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Medium 9780253355485

2 The Back Story

Jr., Herbert H. Harwood Indiana University Press ePub

In picking up the South Pennsylvania’s corporate charter and its negligible other assets, Vanderbilt and his allies bought into a legacy of doomed dreams. Until then the history of efforts to build a rail route across Pennsylvania’s “southern tier” had been long and notably unproductive, if not downright dismal.

The first try came in 1837, when the new Cumberland Valley Railroad opened its line through the broad valley between Harrisburg and Chambersburg, Pennsylvania, and began setting new goals. One ambitious idea was to build west from Chambersburg to Pittsburgh, and gathering political support from communities such as Bedford and Everett, the CV managed to persuade the state to survey a route. The state in turn hired a 37-year-old Danish-born civil engineer, Hother Hage, to run the first railroad survey between the Susquehanna River and Pittsburgh in 1837-38. Hage, who came to the United States in 1819, had worked on building the Pennsylvania state canal system and had become chief engineer of the pioneering West Feliciana Railroad in Louisiana in 1835. A year later he was back in Pennsylvania as chief engineer of the Franklin Railroad, which was to form the southern extension of the Cumberland Valley from Chambersburg to Hagerstown, Maryland, and the Potomac River at Williamsport.

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Medium 9781742207407

Moscow to Yekaterinburg

Lonely Planet Lonely Planet ePub

For travellers, this section of the journey across European Russia will often be accompanied by the excitement of the journey ahead. It is a relatively densely populated section with three main routes. One veers northeast via Yaroslavl and a second (used by Yekaterinburg’s flagship Ural train 16) goes southeast via multicultural Kazan. The more usual route, however, passes through the ancient town of Vladimir. Then at Nizhny Novgorod it crosses the Volga – a geographic highlight of this leg – before continuing to Perm, which has several good cultural sights and access to the Perm-36 former prison camp. Kungur, set in rolling hills, has a spectacular ice cave, and finally the train rattles sublimely across the Europe–Asia border and into Yekaterinburg. Note that if you're planning to stop at Golden Ring towns, it's only worth booking a kupe (2nd-class compartment) from Nizhny Novgorod onwards.

AFeb Much of the Volga River will be frozen over and draped in a winter landscape.

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Medium 9781855209510

Chapter 10 - Preparation for the Rebuild

Gordon Lund Brooklands Books ePub

Make a List

By this time you will have a good idea of what parts you wish to replace with new, and the parts that are worth renovating. Make a list and shop around to ensure that the parts are available, at what cost and whether they are on back order at the factory. Some parts may be discontinued and you may be left with making the best out of what you have got, or search the small ads in Lotus club magazines. Some parts can be obtained at autojumbles, especially at Lotus events around the country. A word of warning, there is a lot of rubbish about so be selective. Know exactly what you want and how much you are prepared to pay. Some parts though will command a high price if rare and in good condition.

Reverse all Strip Down InstructionThe Great Manual Get Out Clause

All workshop manuals seem to rely on this method of rebuild instruction. It saves on print and paper, but is no help to you when no way will an assembly go back together the way it came apart. In some cases things have a habit of falling apart when you least expect it and the manual description is meaningless. Remember the photographs you took a while back? Dig them out and see if any you took have some bearing on the problem in hand. If you took adequate notes and made sketches at the time these might be of some help. This is the time when you wish you had made sketches, took more photographs, but hindsight is a great leveller. When you do start to strip anything, think. Will you be able to rebuild it in two years time when you have forgotten every thing you did at the time?

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Medium 9781574412383

“The Passage of Scotland’s Four/El Pasaje de los Cuatro de Escocia”

Kenneth L. Untiedt, editor University of North Texas Press PDF

THE PASSAGE OF SCOTLAND’S FOUR/

EL PASAJE DE LOS CUATRO DE ESCOCIA by Consuelo L. Samarripa

De lejos, muy lejos de aqui, far from the land of the Gaelic accent, came the vessels across the challenging waters of the Atlantic to

America’s different ports of entry. The vessels carried immigrants whose uncharted destinies would be remembered for many generations en la tierra de el nopa, de el mesquite, and mammoth trees draped with Spanish moss. We, Tejanos, just like them, have had our own fight for freedom and liberty. We will remember the passage of Scotland’s four, el pasaje de los cuatro de Escocia.

