a go on their own so that they can practise working out for themself how to move the car away and stop. Alternatively, the pupil might like to watch you demonstrate before having a go themself. In this way we are using coaching right from the start of the learners training process and actively involving pupils in taking on responsibility for their own learning.

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Medium 9781935543060

3 - Engaging, Exciting, and Energizing the Learner

Gayle Gregory Solution Tree Press ePub

Engaging, Exciting, and Energizing the Learner

One principle that propels the digital revolution is our brain's craving for new, exciting, and different experiences…. Whether excessive or subtle, the instinct to pursue new and exciting experiences frequently drives our behavior.

—Gary Small

One of the more difficult aspects of teaching can be getting students’ attention so that they attend to and ultimately learn the lesson and task. Knowing what types of stimuli will engage the brain can help teachers plan strategies to get their students’ attention. When not involved in survival issues, such as reacting to perceived threats, our brains are most sensitive to novelty and changes that arouse curiosity. New and unexpected sensory input in the environment will immediately get our brains’ attention. Even slight changes in one's surroundings will create curiosity, and the brain will reorient toward the new information. Developing novel situations and using a variety of differentiated strategies can increase a teacher's chances of shifting students from disinterested to excited and energized!

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Medium 9780253347572

6 “Where the Hell Is Harrisburg?”

Rush, Jr. Loving Indiana University Press ePub

The merger started at 12:01 a.m. Thursday, February 1, 1968, a cold, rainy night in Philadelphia. The system that the marriage brought together was larger than anything American railroaders had ever seen. Penn Central was the longest investor-owned railroad in the world. If coupled end to end, its fleet of cars and locomotives would stretch from New York to Laramie, and its tracks could stretch all the way around the world and then some. In one day all its trains combined traveled the equivalent of halfway to the moon. Even if their cultures had not clashed and even if their computers had blended, they were not prepared, and combining everything the first day made Penn Central almost impossible to manage.

No sooner had they merged than they were plunged into chaos. “It was just a goddamned operating mess,” said one veteran railroader. Routes were changed immediately for some types of shipments, but none of the classification clerks had been taught the 5,000 new combinations of routings. By the thousands, cars began flowing into the wrong yards. As the yardmaster at Selkirk described it: “They’d get a car for Harrisburg, which wasn’t on the old Central, and they’d say, “Where the hell is Harrisburg? I know where Pittsburgh is. Shit! I’ll send it to Pittsburgh.’”

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Medium 9780253019066

3 Optimism Revived

Cordery, Simon Indiana University Press ePub

Travelers in Illinois during the 1840s may have paused to puzzle over sporadic strips of artificially flattened ground, mute testimony to the recent infatuation with railroads. In Bureau County, for example, work on the original Illinois Central Railroad (ICRR) got no further than “cutting away strips of timber” and leveling small stretches of territory for rails that never arrived. The Jacksonville & Savannah Railroad used land between Canton and Farmington flattened for the Peoria to Warsaw line. Stone culverts and bridge abutments also remained as a memory of the 1837 Illinois Internal Improvements Act. At the southern tip of the state, ribbons of graded land and a lengthy embankment near Cairo, remnants of “the wild State internal improvement craze,” reminded people of how “the State and whole communities were left bankrupt—stranded upon dirt embankments.”1

Disillusionment lasted barely a decade, however. The passion for railroads reignited in the 1850s, and Chicago emerged as a major commercial center. Trains from the east brought in new inhabitants and departed with grain from the prairies. Developments downstate signaled the temporary prominence of Alton and the permanent rise of St. Louis. On a national scale, the ICRR set an important precedent by using federal land grants to stimulate interest and investment.

