258 Chapters
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Medium 9780253347572

10 Some High Society Sex

RushJr. Loving Indiana University Press ePub

As the snowdrifts melted and the flowers started blooming on Philadelphia’s Main Line, Stuart Saunders was still demanding savings, but no one could find anything else to cut—except for workers, but that would have cost millions because of the labor agreement. More urgently than ever, Saunders and David Bevan went on searching for new capital, but now no source seemed left but Washington.

Bevan and Saunders were walking a high-wire, because one was trying to keep the financiers thinking all was relatively well while the other was trying to convince Washington that Penn Central’s straits were so dire that help was imperative. This, plus the constant search for more savings and more paper profits, would tax the time and imagination of the most formidable chief executive officer, and although a man of whirlwind energy, Saunders’s days were being stretched to the limit. In the middle of all that, the chairman’s attention and even valuable working hours were captured and diverted by a much more personal concern that was so well guarded that only three or four of his closest aides ever knew of it.

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Medium 9780253353832

4 Triumph at Richmond

William D. Middleton Indiana University Press ePub

New York City began operating the first American animal-drawn street railway in 1832, and over the next several decades the horsecars had spread to other cities as the country’s urban population grew. By the beginning of the 1880s urban public transportation had grown into an enormous industry, and one that was steadily growing ever larger. In 1881, for example, there were some 415 street railway companies in the United States, and they operated 18,000 cars over 3,000 miles of line and transported well over one billion Americans every year.

But animal railways left much to be desired. They were slow, averaging only about 4 or 5 miles an hour, and the capacity of a car was limited. They were expensive as well. The work was extremely demanding for the animals, and it took great numbers of horses and mules to power them, usually requiring about eight to ten animals that had to be fed to keep each car in service. They could last only a few years in the arduous service, and thousands of new horses had to be acquired every year.1

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Medium 9780253019066

1 Preliminaries

Simon Cordery Indiana University Press ePub

The topography of Illinois is particularly conducive to railroading. Trains move best over flat land, and the state has few hills of any size and nothing that could be mistaken for a mountain. Its 56,400 square miles vary from a low of 279 feet above sea level to the 1,235 feet of Charles Mound on the Wisconsin border near Galena. The glaciated north boasted extensive prairies dotted with stands of timber, while in the heavily wooded south, coal deposits lay concealed beneath the surface. The hilliest section of the state is in the northwest. Here the lead-mining region of Galena escaped the graze of the glaciers, as did Calhoun County in the south. The south offered numerous engineering trials, especially around Cairo, strategically placed at the confluence of the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers but swampy and subject to frequent flooding, while much of far-southern Illinois was viewed as “a hilly extension of the Ozark highland.”1 The state’s rivers provided obstacles to emigrants and challenges to bridge builders, while bluffs at Peoria and Alton restricted railroad development at those two important towns. Generally, however, the gentle prairies presented few insurmountable or even challenging hindrances except distance: Illinois is larger than England, birthplace of the railroad industry.

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Medium 9781935543060

2 - Creating a Brain-Compatible Environment

Gayle Gregory Solution Tree Press ePub

Creating a Brain-Compatible Environment

One thing that brain research tells us—loud and clear—is that the way we raise and teach our children not only helps shape their brains, but can also influence or even alter the way genes play out their roles. This promising news also means, however, that we have a serious obligation to attend to factors over which we have some control—namely, most things that happen to children at home and at school throughout their growing-up years.

—Jane M. Healy

To effectively implement differentiation strategies, teachers must design and orchestrate a brain-compatible environment. We believe that educators can interpret and apply some basic tenets from neuroscience research to create classrooms that are in line with how natural learning occurs. In this chapter, we offer a variety of simple suggestions that can help transform any classroom into a place where students feel safe, secure, challenged, motivated, successful, included, and independent. As previously discussed, it will be important to determine each student's sweet spot related to a learning environment that is perfect for him or her. For instance, some learners have seating preferences; other students have lighting or sound preferences. Our challenge as educators is to provide the general ambiance with options/nuances to better satisfy each learner's needs.

