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Medium 9780253337979

10. The Predecessors: 1883–1906

Jr., Herbert H. Harwood Indiana University Press ePub

The Lake Shore Electric’s family tree dated back to the electric railways’ equivalent of Pilgrim Father days and included some especially distinguished pioneers. Inevitably too, it was a complex assemblage of different personalities and lineages. At least ten different company names showed up at one time or another, but by the time the LSE was created in 1901 these had boiled down to four — the Lorain & Cleveland, the Toledo, Fremont & Norwalk, and two Sandusky-based companies, the Sandusky & Interurban and the Sandusky, Norwalk & Southern. A fifth, the Lorain Street Railway, joined the family in 1906.

Three of these had comparatively simple, straightforward histories, but the city of Sandusky seemed to spawn financial and corporate instability for its two railways — perhaps the result of too much competition in a stagnant and marginal market. Whatever the reasons, the Sandusky predecessors were both the oldest and the most complex.

Sandusky’s modest street railway system had its origin in the Sandusky Street Railway, a locally promoted horsecar line which was built primarily to connect its steamship piers and downtown area with the then-remote Lake Shore & Michigan Southern Railway station. The LS&MS main line was the city’s primary rail route, and originally had entered town from the east along the waterfront. In 1872, however, it was relocated a mile south of the city’s center, and reaching it became a hardship. The first solution was a horse-drawn omnibus line organized by Sandusky’s Gilcher brothers in 1882. But even by then competition was brewing; another group of local businessmen headed by Clark Rude had incorporated the Sandusky Street Railway on August 3, 1881.

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Medium 9780253020635

16 The Lawyer’s Son from Buffalo

Loving, Rush, Jr. Indiana University Press ePub


The Lawyer’s Son from Buffalo


MEANWHILE, THE FORTUNES OF TWO MAJOR WESTERN railroads were going through a reversal that was bringing trauma to one and riches to another. Ben Biaggini’s Southern Pacific, which had lorded over the three other major western roads in the 1960s and 1970s, was now the weakest of the four lines. By contrast, the Union Pacific, which had been a dependable but lackluster operation, had moved from fourth place to become the West’s predominant railroad.

The UP’s transformation was due to the son of a Buffalo lawyer. Tall, big-boned, and balding, John Cooper Kenefick loved trains. Other railroad executives like the Claytor brothers and Al Perlman loved them, too, but no one’s devotion exceeded that of Kenefick. He knew his business, all aspects of it. That was the reason I had gone to Omaha to tap John Kenefick’s knowledge when we were putting together the story on western railroads for Fortune’s experimental biweekly. He was smart, a Princeton graduate, a protégé of Perlman, and he had two powerful backers at Union Pacific Corp., the men who ran the road’s parent company, Frank Barnett and Robert Lovett.

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Medium 9780253005922

8 Postwar Metamorphosis

J. Parker Lamb Indiana University Press ePub

During my senior year in high school (1950–51), I was immersed in recording the diminishing presence of steam locomotives in Meridian. Unfortunately, the GM&O dropped its fires so quickly that I was never able to photograph one of its steam-powered trains in action. But there were still opportunities on the other three roads (SR, IC, and M&BR). I was extremely fortunate that the cold weather of the fall and winter of that school year gave me my only opportunity to record local steamers with billowing smoke plumes. Indeed, my rarest steam locomotive photo was taken on a frigid day when I casually dropped by the SR/IC yard for a quick inspection and saw, to my astonishment, a Birmingham train about to leave behind one of Southern’s largest engines, a simple articulated 2-8-8-2.

I had seen photos of these mountain engines operating in their usual territory between Birmingham, Atlanta, Knoxville, and Asheville, but I never expected to see one on the relatively flat lines of the AGS. In subsequent years I discussed this rarity with Frank Ardrey and other Southern observers, and none could recall such a movement. I finally concluded that this could have been just an unusual substitute engine for the normal 2-8-2 or a shakedown run for the articulated giant fresh from an overhaul at the Finley shops in Birmingham. But the real reason will always remain a mystery.

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Medium 9781855206786

Chapter 14: Modifying the E30

Andrew Everett Brooklands Books ePub

It is now twenty-two years since the E30 3 Series went into production, and ten years since the last Tourings and Convertibles were built. Yet, despite their age, the E30s still capture the imagination like no 3 series cars built since. Put simply, the E30 was the last of the hooligan “sideways special” BMWs and they had a sporty character the later E36 did not quite have. Whether you want to pep up your 316, or build a 200bhp 325i, here is how.