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Medium 9780253353832

3 Sprague and the New World of Electricity

William D. Middleton Indiana University Press ePub

“A course of study which I have followed for four years has very strongly developed my tastes for work in connection with electrical service, and I can only feel satisfied when thus employed,” wrote Ensign Sprague in a March 1883 letter to Secretary of the Navy William E. Chandler resigning his commission. Among other reasons Sprague cited for his resignation were his desire to engage in experimental work, and the receipt of attractive offers from several companies. The problems of the overcrowded condition of officers in the naval service and the slowness of promotion in the antiquated and under-funded navy also strengthened his desire to seek a career for himself in civil pursuits.1 In any case the navy agreed, giving Sprague a year on leave, with his resignation to become effective April 15, 1884.

Sprague was engaged in work at the Crystal Palace Exhibition in 1882 when he became acquainted with Edward H. Johnson, an electrical engineer and inventor and a close associate of Thomas Edison, who would work closely with Sprague off and on for the next 15 years.

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Medium 9780253019066

18 Salvation

Cordery, Simon Indiana University Press ePub

The collapse of the Rock Island and the failure of Penn Central sent shockwaves throughout the railroad industry and beyond. The former suggested that recovery would be a slow process, while the latter indicated that mergers alone could not save the trains. A dramatic shift was needed or they would vanish completely. The ICC paid attention to the consequences of delaying merger proposals, and a period of consolidation followed. Then, in 1980, reacting to the continued decline of the industry, the federal government passed legislation to deregulate railroads. The new law, called the Staggers Act in honor of one of its House sponsors, generated an immediate and positive upswing in virtually all railroad indices. The number of railroad corporations and route mileage in use continued to shrink, but the survivors enjoyed a renaissance, competing effectively with long-distance trucking, creating new markets for their services, and finding favor with Wall Street. Profitability followed.

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Medium 9780253220738

7 In Recent Times

Don L Hofsommer Indiana University Press ePub

No industry remains static, else it atrophies and perishes. Railroads in Iowa underscore the intrinsic truth of that statement. Since the 1960s the railroad scene has undergone monumental changes. It has been a fluid period, ironically somewhat reminiscent of the building and consolidation process of the nineteenth century. A combination of happenings, including massive line abandonments, corporate mergers, regulatory reforms, start-up shortlines and regionals, and technological betterments has reshaped railroading throughout the state.

Any observant person who today roams the Iowa landscape will notice the remains of former rail lines. Although some of these abandoned rights-of-way may have been obliterated by farmers seeking to increase their production acreages and urban dwellers wishing to build structures or expand their yards, hundreds of miles remain somewhat intact, albeit nearly always chocked with weeds, brush, and trees. But a few pieces of these one-time routes of the iron horse have become public hiking and biking paths, products of an active statewide rails-to-trails movement. Testifying to the popularity of these recreational resources, the Heritage Trail follows sections of the Chicago Great Western (CGW) in eastern Iowa, and the Wabash Nature Trail follows portions of the Wabash in southwestern Iowa.

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Medium 9780253020635

14 “Who Knows Hays Watkins?”

Loving, Rush, Jr. Indiana University Press ePub

CHAPTER 14

“Who Knows Hays Watkins?”

ONE FIRST-CLASS PASSAGE

ALL INDUSTRIES AT ONE TIME OR ANOTHER ARE VICTIMS OF changes in technology, and sometimes it can be fatal. Some of my wife’s ancestors were wagon makers. They were said to be one of the South’s largest producers of wagons, turning out 15,000 a year, and, when the public began buying automobiles and trucks, the men running the company thought them a passing fad. Despite their prediction, the market for cars and trucks took off, and in the 1940s Nissen wagons finally succumbed to the new competition.

Newspapers, magazines, and railroads were created by new technology and could die by the same hand. The train had replaced the canal boat and the stagecoach, but by the 1970s it was losing to trucks, automobiles, and airliners. In fact, when the Post Office shut down its mail cars and moved all its intercity mail to trucks and airliners, the railroads’ traditional businesses of express packages and less-than-carload freight were shifting to the highways, and once again it was made possible by another innovation, the interstate highway system.

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