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Medium 9781574412383

“High Flyin’ Times”

Kenneth L. Untiedt, editor University of North Texas Press PDF

HIGH FLYIN’ TIMES: ADVENTURES

IN A PIPER CUB PA-12 SUPERCRUISER

AND A PIPER TRI-PACER by Barbara Pybas

Our High Flyin’ times were good years, the late 1950s and early

’60s, a healthy, optimistic, happy era. Even with the Cuban Crisis and Kennedy’s death, this ten-year folklore period seemed less complicated and stressful than the ensuing decades of the Vietnam

War and national turmoil. Perhaps, to the young, obstacles are undaunting and overcome readily. This account is neither about barnstorming nor acrobatics, but for the pure enjoyment of flying and a good excuse to use it in a farming-ranching operation. DFW

Airport was non-existent and the rigid FAA rules not in place; even a radio was not a requirement. VFR (visual flight rules) was sufficient for little planes.

Jay Pybas was bit by the flying bug in his mid-thirties. After returning from World War II Marine Corps service, completing a stint with GI Bill college time and marrying an Oklahoma A&M co-ed, he found his way back to Texas. For ten years he struggled to revive a Red River bottomland farm released by the U.S. Government. This Cooke County area had been used as the infantry and artillery training area for Camp Howze during the war. It had grown to a jungle with disuse but, nevertheless, was fertile and promising. By hard work, stamina and extreme fortitude, in ten years the valley became beautifully productive.

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Medium 9780253020635

18 J. B. Hunt Takes a Ride on the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe

RushJr. Loving Indiana University Press ePub

CHAPTER 18

J. B. Hunt Takes a Ride on the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe

ONE FIRST–CLASS PASSAGE

WHILE A FEW PEOPLE LIKE SWEENEY AND BILL JOHNSON wanted out of the business, other railroaders were struggling to decrypt the mysteries of the free market. Most still did not understand the key to the industry’s future—the intermodal business—and some did not want to. Many men like CSX’s Jim Hagen had always recognized its potential, if it could be priced high enough to bring in a reasonable profit.

Although intermodal traffic, especially trips combining transportation modes like boats and trains, had been in existence since the infancy of the railroads, mixing rail service with trucking was a late bloomer. Tractor-trailers, or semis, had been traveling America’s highways since the 1920s, and some, delivering new cars to dealers, had been operating since the invention of the automobile, two decades before that. Railroads had experimented with piggyback, or intermodal, as early as the 1930s. Yet, it was not until 1955 that the first batch of highway trailers was placed on regularly scheduled intermodal trains. The Pennsylvania Railroad opened the service with dedicated trains, one each way, each day, between New York and Chicago. The business grew, and other railroads expanded their own services.

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Medium 9780253353832

3 Sprague and the New World of Electricity

William D. Middleton Indiana University Press ePub

“A course of study which I have followed for four years has very strongly developed my tastes for work in connection with electrical service, and I can only feel satisfied when thus employed,” wrote Ensign Sprague in a March 1883 letter to Secretary of the Navy William E. Chandler resigning his commission. Among other reasons Sprague cited for his resignation were his desire to engage in experimental work, and the receipt of attractive offers from several companies. The problems of the overcrowded condition of officers in the naval service and the slowness of promotion in the antiquated and under-funded navy also strengthened his desire to seek a career for himself in civil pursuits.1 In any case the navy agreed, giving Sprague a year on leave, with his resignation to become effective April 15, 1884.

Sprague was engaged in work at the Crystal Palace Exhibition in 1882 when he became acquainted with Edward H. Johnson, an electrical engineer and inventor and a close associate of Thomas Edison, who would work closely with Sprague off and on for the next 15 years.

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Medium 9780253011275

Chapter 4 Planned Progress

Bill Marvel Indiana University Press ePub

The man who saved the Rock Island railroad was a understood every detail of the railroad. And he was a square-jawed, flinty-eyed railroader’s railroader, a slow-talker who chose his words carefully and meant every syllable of each.

John Dow Farrington despised incompetence. When he encountered it in an underling, he would fix the man in a gray, unblinking stare, a crocodilian smile would tug at the corners of his mouth, and he would begin a reaming-out the employee would never forget. Farrington understood every detail of the railroad. And he was a demon on track maintenance. So as he rode north out of Fort Worth in the office car Edward M. Durham Jr. had sent to fetch him to his new job, he learned what he was up against. Rock Island’s line to El Reno—and almost everywhere else—was a bone-shaking ordeal.

The first thing Farrington did when he came on board as chief operating officer—at $25,000 a year, the equivalent of $382,000 today—was take to the rails for six months in a V-8 Ford sedan equipped with flanged wheels. Everyone ducked when they saw it coming down the track.

