258 Chapters
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2 - Creating a Brain-Compatible Environment

Gayle Gregory Solution Tree Press ePub

Creating a Brain-Compatible Environment

One thing that brain research tells us—loud and clear—is that the way we raise and teach our children not only helps shape their brains, but can also influence or even alter the way genes play out their roles. This promising news also means, however, that we have a serious obligation to attend to factors over which we have some control—namely, most things that happen to children at home and at school throughout their growing-up years.

—Jane M. Healy

To effectively implement differentiation strategies, teachers must design and orchestrate a brain-compatible environment. We believe that educators can interpret and apply some basic tenets from neuroscience research to create classrooms that are in line with how natural learning occurs. In this chapter, we offer a variety of simple suggestions that can help transform any classroom into a place where students feel safe, secure, challenged, motivated, successful, included, and independent. As previously discussed, it will be important to determine each student's sweet spot related to a learning environment that is perfect for him or her. For instance, some learners have seating preferences; other students have lighting or sound preferences. Our challenge as educators is to provide the general ambiance with options/nuances to better satisfy each learner's needs.

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Medium 9780253007902

1   The Curtain Rises

Lawrence A. Brough Indiana University Press ePub

The year was 1901. William McKinley, the favorite son of Niles, Ohio, began his second term in office as president of the United States. National unemployment was at 4 percent, and Marconi demonstrated his wireless by sending messages through the air from England to Newfoundland. The electric railway era was well along and, like the steam railroads before, electric lines were springing up all over the country in an attempt to connect nearly every town and hamlet. Did this look like an opportunity to invest in America’s future? It did to a group of Niles businessmen, and on May 3, 1901, they incorporated the Niles Car & Manufacturing Company, which, according to its Articles of Incorporation, intended to “manufacture and deal in all kinds of street and railway cars, motors, steam engines, water tanks, and acid tanks and for manufacturing and dealing in railway supplies and appliances of all kinds.” The company was capitalized at $200,000.

The inclusion of the manufacture of water and acid tanks was no doubt influenced by the fact that Niles was located in what was then the heart of industrial America and was home to steel mills, rolling mills, and plants that produced glass, pottery, and firebrick—businesses that would require such equipment—and these tanks were made out of wood, as would be the trolley car bodies. Among the investors were F. J. Roller, superintendent of schools; B. F. Pew, a prominent Niles grocer; G. B. Robbins, director of the Dollar Savings Bank (whose brother, Frank Robbins, became President of Niles); and W. C. Allison, president of the Allison and Company planing mill, whose property would soon become the site of the Niles car factory.

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Medium 9780253005915

7 A Glimpse of Australia

William D. Middleton Indiana University Press ePub

The Sydney Harbour Bridge. One can say with little fear of contradiction that the magnificent Sydney Harbour Bridge ranks among the best works of Australia’s railway infrastructure. Indeed, it stands among a very short list of the world’s greatest railway structures. Construction of the bridge began in 1923, and its opening was celebrated on March 19, 1932. Chief engineer of the bridge was John J. C. Bradfield, who patterned the design after New York’s Hell Gate Bridge. The dimensions of the bridge are massive. Overall, it spans some 3,769 feet, and the span of the main arch itself is 1,650 feet, half again that of the Hell Gate Bridge. The arch reaches a high point of 440 feet, and the bridge clears 161 feet for ships under the main span. The four massive pylons, standing 292 feet high, are enclosed in Moruya granite quarried from a site 190 miles north of the city. Located just north of Sydney’s center, the bridge occupies a splendid position. Just to its south are Sydney’s towering office buildings, just to the east on the south bank is Sydney’s magnificent opera house, while the bridge itself spans above the busy waters of the Sydney Harbour in Port Jackson. The bridge’s eight highway lanes and two rail tracks carry a prodigious traffic. This view of the bridge is from the north shore in September 1991.

