370 Chapters
  Title Author Publisher Format Buy Remix
Medium 9780253011275

Epilogue Pieces of the Rock

Bill Marvel Indiana University Press ePub

More than three decades after its death, the railroad that Union Pacific President John C. Kenefick once called “a bag of bones” remains a pretty lively skeleton. An arm or leg might be missing, but thousands of former Rock Island rail miles still get regular exercise.

Most of the old Memphis-Tucumcari Choctaw Route has gone to weeds with the exception of a 74-mile Oklahoma segment operated since 1996 by Arkansas-Oklahoma, which, incidentally, decorates the nose of its red and yellow diesels with the familiar Rock Island herald.

The 57-mile Fordyce & Princeton and the 26.2-mile Ouachita Railroad operate two segments of Rock Island’s otherwise silent Arkansas and Louisiana lines.

The Kansas City–St. Louis line is being reclaimed by nature and by hikers. Only a few miles from Vigus to Pleasant Hill, Missouri, survive as the Missouri Central. Out on the rolling high plains of Western Kansas and Eastern Colorado, Rail America’s Kyle Railroad hauls grain and roofing material over the route of the Rocky Mountain Rocket. Kyle’s trains begin their trek in Belleville but stop well short of Denver and Colorado Springs in Limon, site of the old Limon do-si-do. Denver Rock Island, a switching road, serves a few miles of Rock Island trackage on the northern fringe of Denver.

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Medium 9780253356963

5 - Ferryboats: Crossing the Rivers and Bays

John H.Jr. White Indiana University Press ePub

Crossing the Rivers and Bays

EVERY LARGE CITY OR TOWN ON A RIVER, LAKE, OR BAY WOULD likely have had a ferry at some time in its history. We discuss only some of these conveyances that helped travelers cross over the waters of America. The methods of propulsion – oars, poles, horses, river currents, and steam – illustrate the inventiveness of our ancestors. The type of boats and the nature of their operation will constitute the third general area of our discussion.

5.1. An elementary scow ferryboat of about 1800 by Thomas Bewick, a British engraver.

The ferry has been described as a floating section of highway. It has been useful but hardly ever beautiful. It has lacked the majesty of a great liner, the grace of a square rigger, and even the briskness of a tugboat. It has no knife-edge prow to cut through the ocean waves and almost no beauty of line or symmetry of proportion. The ferryboat emerged as a meek and lowly vessel, squat, humble, and often rather dingy in appearance. Its oval shape and rounded roof made it resemble a giant turtle. Even so, the humble ferryboat had its admirers. America's great poet Walt Whitman found the Brooklyn ferry a source of inspiration. He rode it daily to and from Manhattan in the 1850s and 1860s. In 1882 he recalled, “I have always had a passion for ferries; to me they afford inimitable streaming, never failing, living poems.” He would ride in the pilothouse, having made friends with the men at the wheel. In this elevated station he could view the fine harbor and its enormous maritime traffic. He would revel in the great tide of humanity in motion. The sights of the sloops, skiffs, and ocean steamers and the majestic sounds of the boats offered him a refreshment of spirit not found elsewhere. And all of this for a 2-cent fare. Other commuters on these “people's yachts” shared Whitman's appreciation for the ferry as a cruise ship and an opportunity to be out in the sun and fresh salt air. The view of the skyline, seagulls, and the wonderful variety of watercraft made this part of the commute pleasurable. Even the passage of a garbage scow reinforced an appreciation of the great cities’ complexity and many services. The ferry's steady motion offered a little quiet time to reflect and daydream.

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Medium 9780253353832

8 The Naval Consulting Board and the Great War

William D. Middleton Indiana University Press ePub

By the start of the second decade of the twentieth century it became increasingly apparent that war was coming to Europe. Many in the United States realized that despite its isolationism, the United States would eventually have to join the conflict, and that it was neither militarily nor industrially ready to do so, and that furthermore, if steps weren’t taken to prepare the country, the United States might be “knocked out” before it could even join in the conflict. This concern became increasingly pressing once war actually broke out in August of 1914. Although it would be more than two years before the United States finally declared war on Germany, in April of 1917, preparations began for that eventuality almost immediately once hostilities broke out in Europe. A significant aspect of these preparations, and in fact the first, was the formation of a civilian Naval Consulting Board.