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Medium 9780253347572

5 An Eleventh Hour Surprise

RushJr. Loving Indiana University Press ePub

As McClellan—now at the Central—watched the merger’s inevitable approach, he and the other junior officers of the two railroads grew increasingly apprehensive. Although they could not imagine its impact, they were about to be caught in the middle of the biggest debacle the transportation industry had ever experienced. For McClellan it would be a watershed that would determine everything he was to experience or do for the rest of his life.

If the Central had joined with the C&O–B&O and the Pennsy with the N&W, it would have created two competitive lines. Instead, they were being amalgamated out of fear, not from some grand dream of creating a better transport system. “I didn’t think it was a particularly good merger, but we were trapped into some kind of merger,” Perlman said later. They had too many tracks, too many yards, too much railroad, and they needed to cut back by consolidating. It did not seem normal for two such fierce competitors to join up. “Those of us inside the New York Central or Pennsy said, ‘This is an unnatural act! Not the way to go. This is crazy. It’s going to be a monopoly,’” said McClellan. In his view, railroads got lazy and unimaginative when they held monopolies.

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Medium 9780253356963

5 - Ferryboats: Crossing the Rivers and Bays

John H.Jr. White Indiana University Press ePub

Crossing the Rivers and Bays

EVERY LARGE CITY OR TOWN ON A RIVER, LAKE, OR BAY WOULD likely have had a ferry at some time in its history. We discuss only some of these conveyances that helped travelers cross over the waters of America. The methods of propulsion – oars, poles, horses, river currents, and steam – illustrate the inventiveness of our ancestors. The type of boats and the nature of their operation will constitute the third general area of our discussion.

5.1. An elementary scow ferryboat of about 1800 by Thomas Bewick, a British engraver.

The ferry has been described as a floating section of highway. It has been useful but hardly ever beautiful. It has lacked the majesty of a great liner, the grace of a square rigger, and even the briskness of a tugboat. It has no knife-edge prow to cut through the ocean waves and almost no beauty of line or symmetry of proportion. The ferryboat emerged as a meek and lowly vessel, squat, humble, and often rather dingy in appearance. Its oval shape and rounded roof made it resemble a giant turtle. Even so, the humble ferryboat had its admirers. America's great poet Walt Whitman found the Brooklyn ferry a source of inspiration. He rode it daily to and from Manhattan in the 1850s and 1860s. In 1882 he recalled, “I have always had a passion for ferries; to me they afford inimitable streaming, never failing, living poems.” He would ride in the pilothouse, having made friends with the men at the wheel. In this elevated station he could view the fine harbor and its enormous maritime traffic. He would revel in the great tide of humanity in motion. The sights of the sloops, skiffs, and ocean steamers and the majestic sounds of the boats offered him a refreshment of spirit not found elsewhere. And all of this for a 2-cent fare. Other commuters on these “people's yachts” shared Whitman's appreciation for the ferry as a cruise ship and an opportunity to be out in the sun and fresh salt air. The view of the skyline, seagulls, and the wonderful variety of watercraft made this part of the commute pleasurable. Even the passage of a garbage scow reinforced an appreciation of the great cities’ complexity and many services. The ferry's steady motion offered a little quiet time to reflect and daydream.

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Medium 9780253356963

10 - Ocean Sail: At the Mercy of the Wind

John H.Jr. White Indiana University Press ePub

At the Mercy of the Wind

TRAVEL BY SEA WAS ESPECIALLY DIFFICULT FOR FIRST-TIME travelers. Almost no one was prepared for the constant motion of the ship, for even in a relatively calm sea it rolls and dips. The floors, always called decks, are on an angle. The vessel makes strange sounds as the rigging and sails rattle and sing. The timbers deep in the hull groan and creak. When you go outside, the scenery is not pastures and fields or streets and buildings but a vast expanse of water that heaves and rolls to a distant horizon. This is a bizarre and different world that frightens and disorients the average person. Yet there is no getting off. Once the ship leaves port, you are its prisoner, and no matter how unhappy, you are condemned to ride on until land is once again at hand.

Finding the way across the sea is an art known only to seafarers. Some of it is intuitive – you follow the winds and currents. Sailors from Columbus's time knew that the winds from North America blow in a westerly direction. The Gulf Stream flows north and then west to Europe. This made sailing to England and France simple as long as you followed the wind and current. It was fast and was called the downhill trip. Most sailing ships could go from New York to England in about twenty to thirty days. Typically they would follow the North American coast to the southwest tip of Newfoundland (Cape Race) then head out into the Atlantic Ocean and follow a curving path that led to Ireland. Some navigators preferred a more northerly course, claiming the sea was calmer away from the Gulf Stream. Coming back from Europe was slower, because both the wind and the currents were against the ship. This was the uphill trip. It took much longer to go westward. The time was generally reckoned at about thirty-nine days. The only fast western way across the Atlantic was offered by the trade winds. It was necessary to go along the African coast to the Canary Islands, where the trade winds would blow the ship westward at a good speed to the Caribbean. Columbus made use of these winds in 1492 but also knew enough to return to Spain by going north to take the westerly trade winds home.