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1 Western European Trains

William D. Middleton Indiana University Press ePub

Western European Trains. A Holyhead-Crewe train emerges from the ornate tunnel portal at Conwy, Wales.

 

1

THE UNITED KINGDOM WAS THE BIRTHPLACE of the railroad and brought to it such things as the world’s predominance of British standard gauge, the early technology and development of the steam locomotive, the basic formation of trains made up of locomotives and cars, train ordering, train braking, and one of the most important of all, the technology and development of the construction of the civil works that supported the railway. In these civil works were some of the most significant differences often found between British and American practice. In the British Isles, the cities and towns were well developed, and agriculture, mining, and manufacturing were already well established. Thus the British could build the new railways to high standards and could likely begin operations with good traffic from already developed resources.

In the United States, in contrast, cities and towns, commerce, and financial support were often less well developed, and the railways were forced to build to a much lower standard, just enough to run the railroad, with the expectation that when traffic was built up the roadbed and its structures could be rebuilt to better standards. And the farther west the railroads went, the more likely that this was true. A new British railway, on the other hand, would likely build its roadbed to high standards of curvature and grade; such appurtenances as culverts, tunnel portals, and the like were often masonry with decorative work of stone on brick; and longer, high bridge structures were commonly masonry. Large bridges were also built in wrought iron or steel, designed for the specific locations, and put together on the site by skilled ironworkers. New U.S. railroads were often built with the lightest iron rail that would carry the loads, and crossties were made with whatever wood could be located in the vicinity. There was little ballast employed: sometimes ashes, dirt, or none at all. Treatment of crossties was seldom seen. The favorite material for building smaller bridges was timber ties, while later wrought iron and steel members were often from a factory and assembled in a post-and-pin manner.

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10 Some High Society Sex

RushJr. Loving Indiana University Press ePub

As the snowdrifts melted and the flowers started blooming on Philadelphia’s Main Line, Stuart Saunders was still demanding savings, but no one could find anything else to cut—except for workers, but that would have cost millions because of the labor agreement. More urgently than ever, Saunders and David Bevan went on searching for new capital, but now no source seemed left but Washington.

Bevan and Saunders were walking a high-wire, because one was trying to keep the financiers thinking all was relatively well while the other was trying to convince Washington that Penn Central’s straits were so dire that help was imperative. This, plus the constant search for more savings and more paper profits, would tax the time and imagination of the most formidable chief executive officer, and although a man of whirlwind energy, Saunders’s days were being stretched to the limit. In the middle of all that, the chairman’s attention and even valuable working hours were captured and diverted by a much more personal concern that was so well guarded that only three or four of his closest aides ever knew of it.

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20 Son of Penn Central

RushJr. Loving Indiana University Press ePub

Just as Penn Central’s woes had spawned Amtrak and the government-run passenger system, Conrail brought on rail deregulation. The new railroad could not turn a profit, and while there were a number of causes, the nation’s strangling regulatory system was at the heart of them, dooming any chance for success.

USRA had laid out a business plan for Conrail that foresaw losses during the railroad’s start-up years, but everyone had hoped the red ink would soon fade. Nevertheless, at the beginning of its third year of operation, Conrail continued to lose money at the same rate Penn Central had hemorrhaged—$1 million a day. At Conrail’s start, Ed Jordan had amazed many by integrating the marketing, operating, and financial departments of five railroads with no disruptions. Now he was waging a valiant effort to stem the losses, but he never seemed to make much progress. So hopeless was Conrail’s plight, Jordan and his chief financial officer were refusing to certify that the company’s financial performance was in line with the business plan that USRA and Congress had mandated.

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Medium 9781934009628

Chapter 1: The Challenges Facing English Language Learners and Their Teachers

r4Educated Solutions Solution Tree Press ePub

1

The Challenges Facing English Language Learners and Their Teachers

Every student should have equitable and optimal opportunities to learn mathematics free from bias—intentional or unintentional—based on race, gender, socioeconomic status, or language. In order to close the achievement gap, all students need the opportunity to learn challenging mathematics from a well-qualified teacher who will make connections to the background, needs, and cultures of all learners.