Starting with the old M10, we have got the 316 and the 318i. Now, the only 318i’s to use the M10 (i.e. 2002 type) engine are the chrome bumper cars made up until the end of 1987, whilst the 316 carried on using the M10 until the end of 1988 when the M40 engined 316i appeared. The M10 is a great little engine but because the 318i uses Bosch LE Jetronic with an analogue and not a digital ECU, you cannot re-chip them to give more power. However, a decent exhaust, a free-flow air filter in the original BMW air box and possibly an up-rated fuel pressure regulator will give you anything up to 10bhp. A camshaft change also works well, but you will need that up-rated fuel pressure to make it work. An old bodge used to be putting the standard pressure regulator between two sockets in a vice and giving it a 2 or 3mm squeeze but it’s not a very elegant solution it puts the spring inside the unit under more tension. As for the 316, the best way to get a bit more power is to sell it and buy something else! Seriously though, you can give a 316 some extra life for very little money. What you need is the Solex 32/32 DIDTA twin choke carburettor from an E21 320 four-cylinder or the 2002 carburettor not an easy thing to find now in good condition but they are out there. Combine this with the 320 inlet manifold and a free-flow air filter in the 320 air cleaner box and you will be up from 90bhp to about 98 to 100bhp and a lot of extra sparkle.

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Medium 9780253011275

Chapter 4 Planned Progress

Bill Marvel Indiana University Press ePub

The man who saved the Rock Island railroad was a understood every detail of the railroad. And he was a square-jawed, flinty-eyed railroader’s railroader, a slow-talker who chose his words carefully and meant every syllable of each.

John Dow Farrington despised incompetence. When he encountered it in an underling, he would fix the man in a gray, unblinking stare, a crocodilian smile would tug at the corners of his mouth, and he would begin a reaming-out the employee would never forget. Farrington understood every detail of the railroad. And he was a demon on track maintenance. So as he rode north out of Fort Worth in the office car Edward M. Durham Jr. had sent to fetch him to his new job, he learned what he was up against. Rock Island’s line to El Reno—and almost everywhere else—was a bone-shaking ordeal.

The first thing Farrington did when he came on board as chief operating officer—at $25,000 a year, the equivalent of $382,000 today—was take to the rails for six months in a V-8 Ford sedan equipped with flanged wheels. Everyone ducked when they saw it coming down the track.

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Medium 9780253017772

Appendix One: Notes on the Plate Captions and on the Plates

Reevy, Tony Indiana University Press PDF



Notes on the Photograph Titles in the Plate Captions

The captions are as the photographer prepared them. Generally, the only changes that have been made are minor corrections to capitalization (for example, “Union Station” for “Union station”), incorrect punctuation or character spacing (for example, “E. K. Hill” for “E.K. Hill”), and abbreviations (such as substituting names of states for their abbreviated forms). James E. Valle, in his groundbreaking 1977 book, The Iron

Horse at War, did not use Delano’s captions, but instead provided his own, extended captions. The design and photographic reproduction in his book does not reflect contemporary art-book standards, but these extended captions provide a wealth of information for those who desire more background on the subjects of the 272 Delano photographs included in the book. The Iron Horse at War covers only Delano’s blackand-white Chicago and Santa Fe photographs; it does not cover his FSA railroad-subject work, nor does it include any color photographs.

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Medium 9780253020635

19 Two Empty Limousines

Loving, Rush, Jr. Indiana University Press ePub


Two Empty Limousines


WHILE J. B. HUNT WAS RIDING THE SANTA FE, I WAS CONSULTING a mix of clients and watching the transportation industry enter an era of dramatic change. The intermodal business was taking off. American retailers were importing a growing array of products from Asia, and many other goods were coming into West Coast ports and crossing the continent by train for European-bound container ships. The United States was exporting as well, shipping such raw materials as cotton and scrap metal. The United States had become a major link in the global marketplace, and its intermodal trains were the lynchpin.

One of my assignments, restructuring the corporate communications department of Sea-Land, took me to the burgeoning container port of Rotterdam and then to Hong Kong. There I rode up and down the ramps of an eleven-story warehouse where customers loaded containers for Sea-Land’s east-bound vessels. Goods were coming from inland factories and stacked in bays, where they were packed into containers. It was a graphic, firsthand view of the new market that was reshaping the economies of the world.