The board was seen at the time of its formation as a radical departure from the navy’s standard mode of operation, but one that was necessary given the navy’s need to cope with “the new conditions of warfare”1 that the European conflict presented as well as the unprecedented threat from submarine warfare. It was the latter, most vividly demonstrated by the torpedoing and sinking of the Lusitania on May 7, 1915, that was the immediate impetus for the formation of the board.

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Medium 9781855209718

Chapter 4 - Front Axle

PR Pub PR Pub Brooklands Books ePub
Medium 9780253019066

4 Cultivating the Prairie

Simon Cordery Indiana University Press ePub

In the beginning, railroads needed land and the federal government had it. For settlers, it seemed in plentiful supply. The earliest European immigrants entered an apparently empty territory rich in resources and potential. Initial colonization—despite charters from British monarchs—was haphazard and small-scale. Violence against indigenous peoples was commonplace, squatting widespread, and ownership frequently a matter of dispute. Early national land policy was, in the words of historian John Mack Faragher, a matter of “Extinguish Indian title, survey, and sell.”1 Only when the federal government turned to the orderly settlement of the frontier did systematic landownership develop, and only with the arrival of railroads could mass migration occur.

Public land sales in Illinois began in 1814. Land offices in Kaskaskia and Shawneetown did a brisk business and a third office opened in Edwardsville in 1816, all in the southern third of the state. The federal government began planning for settlement north of the Illinois River by setting aside approximately 3.5 million acres—the “military tracts” from which the Central Military Tract Railroad would get its name—between the Illinois and Mississippi Rivers for veterans of wars up to and including the War of 1812. Only after a delegation of territorial leaders, including Governor Ninian Edwards, obtained title in 1816 from the Native Americans living there did land offices make 160-acre plots available to veterans. Purchasers were not required to live on the land, and many veterans sold their allotments to speculators for as little as ten cents an acre. Soon Illinois land was trading on the open market in New York City for prices ranging from 50 cents to $1.50 an acre. As much as a quarter of the total acreage in the military tract sold that way, violating the principle of establishing small farms to settle the region.2

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Medium 9780253005922

6 A Tumultuous Decade

J. Parker Lamb Indiana University Press ePub

Early operations of the Rebel streamliner (see Plate 1) proved to be the economic miracle hoped for by GM&N’S management. In 1935 its total cost was 44.4 cents per mile (including a direct operating cost of 31.8 cents), while it produced a surprising income of 59 cents. The excess of 14.6 cents per mile provided needed funds for general operations. But, more fundamentally, this surprising experience began to convince the road’s management that using diesel-electric locomotives for freight could also produce similar savings. It was a lesson they would not forget in the coming years.

An important event in 1936 was the road’s decision to create an independent highway subsidiary, Gulf Transport Co., thus consolidating and formalizing its earlier forays into supplementary highway transportation. The road’s management emphasized that this company would not seek new business but would be a low-cost supporting element of its rail-based operations. Consequently, the bus company was never a large moneymaker, but neither did it produce a drag on net income. However, it did go a long way in convincing shippers in its service area that GM&N valued their business (Oliver).

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Medium 9780253008329

8 Around the Horn

Don L. Hofsommer Indiana University Press ePub

WHAT GOES AROUND COMES AROUND. WELL, PRETTY close, but not quite in this case. The odyssey had begun in Iowa but would end in Minnesota – again, and by way of South Dakota. A change of jobs predictably explains new locations.

The allure of railroads and railroading had not escaped or evaporated, but the railroad landscape certainly had changed over the years. The number of Class One carriers had diminished to a handful. Gone were electric-trolley roads, steam, gas–electric cars, cabooses, most passenger trains, local station agencies, a host of branches and even secondary routes, and, of course, the wonderful employees who had been a part of them. “Off the main lines” became increasingly problematic. And favored cameras began to fail. Exposures became less frequent. But what a show it had been!