—National Council of Teachers of Mathematics

Reflection 1.1

Choose one or more of the following questions, and respond in the margin. Write from your heart, your beliefs, and your past experience. Compare your answers to those on page 131.

•   Why do some students transition to English very quickly while others attend English-speaking schools for many years without acquiring academic English?

•   How can we make grade-level mathematics accessible to all students regardless of language proficiency?

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Medium 9780253347572

16 Donning the Mantle of Moses

RushJr. Loving Indiana University Press ePub

On January 2, 1973, Jervis Langdon and the other trustees sent John Fullam a report declaring the railroad could not be turned around without government help. The report caught the attention of Washington and the railroad industry, but it did not precipitate any immediate reaction. Nevertheless, it was the warning shot for a series of events that would shake the leaders of government, labor, and the U.S. business community out of their complacency. On January 10, the trustees’ counsel, Bob Blanchette, warned Fullam that the company would have to stop its trains at the end of February if he did not grant permission to sell $10 million of securities from the railroad’s contingent compensation fund.

In Washington, the directors of the Association of American Railroads continued discussing the problem, but since the board was composed of the chief executives of 21 major railroads, there was little hope for a consensus. The N&W’s Jack Fishwick had been the most vocal advocate for a plan to save the region’s lines, but he had trouble persuading the other members. Like Jim McClellan, Fishwick frequently found that his intellectual honesty and his ability to neatly dissect the industry’s problems and destroy the absurd with simple facts irritated other railroad executives. At one government-sponsored meeting, for instance, one of the nation’s top economists, a professor from Yale, was arguing against large consolidated railroads and declared that no system should be so large that the president could not visit all the employees at least once a year. The man’s entire argument was wiped out when Fishwick immediately spoke up, declaring: “Professor, if that were true, there never would have been a British empire.”

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Medium 9780253356963

3 - The Omnibus: Travel for All Citizens

John H.Jr. White Indiana University Press ePub

Travel for All Citizens

INNOVATIONS IN THE PRACTICAL FIELD OF TRANSPORTATION IS normally accomplished by mechanics or businessmen, and yet the introduction of the omnibus is credited to a French philosopher and scientist, Blaise Pascal (1623–1662). Late in life this learned man, best known for his work in calculus and fluids, decided to establish public transit in Paris. He advocated horse-drawn carriages that would run over a fixed route to carry ordinary folks around town at low fares. Five routes were established and service began during his final year. However, Pascal's democratic notions that the service would be open to all citizens was thwarted by a government charter prescribing that only “people of merit” might ride in such coaches and excluded soldiers, pages, servants, and laborers. Uniformed drivers and conductors were provided, but the vehicles were slow and the fares high. This pioneer operation expired by about 1675. The concept was reintroduced in 1823 by the operator of a hot bath in Nantes, a suburb of the French capital, who sought an inexpensive way of carrying patrons to his establishment from Paris. The bus proved so successful that service was expanded to other routes, and within five years more omnibus lines were organized. By mid-century thirteen hundred buses were running in Paris. The system, consolidated by royal decree in 1855, was carrying 40 million passengers. That number rose to 120 million by 1867. By this time Paris was a large metropolitan area, having overflowed its ancient walls in the seventeenth century and spread well into the countryside. Great boulevards and broad avenues replaced the crooked medieval streets in the 1850s and 1860s. The population had grown to more than one million by 1850 and would more than double over the next half century. The old “walking city” was obsolete, and Parisians were unwilling to trek for miles from one destination to the next. While the buses were not much faster than a walk, they allowed travelers to rest as the horses plodded along.