Pues quiza algunos Tejanos le llamavan Valentine. Most often he was called Richard W. Ballentine (1814–1836).1 The surname

Ballantyne is from Sept of the Clan Campbell; their Argyll motto is

“Ne obliviscaris,” Roman Latin meaning “Forget not.” Ballentine was a twenty-two-year-old Scottish lad whose family had established residency in Marengo County, Alabama. He was recruited to serve with “The Mobile Greys” for Texas.2 Some Greys traveled by land and others by sea. In December 1835, the schooner named

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Medium 9781855209701

Chapter 6: Brakes

Greg Hudock Brooklands Books ePub
Medium 9780253011817

2 A Rail Road?

H. Roger Grant Indiana University Press ePub

2

BEGINNINGS

No one knows the exact origin or date of the first railroad.1 It is probable that in the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries mechanics and tinkerers in Great Britain and on the continent, especially in the German states, made the earliest developments. “Its invention, like most other valuable inventions of the present day [1829],” as an early student of railroads opined, “is the result of gradual improvement.” Fortunately, a free-flowing transfer of technology from the Old to the New World laid the foundation for the most significant invention in the development of modern society: the railroad. It mobilized, drove, and advanced the Industrial Revolution. During the Railway Age observers of the American scene likely agreed that the railroad seemed ideally suited for what Alexis de Tocqueville, that perceptive French visitor in the 1830s, called the “restless temper” found in the sprawling republic.2

Although it is impossible to date the “first” railroad, it is known that activities in Great Britain by the mid-1700s had led to the construction of widely scattered private “plateways,” “tramways,” or “waggonways” that served collieries and slate and stone quarries in England, Scotland, and Wales. These primitive affairs fit the standard definition of a railroad: an overland right-of-way with a fixed path consisting of paired wooden rails that are elevated to support self-guided vehicles on flanged wooden wheels (wheels with projecting rims or collars). For more than two centuries an assortment of Lilliputian carriers used animals (horses, ponies, mules, and oxen), gravity, human traction, and occasionally wind to propel these cars to a nearby river, canal, or tidewater port. These bulky cargoes then moved wholly or in part by water transport to their final destinations.3

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Medium 9780253011275

Chapter 3 A Rocky Road

Bill Marvel Indiana University Press ePub

The great era of railroad-building was ending.

On July 12, 1893, historian Frederick Jackson Turner addressed a distinguished gathering of colleagues at the World Columbian Exposition in Chicago’s Jackson Park. Many of those present had ridden Rock Island trains to the fair, where they could stroll the grounds and view the railroad’s exhibit of the agricultural bounty being grown along its line.

Turner’s paper had far-reaching implications for the road’s future. In it, he declared that the western frontier, the possibilities it entailed, and the energies that it had called forth had made America unique among nations. But that source of uniqueness, of greatness, Turner told the assembled historians, was at an end. The West was being settled. The frontier, he announced, was closed.

Within a few years, the Los Angeles & Salt Lake laid rails across Utah and Nevada toward southern California. David Moffat began his final assault on the Rockies with construction of the Denver, Northwestern & Pacific. In 1905 Milwaukee Road’s directors approved extension of that line west to Seattle.

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Medium 9780253355485

14 Railroad to Superhighway, More or Less …

Jr., Herbert H. Harwood Indiana University Press ePub

Back in 1842, surveyor Charles Schlatter dismissed the “Southern Route” across Pennsylvania as impractical for railroad use, but he did think it would work for a turnpike. Almost 100 years later, that is what it became—although hardly the kind that Schlatter had in mind.

Times had dramatically changed by the mid-1930s. The Great Depression was raging, or rather slouching, and Franklin D. Roosevelt was looking for ways to create jobs. By then, too, the nature of transportation was changing. Ever since the end of World War I, motor vehicles had been taking increasing numbers of passengers and freight shipments away from the railroads, and by the beginning of the decade, motor truck technology had become rugged and reliable enough for dependable long-distance goods movement. The Depression accelerated the trend toward trucking; with less business and less money to spend, freight customers wanted to keep their inventories as low as possible, but at the same time they needed quick, dependable service. Shipping by railroad carload required large minimum weights and usually took three days at their fastest. In many cases a truck could deliver overnight.