Sioux Falls, South Dakota, once had been a major hub of railroad activity offered by Milwaukee Road, Great Northern, Omaha, Illinois Central, and Rock Island. By 1987, much had changed. Rock Island left the city before its corporate demise, and IC followed. Milwaukee had been acquired by Soo Line, but its former assets at Sioux Falls were now the property of still others. Great Northern had become an integral part of Burlington Northern, but the line to Yankton was gone. Omaha had been fully absorbed into Chicago & North Western, but C&NW had become intent on disposing of branches and would soon exit. Extra 4284 East is about to cross Burlington Northern’s Willmar–Sioux City line at Manley, Minnesota. August 30, 1988.

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Medium 9781855209657

Chapter 4 Drive Shafts

Greg Hudock Brooklands Books ePub

The drive shafts are the same on both sides. The front suspension is fitted with torsion bars. These bars are under tension and the upper wishbone is pushed down by the tension of these bars. If you are familiar with earlier T4 models, you may know that special support struts were required to release the tension of the torsion bar. This is no longer required on models covered in this manual. A few additional operations are required to remove the drive shafts, if an automatic transmission is fitted.

Note: The wheel bearings must not be placed under load when the drive shaft is removed, i.e. never lower the vehicle back onto its wheels after you have removed a drive shaft. From model year 2001 new wheel bolts are fitted. Section “Front Suspension” gives details.

Proceed as follows to remove a drive shaft from a model with manual transmission, but note that some of the operations are only referred to, but not described in detail. Detailed descriptions of these operations can be found in the “Front Suspension” section.

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Medium 9781574412383

“Farm and Ranch Entrances in West Texas”

Kenneth L. Untiedt, editor University of North Texas Press PDF

FARM AND RANCH ENTRANCES

IN WEST TEXAS by Mary Harris

In Elmer Kelton’s novel The Man Who Rode Midnight, the grandson of the old-time rancher and protagonist Wes Hendrix thinks about city folks moving to the country and pretending that they are ranchers. Kelton writes:

Along the road, especially near to town, Jim Ed saw perhaps twenty fancy gateways of stone and steel and brick, bearing names like Angora Acres and

Rancho Restful and The Poor Farm. He looked twice at a sign that declared Heavenly Days Ranch.

These were the harbingers of an urban invasion, ten- and twenty- and fifty-acre ranchettes, homesites for city folk who wanted to play at the rustic life without suffering its discomforts.1

The novelist’s references to “fancy gateways,” and what he later refers to as an “entrance gate” or a “decorative arch,” are called in this paper “decorative entrances.” These decorative entrances are those highway and county road structures that announce to the passer that here is access to a Charolais ranch or a cotton farm, or as Kelton writes, smaller places where the people want “to play at the rustic life.”2

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Medium 9780253005922

3 A New Century

J. Parker Lamb Indiana University Press ePub

Although traffic levels on the Mobile & Ohio had increased substantially after the reorganization of 1879 and later completion of the line to Saint Louis, the road hovered near insolvency during the 1890s. It was hemmed in by Illinois Central lines on the west and those of Louisville & Nashville to the east. Many contemporary observers suggested that Mobile & Ohio needed a powerful partner to assure its future success. Not surprisingly, the growing Southern Railway system seized this opportunity to expand its influence by offering a stock swap to M&O owners, exchanging a share of M&O for a share of Southern Railway Co.– Mobile & Ohio. This led to acquisition of 90 percent of M&O stock by April 1, 1901, with the level reaching 94 percent by 1929. With this bold move, the moribund M&O became a member of the Queen & Crescent system, solidifying Meridian’s role as a Q&C hub.

The Southern undoubtedly expected this move to lead to outright merger, but there was opposition from elected officials in Mississippi who were unwilling to accept control of a homegrown railroad by a Virginia company. To non-southerners this might seem surprising in view of the two states being political allies during the Confederacy period. However, in hindsight it appears that opposition was rooted in the extreme dislike by average southerners for large corporations (especially railroads) in the wake of the distasteful times of Civil War Reconstruction. More details of what became known as the Mississippi Merger Suit will be discussed in a later section. Needless to say, Southern Railway put a positive spin on its control of M&O, noting publicly that the two roads enjoyed a harmonious relationship in their operations (Harrison, First Supplement).