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Medium 9780253020635

6 Wooing Bankers with a Railway Car

RushJr. Loving Indiana University Press ePub

CHAPTER 6

Wooing Bankers with a Railway Car

ONE FIRST–CLASS PASSAGE

WHILE BALL WAS BATTLING THE UNIONS, THE MEN WHO controlled his one-time nemesis, the Atlantic Coast Line, were using their railroads to build a bank. Baldy Baldwin had spent the early 1950s riding back and forth on the Pennsylvania Railroad between the family plantation in Virginia and Princeton, earning a history degree. In 1956, after two years as a marine lieutenant, the time came to find a job, and Baldwin applied at a Baltimore institution called the Mercantile Bank and Safe Deposit Trust Company. “I didn’t know the difference between an asset and a liability,” he told me. His family had banked at the Merc, and Baldwin had attended private school in Baltimore, so he was not unknown to the people at the bank. The difference between assets and liabilities had not mattered.

The Merc, as it was called, had been built around a safe-deposit business where the rich of Baltimore had kept their family silver and anything else of value whenever they had gone away. The trust department was known for something else, an asset yet more important. It controlled two of the South’s most important railroads, the Atlantic Coast Line and the Louisville and Nashville.

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8 “That Telephone Man”

RushJr. Loving Indiana University Press ePub

Stuart Saunders’s lobbying of the board was paying off, and he soon had the votes he needed to oust Alfred Perlman. Unwittingly Perlman had helped by insisting that the road’s Hollidaysburg, Pennsylvania, shops build more new cars, and with dollars growing increasingly scarce, this and the constant rise in costs were making the directors additionally skeptical of Perlman’s judgment. So Saunders stepped up his still highly secret search for a new president.

After several months, Saunders heard of a possible candidate through one of David Bevan’s friends. Although Bevan was not directly involved in the search, he obviously knew—probably through an ally of Mellon—what was going on. For Bevan, Saunders’s quiet quest was an opportunity to gain more power for himself and possibly unseat Saunders, too, so he slipped his own chess piece onto the board.

Saunders was about to set off on one of his periodic trips to Europe in late June 1969 when Bevan told him he was quitting and presented him with the letter of resignation. Saunders realized this could perturb Mellon and create a boardroom confrontation. He also knew the timing was awful, because he needed Bevan’s banking connections to keep Penn Central supplied with capital. He therefore tried to placate Bevan with a salary increase, urging him to hold off and telling him of his plan to get rid of Perlman. At one point Bevan said he couldn’t take the pressure anymore and had to get out, that he needed a good night’s sleep for a change, and Saunders quickly quipped back, suggesting he take sleeping pills. Saunders’s humor annoyed Bevan, but finally he did agree to hold off quitting, and to make Bevan feel involved in the overthrow of Perlman, Saunders asked him to give advice on presidential candidates. And he promised that, once Perlman was kicked upstairs, Bevan would regain his old seat on the board.

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Medium 9781574412383

“Tales of the Rails”

Kenneth L. Untiedt, editor University of North Texas Press PDF

TALES OF THE RAILS by Charlie Oden

[These tales of the rails come from the T&NO (SP) Railroad.

Friends told some of them to me. The rest are from personal knowledge.—Oden]

WE’RE ON FIRE!

252 miles in 252 minutes. That was the schedule of the Sunbeams,

No. 13 and No. 14, when the Southern Pacific Railroad began running streamlined passenger trains between Dallas and Houston in 1936. The streamlined cars were swank, uptown. The coaches had comfortable seats instead of the old padded benches. There was a dining car with real white linen tablecloths and napkins. Passengers enjoyed dining from quality crystal, china, and a real silver service that had silver coffeepots. Chefs in tall white caps prepared the food and waiters in white jackets served it.

Passengers rode in comfort in a big windowed observation car and watched the cars on the highways and cattle in pastures.

Romances bloomed there during the 252-minute travel time in

World War II. The door was located right over the wheels, and when the door opened, passengers heard the busy clickety clack of wheels on rail joints.