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Medium 9781574412383

“There’s Life Beyond the Sonic: Growing Up Cruising”

Kenneth L. Untiedt, editor University of North Texas Press PDF


GROWING UP CRUISING by Charlie McCormick

On Friday and Saturday nights in Snyder, Texas, my high school friends and I cruised the strip—what we called making the drag.

We bought gas with dollar bills and change so that we could drive our chromed trucks and dirt-caked cars around the strip’s milelong, imperfect loop. We turned around at the Sonic Drive-In on one end of the strip and in the Bar-H-Bar Western Wear parking lot on the other. In between, we passed our classmates, potential dates, and occasional fights. We played our music too loud. We drank Pearl Light and Lone Star beer from cans as our cars entered the shadows between the street lamps, hoping that the cops wouldn’t see us and that our friends would. The drag, at least for those few hours after dark, belonged to us. The next morning, it would belong to our parents, our bosses, and our teachers, and we would drive down it again as we ran errands or went to school or work. But not on Friday and Saturday nights. At night we had our own reasons for cruising the strip. And driving around our imperfect loop—twenty, maybe thirty times in a row—we knew that, despite the fact that we were going nowhere, we were on our way.

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Medium 9780253337979

4. The Great War: 1914–1918

Jr., Herbert H. Harwood Indiana University Press ePub

The summertime of the Lake Shore Electric’s life was like most summertimes — reasonably fruitful but full of annoying insects and turbulent thunderstorms. In the interurban’s case, the insects took the form of more automobiles and, in the cities of Sandusky and Lorain, “jitneys” — privately-owned, unregulated motor vehicles which operated over the streetcar routes stealing passengers. As for the storms of World War I, the LSE — like most interurbans — did not see much of the huge traffic surge which eventually paralyzed the steam railroads, but it did fully experience the material and fuel shortages, the wage and price inflation, the influenza epidemic, and the first efforts at unionization. And while not yet unhealthy, the financial results began to show some instability.

On the plus side, improvements continued, with a new cutoff around Huron, extensive rebuilding in Lorain, a new fleet of steel interurbans, and (through no effort of its own) improved access to Cleveland’s Public Square. The war period also saw the beginning of a new direction for LSE traffic — freight service.

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Medium 9780253006332

2 Stations

H. Roger Grant Indiana University Press ePub




It would be during the “Demonstration Period,” roughly the 1830s and 1840s, that the railroad station evolved. At the dawn of intercity railroads, officials did not fret much about depot design or construction, instead concentrating on tracks, bridges, and other physical aspects of their new lines. Recruiting reliable workers and making plans for operations and expansion also consumed time. An upstart carrier might use or modify an existing structure convenient to its tracks to serve as a depot. When in 1830 the gestating Baltimore & Ohio Railroad (B&O) reached Ellicott’s Mills (now Ellicott City), Maryland, 13 miles west of its starting point on Pratt Street in Baltimore, the company decided that passengers should wait in the nearby Patapsco Hotel. When the B&O a year later extended its original stem in Baltimore the short distance to the Inner Harbor, the Three Tuns Tavern served as the depot. Railroad officials believed that travelers could fend for themselves. This had been the experience of stagecoach riders, as operators infrequently owned station facilities; rather, proprietors of hotels, stores, and taverns provided shelter and services. Yet eventually the B&O felt the need to build a structure at Ellicott’s Mills to accommodate and protect shipments of freight. Later the railroad erected a depot designed for passengers, and Baltimore likewise received enhanced passenger facilities.

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Medium 9780253008329

6 In the Land of the Longhorns

Don L. Hofsommer Indiana University Press ePub

WORK OPPORTUNITY AT PLAINVIEW, TEXAS, PREsented itself in 1973 and would result in a fourteen-year stay in the Lone Star State. Plainview, like Stillwater in Oklahoma, was Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe (AT&SF or Santa Fe) country, served, as it was, by a primary north–south line linking Amarillo and Lubbock, completed in 1907–10, and a stub southeastward to Floydada, twenty-seven miles, in 1910. Fort Worth & Denver (FTW&D or Denver) also occupied the territory in 1929 with an extension from its Amarillo–Fort Worth main at Estelline to Lubbock, with a spur to Plainview and on northwest to Dimmitt.