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Medium 9781855209657

Chapter 6 Front Suspension

Greg Hudock Brooklands Books ePub

The front suspension consists of an upper and a lower wishbone, torsion bars and a stabiliser bar. Hydraulic shock absorbers are used to dampen the movement of the front suspension. All parts of the front suspension can be removed individually.

The front suspension assembly is fitted as a complete unit to a strong sub-frame. In the case of larger repair work, it is possible to remove the complete sub-frame which can then be dismantled. The removal of the sub-frame is only described briefly near the end of this section, as it will be rarely necessary.

Fig. 6.1. – The attachment of the front shock absorber. Note that the collar of washer (2) must face downwards.

Fig. 6.1 shows the attachment of a shock absorber at the upper and lower ends. A single nut secures the shock absorber at the lower end, whereas a special mounting bracket is used at the upper end. Remove a shock absorber as follows:

Faulty shock absorbers make a rumbling noise, even when the vehicle is driven over a fairly level road. If this is the case, there is no need to check the shock absorber. Replace it immediately.

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Medium 9781855206786

Chapter 4: Body Restoration

Andrew Everett Brooklands Books ePub

The subject of restoring an E30 bodyshell in 2004 is a thorny one. At present there are still more than enough good cars to make a major restoration a bit pointless but as time goes on and numbers drop, this will change. Restoring cars is never about monetary gain anyway, just the achievement of bringing something back from the dead. Some cars are never worth doing though. A terminally rotten car without a decent panel is just not worth the effort, no matter what model. If it is really that rare and desirable, then find a better shell to start with and rebuild it using that. Unlike the CS Coupés and ’02 models, the E30 was made in huge numbers and after twenty years there are still plenty around.

Fortunately, the E30 is well catered for when it comes to body panels. BMW still stock just about everything for the E30 and if BMW made the part, it is going to fit properly. Three examples are front wings, bonnet and outer sills. Pattern front wings are normally a waste of time. Sure, if your E30 is just a cheap car that you want to keep on the road for the next couple of MOTs and you plan on being the last owners then go ahead, although I would go to a breaker and buy a good second-hand wing the same colour. Most of the pattern wings will fit after a fashion and line up okay after a bit of minor fettling and the majority are made of half decent thickness metal. However, some are just awful. BMW front wings are made on the original presses from BMW quality steel with BMW quality factory primer. They are a lot more expensive than a pattern wing but they are still inexpensive in absolute terms. They also fit properly and require the minimum of preparation before fitting and painting and will last as long as the original, whereas a pattern wing will not.

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Medium 9780253347572

1 The Forrest Gump of Railroading

Rush, Jr. Loving Indiana University Press ePub

Dawn was creeping up over Lynnhaven Bay as Jim McClellan walked briskly out of his kitchen, down a hallway, and out the back door. It was a perfect October morning. The air was brisk, barely 50 degrees. McClellan drove to his office in downtown Norfolk. He was going early to clear his desk of any unfinished work because he was leaving later in the week for four days of vacation in southern California.

James W. McClellan was vice president for corporate planning at Norfolk Southern Corp., one of the nation’s five largest railroads. His job was to advise NS’s chairman, David R. Goode, on a wide range of key questions that the railroad faced, issues as subtle as changes in the corporate culture or as visual as deciding which tracks to shut down or which railroads to acquire in order to keep the company viable.

It was 1996, and for nearly 20 years he had been watching the moves of NS’s archrival, CSX Corp., and its chairman, John W. Snow, who later was to become George W. Bush’s treasury secretary. The two railroads served almost the entire eastern half of the country save for a highly contested block of states in the Northeast, and both needed to get into those states for access to the rich port of New York and the chemical plants of New Jersey. The only way to do that was to acquire Conrail, a railroad that held a monopoly of the rail markets in New York, New Jersey, and most of Pennsylvania. The railroad that won Conrail would then be able to negotiate a merger with one of the western roads at favorable terms and form a system that spanned the continent. McClellan was worried because he knew that if NS lost this race, it would remain a regional line that would be at the mercy of one of those western roads. Moreover, NS had another reason for wanting Conrail, a need so crucial to the future of the company’s most critical source of revenues, McClellan and others at the top of the company kept it a closely held secret.