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Medium 9781855209510

Chapter 9 - The Rolling Chassis

Gordon Lund Brooklands Books ePub

Dismantling

The body will be away for some time so take this opportunity to make good use of the space available. This will be the dirtiest part of the whole job, so on with the overalls and get weaving. This is the part of the restoration that can be therapeutic but also exasperating. Parts that have been screwed together for a long time sometimes do not wish to become undone. You have probably come across this already taking the body off. Clean off as much of the accumulated filth as possible. Just an observation, but have you ever stopped to wonder why the maintenance books you have read always show pictures of the strip down of perfectly clean assemblies. Of course they are stage-managed, but in some cases the cars they pull apart are fairly new anyway. You do not have this luxury.

My Elan +2’s early rolling chassis. This is an early Lotus replacement ungalvanised example

Plusgas penetrating fluid is as good as anything. Liberally soak every nut and bolt with it and leave for at least 24 hours. Now find something else to do.

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Medium 9780253020635

12 The Dinner Debate with Graham Claytor

RushJr. Loving Indiana University Press ePub

CHAPTER 12

The Dinner Debate with Graham Claytor

ONE FIRST–CLASS PASSAGE

PENN CENTRAL WAS NOT THE ONLY TROUBLED RAILROAD IN the Northeast. Smaller lines there and in the Midwest were ill as well. By late 1972, seven of the Northeast’s eleven largest railroads were in bankruptcy, and two were tottering so badly their creditors were demanding that they be liquidated. They were suffering because trucks were draining their traffic base and they were burdened by too many routes. Worse yet, the regulators in Washington were indifferent when the roads pled to abandon excess tracks and money-losing services or to offset higher costs by raising their rates.

One night I was having dinner in New York with Graham Claytor and several of his top officers. As usual we began tossing ideas back and forth. This evening, as we began our appetizers, Claytor launched into a long spiel about the bankruptcy problem. As he went on laying out the dilemma that faced the industry, his concern became increasingly visible, for some legislators were even talking of nationalizing all the railroads, a prospect that disturbed both of us.

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Medium 9781855209718

Chapter 10 - Turbo Charger and Exhaust System

PR Pub PR Pub Brooklands Books ePub
Medium 9781574412383

“Red River Bridge War”

Kenneth L. Untiedt, editor University of North Texas Press PDF

RED RIVER BRIDGE WAR by Jerry B. Lincecum

On Thursday, December 6, 1995, the old three-truss bridge spanning the Red River north of Denison was destroyed with 750 pounds of dynamite strategically placed by the Texas Department of Transportation. The blasting of this structure, which in 1931 became the most famous public free bridge across Red River between Texas and Oklahoma, marked the end of an era. However, few people know about the heated controversy it provoked six decades earlier.

This bridge was involved in a war—the Red River Bridge War of 1931. The magnificent new bridge was completed in April of

1931, through the joint efforts of Texas and Oklahoma, after their offer to purchase the Colbert Toll Bridge and two others was rejected by the toll bridge company. But its use was blocked by an injunction obtained by the Red River Bridge Company in Federal

Court in Houston. Soon the controversy led to a confrontation involving the governors of both states.

First some background history. Colbert’s Crossing had its beginnings at least as early as 1853, when B. F. Colbert obtained from the Chickasaw Indian Tribe a charter for a ferry across Red

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Medium 9780253337979

Introduction: The Lake Shore Electric—What It Was and Where It Went

Jr.Herbert H. Harwood Indiana University Press ePub

It never imposed much on the landscape and now has all but disappeared back into it.

Drive west from Cleveland along the rim of Lake Erie to the old lake port of Sandusky, once a serious competitor of Cleveland and Toledo. Then head south to Norwalk, Ohio — another charming nineteenth-century town — and keep moving west on U.S. Route 20 toward Toledo, passing through more nineteenth-century main streets at places like Monroeville, Bellevue, and Fremont. If you are particularly perceptive, along the way you will spot bits of light grading alongside the roads or crossing them; you may spot pole lines marching across fields, and here and there some strange, small, brick buildings of uncertain purpose.

What you are seeing are the dim remains of “The Greatest Electric Railway in the United States,” as it proudly called itself in its earlier days — the Lake Shore Electric Railway. In the few years between the perfection of electric power for railway use and the perfection of motor vehicles and paved highways, the Lake Shore Electric was the premier carrier of people in the well-populated territory between Cleveland and Toledo, and one of the most important links in the network of interurban electric lines which once blanketed the Midwest.

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