Still another aspirant in the region was Quanah, Acme & Pacific (QA&P or Quanah Route), which, in fits and starts (1903–1909), pushed a line of road west from Quanah to Paducah and finally to Floydada (1929). St. Louis–San Francisco’s (SLSF’s or Frisco’s) western reach from St. Louis and Kansas City through Tulsa and Oklahoma City stubbed at Quanah. Predictably, Frisco took an interest in and then took control of QA&P as a logical extension of its strategic aspirations. In time, and for several years, Frisco and Santa Fe teamed on long-distance, expedited traffic moving over the Floydada Gateway. Indeed, QLA and QSF were a couple of Frisco’s hottest freights; they were authorized forty-nine miles per hour across QA&P’s 110-mile route between Quanah and Floydada. But in 1973, Frisco and Santa Fe agreed to move their joint business up to the Avard Gateway in Oklahoma, and QA&P faced an uncertain future. Local business ebbed and flowed, but mostly ebbed. Abandonment was sought and permission gained, at least west of Paducah to Floydada, sixty-seven miles. The final run was made on May 5, 1981.

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Medium 9781855209510

Chapter 11 - The Rolling Chassis Rebuild

Gordon Lund Brooklands Books ePub

Start Up-Side Down

The easiest way to start a chassis rebuild is the wrong way up. This enables you to attach brake-pipes in comfort. Raise the chassis on stands, blocks, Workmates, etc, to a comfortable height. This will take the strain off your back and make things much easier to see. The chassis at this stage only weighs about 75 pounds, light enough for two people to move around with ease.

Corrosion Protection, Do it Now

All of the running gear and suspension arms will require re-bushing. Even if not evidently broken or badly deformed, rubber does age and loses its elastic properties. This will show up in a spongy ride and inferior handling.

After removing all rubber bushes from the suspension arms, remove all old paint, grease, oil and rust. Plenty of elbow grease or the use of a good grit blaster is recommended. Paint all non-mating surfaces with a good paint system of your choice. Some people will recommend two pack paints, others powder coatings. Certain two pack paint systems can be more durable and abrasion resistant but others prefer the impact resistance of the powder coatings. There is not a lot to choose between the two.

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Medium 9780253020635

2 Averell Harriman and His Streamliner

Loving, Rush, Jr. Indiana University Press ePub


Averell Harriman & His Streamliner


ALTHOUGH OUR LIVES REMAINED GLUED TO THE NINETEENTH century, the railroads of America had advanced beyond that time. They been among the leaders of the nation’s technological revolution, perfecting such advances as electric signals and air brakes, and now in the 1930s they were beginning to convert from steam locomotives to diesels. Yet they remained vulnerable to the vagaries of economics.

Just had the crashes of the previous century, the Depression hit the railroads hard. World War I had made the United States one of the world’s undisputed industrial kings. Since 1830, when the first rail service was inaugurated in America, the railroads had been an integral part of the country’s industrialization. Ninety years after their birth, as the nation’s factories churned out their products, the railroads had thrived with them.

Passenger trains had become one of their most important marketing tools, for nothing else could epitomize a railroad’s speed and quality of service more graphically than an overnight express speeding across the countryside. In New York at the turn of the century, the Pennsylvania had tunneled under the Hudson and built Penn Station, an incredible temple to transportation. Its competitor, Grand Central Terminal on East 42nd Street, was equally elegant, and in cities like Cincinnati, Jacksonville, and Kansas City, the railroads put up structures of similar grandeur, many of them resembling ancient monuments. One, in Richmond, was crowned with a dome, causing it to resemble ancient Rome’s Pantheon.

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Medium 9780253005915

3 On the North Edge of Africa

William D. Middleton Indiana University Press ePub

On the North Edge of Africa. A 72 mph electric passes through the bountiful Mamora cork forests around Rabat. Westbound Rapide No. 2 was on its way to Casablanca.



MOROCCO AND ITS CHEMINS DE FER DU MAROC, or Railways of Morocco (CFM), turned out to have a surprisingly modern railroad early in 1951. A substantial part of the railroad – the busiest part of its line – had already been converted to electric power, and the balance of the line haul had been converted to diesel power since the end of World War II. Steam power, mostly secondhand and elderly power – some dated to the Civil War period – was confined to switching service, and this, too, would be gone within the next few years. The CFM even offered premier trains between Casablanca and Algeria (the CA or AC trains, depending on direction of travel) that carried such amenities as Wagons-Lits sleeping and dining cars, while the Casablanca-Tangier express train carried passengers from the Maroc Express, which ran by train through Spain, followed by a steamer across the Gibraltar Straits between Algeciras and Tangier.

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Medium 9781855209701

Chapter 1: E36 The Models

Greg Hudock Brooklands Books ePub

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