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Medium 9780253220738

4 Shipping by Rail

Don L Hofsommer Indiana University Press ePub

The bread and butter for railroads in Iowa involved freight, including carload and less-than-carload shipments. Simply put: freight paid most of the bills. It was common for the early carriers to dispatch only a single daily except Sunday freight train that conducted switching chores at the various stations. As a system of trunk carriers matured, however, long distance or through trains traveled main lines and likewise the number of local freights increased. On branch lines and shortlines, however, the freight volume generally remained light, with perhaps only a lone movement. And these poky freights might even provide space for passengers, either in an attached coach or caboose, thus becoming “mixed trains” that accommodated “hogs and humans,” as the expression went. Since some traffic moved seasonally or was tied to the vagaries of the local, regional, or national economy, extra trains accommodated these needs. This was particularly true for the annual grain rush that followed the summer and fall harvests and for such shipments as blocks of ice that were cut during the winter months and coal that increased during the heating season.

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Medium 9781855209657

Chapter 1 Engine

Greg Hudock Brooklands Books ePub
Medium 9780253011817

1 Slow, Difficult, and Dangerous Travel

H. Roger Grant Indiana University Press ePub

ROADS

Before the Railway Age Americans faced limited travel options. Nearly always they were slow, difficult, and potentially dangerous. There was little need to question the sardonic judgment made more than a century ago by Henry Adams. This historian and man of letters wrote that persons “struggling with the untamed continent in 1800 seemed hardly more competent to their task [of road improvements] than the beavers and buffalo which had for countless generations made bridges and roads of their own.”1

Although poor land transportation knew no geographical bounds, residents in interior sections of the Old South and the Old Northwest2 experienced severe challenges when they made overland treks by foot, on horseback, or in an animal-powered vehicle. No wonder, then, that from the earliest settlements through the antebellum decades the promotion of internal betterments, including roads, became a popular focus. Improvements to land transport seemed imperative for progress; people wanted to move more rapidly, reliably, and securely. “To persons who have reflected upon the subject of internal improvement, there is no maxim of political economy better understood than that agriculture and commerce will improve, and civilization and happiness spread in promotion as the facility of conveyance increases,” wrote a thoughtful Robert Mills, architect, civil engineer, and member of the South Carolina Board of Public Works, in 1821. “Where men are kept asunder by forests, morasses or inaccessible mountains, their knowledge must be circumscribed and their conveniences few. In proportion as the difficulty of communication is removed, the spirit of enterprise increases.” Yet in antebellum America the federal government did little to coordinate, design, fund, or construct domestic transportation improvements, although discussions and debates repeatedly occurred in Congress, state legislatures, courthouses, and elsewhere.3

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Medium 9780253005922

3 A New Century

J. Parker Lamb Indiana University Press ePub

Although traffic levels on the Mobile & Ohio had increased substantially after the reorganization of 1879 and later completion of the line to Saint Louis, the road hovered near insolvency during the 1890s. It was hemmed in by Illinois Central lines on the west and those of Louisville & Nashville to the east. Many contemporary observers suggested that Mobile & Ohio needed a powerful partner to assure its future success. Not surprisingly, the growing Southern Railway system seized this opportunity to expand its influence by offering a stock swap to M&O owners, exchanging a share of M&O for a share of Southern Railway Co.– Mobile & Ohio. This led to acquisition of 90 percent of M&O stock by April 1, 1901, with the level reaching 94 percent by 1929. With this bold move, the moribund M&O became a member of the Queen & Crescent system, solidifying Meridian’s role as a Q&C hub.

The Southern undoubtedly expected this move to lead to outright merger, but there was opposition from elected officials in Mississippi who were unwilling to accept control of a homegrown railroad by a Virginia company. To non-southerners this might seem surprising in view of the two states being political allies during the Confederacy period. However, in hindsight it appears that opposition was rooted in the extreme dislike by average southerners for large corporations (especially railroads) in the wake of the distasteful times of Civil War Reconstruction. More details of what became known as the Mississippi Merger Suit will be discussed in a later section. Needless to say, Southern Railway put a positive spin on its control of M&O, noting publicly that the two roads enjoyed a harmonious relationship in their operations (Harrison, First Supplement).

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