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Medium 9780253356963

8 - Lake Steamers: On the Inland Sea

John H.Jr. White Indiana University Press ePub

On the Inland Sea

NATURE KINDLY DUG FIVE LARGE LAKES ALONG THE NORTHERN border of the United States about twelve thousand years ago. Humans have used these convenient waterways as a means to get around the region since the ice age finally released its frigid grip on North America. The Great Lakes are the largest reservoir of fresh water in the world. They measure from east to west about 1,500 miles long (fig. 8.1). They rank in size, starting with the largest, from Lake Superior to Huron, Michigan, Erie, and Ontario. Superior has places that are 1,000 feet deep; Ontario's mean depth is 400 feet, while Erie's mean depth is only 90 feet. Erie's shallow waters are more easily disturbed by winds, making it stormier than its sisters. She is considered treacherous and dangerous to navigate and so is disliked by sailors. The other lakes can swell up in a grand fury, though they are somewhat more pacific than the Erie. All of the lakes are graveyards of sunken ships and lost seamen.

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Medium 9780253020635

15 A Modern Annie Oakley Takes on Lou Menk

RushJr. Loving Indiana University Press ePub

CHAPTER 15

A Modern Annie Oakley Takes on Lou Menk

ONE FIRST–CLASS PASSAGE

AFTER THE KICK-OFF OF THE BIWEEKLY FORTUNE, I EMBARKED on a series of stories, including Averell Harriman’s reminiscences. As I was weighing the potential of one prospective piece, Bob Lubar called me in, saying a story in the next issue had fallen through. He needed to fill the hole. Did I have any story I could put together in two weeks? It was a time span no one before the creation of the biweekly had ever contemplated.

“I’ve heard about five kids who are running a railroad out in Michigan and doing a booming business. The president is a young mother,” I replied, and Bob gave me the go-ahead. Mary Johnston assigned me Jane Condon, a researcher who was adept at fast reporting, and I split the research load with her and took myself off to Cadillac, Michigan, and a former freight depot that housed the headquarters of the Michigan Northern Railway Company, where I soon found that the “booming business” I had described to Lubar had a bigger story behind it.

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Medium 9780253019066

2 Development Delayed

Simon Cordery Indiana University Press ePub

The earliest attempts to build steam-powered railroads in Illinois failed miserably. Several private projects laid a few miles of track before going bankrupt; two short coal lines used animals to haul wagons; and an ambitious state-funded network fell victim to an economic depression—called a “panic” at the time—in 1837. But the seed blown across the Atlantic Ocean from Britain fell on fertile soil. Railroads offered relatively fast, all-weather transportation for people and commodities. Engineering challenges, especially safely and reliably harnessing steam power, proved surmountable, and investment capital became available, but the development of the industry was neither smooth nor simple. The demand was fueled in part by roads so poor that Illinois became a notorious “mud state” when the weather turned foul. In the winter of 1848–49, for example, the people of McLeansboro found themselves isolated. Bereft of “coffee, sugar and other necessaries of life,” they survived on what they had stored from previous harvests until the roads dried out the following spring.1 This was a common occurrence in the harsh Illinois climate, and town and country alike needed a dependable, all-weather mode of transportation to combat snow, ice, and mud.

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Medium 9780253018663

7 Detailed Case Preparation

Howard H. Lewis Indiana University Press ePub

7

Detailed Case Preparation

What, then, was the task that now consumed my life—what were the flesh and bone of the argument that I had to make? On the one hand, there was the government’s scrap case, with all its discounts and unfavorable adjustments, which led them to offer the sum of $32 million for the entire Reading system, including all the leased lines such as the North Penn. On the other was our argument for value as an operating railroad with respect to the Class A and B properties and as scrap for the Class C properties. I really did not have much hope for the OCLDD valuation of $230 million, as the court had made it fairly plain that this would only serve as a backup in the event that there was no other way to “fairly” value the properties. There existed limited attacks on the government’s scrap value, as described earlier, but this wasn’t going to get us very far. Therefore, it was necessary to stress the continued valuation argument with respect to the Class A and B properties.

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