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Medium 9780253019066

15 Depression, Dieselization, and Another War

Simon Cordery Indiana University Press ePub

The Great Depression prepared the railroad industry for another world war. The twin pains of unemployment and lost revenues forced railroads to reexamine their operations. Investment in building projects enhanced capacity, which, combined with new equipment, gave many companies the ability to respond quickly and positively to American entry into the war in 1941. Unlike World War I, the railroads performed admirably in the nation’s hour of need. The coordinated, responsible actions of railroad leaders and workers staved off a repeat of the dreaded government control exerted during the earlier conflict. Railroad workers again benefited from wartime wage increases and resented the resumption of postwar “normalcy.”

The collapse of share prices on October 24, 1929, was an unprecedented economic calamity, but it did not appear to be so at the time. Railway Age called it “a mild recession in business,” and the stock market leveled off after the initial plunge. Many financiers continued as before, assuming they could weather the storm. Samuel Insull, for example, saw in the misfortunes of others an opportunity to expand his Chicago-area interurban empire. But consumer buying declined, industrial output tumbled, and the demand for railroad transportation collapsed. Auto sales plummeted from 4.6 million units in 1929 to 1.3 million only four years later, and rail equipment suppliers likewise suffered. The American Locomotive Company (ALCO), which sold an annual average of six hundred locomotives during the 1920s, sold one in 1932.1 The financial sector contributed to the crash: investors had been encouraged to purchase shares on margin—borrowing against the presumed perpetual increase in the value of their holdings—but found themselves unable to repay their loans when the value of their stock tumbled.

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Medium 9780253337979

4. The Great War: 1914–1918

Jr.Herbert H. Harwood Indiana University Press ePub

The summertime of the Lake Shore Electric’s life was like most summertimes — reasonably fruitful but full of annoying insects and turbulent thunderstorms. In the interurban’s case, the insects took the form of more automobiles and, in the cities of Sandusky and Lorain, “jitneys” — privately-owned, unregulated motor vehicles which operated over the streetcar routes stealing passengers. As for the storms of World War I, the LSE — like most interurbans — did not see much of the huge traffic surge which eventually paralyzed the steam railroads, but it did fully experience the material and fuel shortages, the wage and price inflation, the influenza epidemic, and the first efforts at unionization. And while not yet unhealthy, the financial results began to show some instability.

On the plus side, improvements continued, with a new cutoff around Huron, extensive rebuilding in Lorain, a new fleet of steel interurbans, and (through no effort of its own) improved access to Cleveland’s Public Square. The war period also saw the beginning of a new direction for LSE traffic — freight service.

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Medium 9781574412383

“The Passage of Scotland’s Four/El Pasaje de los Cuatro de Escocia”

Kenneth L. Untiedt, editor University of North Texas Press PDF

THE PASSAGE OF SCOTLAND’S FOUR/

EL PASAJE DE LOS CUATRO DE ESCOCIA by Consuelo L. Samarripa

De lejos, muy lejos de aqui, far from the land of the Gaelic accent, came the vessels across the challenging waters of the Atlantic to

America’s different ports of entry. The vessels carried immigrants whose uncharted destinies would be remembered for many generations en la tierra de el nopa, de el mesquite, and mammoth trees draped with Spanish moss. We, Tejanos, just like them, have had our own fight for freedom and liberty. We will remember the passage of Scotland’s four, el pasaje de los cuatro de Escocia.

Pues quiza algunos Tejanos le llamavan Valentine. Most often he was called Richard W. Ballentine (1814–1836).1 The surname

Ballantyne is from Sept of the Clan Campbell; their Argyll motto is

“Ne obliviscaris,” Roman Latin meaning “Forget not.” Ballentine was a twenty-two-year-old Scottish lad whose family had established residency in Marengo County, Alabama. He was recruited to serve with “The Mobile Greys” for Texas.2 Some Greys traveled by land and others by sea. In December 1835, the schooner named

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