61 Chapters
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13: Evolution and Changes in the Understorey of Deciduous Forests: Lagging Behind Drivers of Change

Kirby, K.J.; Watkins, C. CABI PDF


Evolution and Changes in the

Understorey of Deciduous Forests:

Lagging Behind Drivers of Change

Martin Hermy*

Department of Earth and Environmental Science, University of Leuven,

Leuven, Belgium

13.1 Introduction

The great changes in land cover that have occurred over the last few centuries are likely to continue over the coming decades (Goldewijk,

2001; Williams, 2006; Hansen et al., 2013). In some places forests have been cleared, while elsewhere reforestation has taken place. This pattern of deforestation and reforestation is likely to recur, so a fragmented and changing forest cover either already is or is going to be the main characteristic of the world’s future forests.

Some forests – such as ancient forests (Peterken, 1977; Hermy et al., 1999) and old-growth forest (Nakashizuka, 1989; Mladenoff et al.,

1993) – have deep roots in the past. Others originated just a few centuries ago. Still others are mixtures of different types, often resulting in a complex mosaic of different origins (Verheyen et al., 1999; Kirby and Watkins, Chapter 4).

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6: Agroforestry in the Indian Himalayan Region: An Overview

Gordon, A.M.; Newman, S.M.; Coleman, B.R.W. CABI PDF


Agroforestry in the Indian Himalayan

Region: An Overview

B.M. Kumar,1* A.K. Handa,2 S.K. Dhyani3 and A. Arunachalam3


School of Ecology and Environment Studies, Nalanda University, India;

Central Agroforestry Research Institute, Jhansi, Uttar Pradesh, India; 3Natural

Resource Management Division, Indian Council of Agricultural Research,

New Delhi, India



India is the cradle of agroforestry with diverse kinds of agroforestry (AF) systems practised since time immemorial (Kumar et al., 2012). These include the tropical, subtropical, and temperate AF systems

(AFS). While the tropical and subtropical AFS received considerable scientific attention in the past

(e.g. Singh, 1987; Tejwani, 1994; Puri and Panwar,

2007; Dagar et al., 2014), temperate AFS, the focus of this book, did not receive the consideration it warrants, given the extent and coverage of these systems in the mountainous regions of this country.

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10: The Flora and Fauna of Coppice Woods: Winners and Losers of Active Management or Neglect?

Kirby, K.J.; Watkins, C. CABI PDF


The Flora and Fauna of Coppice

Woods: Winners and Losers of Active

Management or Neglect?

Peter Buckley* and Jenny Mills

Peter Buckley Associates, Ashford, UK

10.1  Introduction

Coppice management in various forms (Plate 6) was widespread through much of Europe alongside areas treated as wood-pastures

(Hartel et al., Chapter 5; Buckley and Mills,

Chapter 6). In places, coppice systems have come to be seen as particularly rich in wildlife and this form of traditional management has been widely promoted for conservation purposes as the antithesis of even-aged plantation silviculture (Quine, Chapter 15). This chapter explores why particular groups of species are associated with worked coppice and how they fare when such stands cease to be cut or are converted to high forest.

10.2  The Diversity of Coppice

Actively managed coppices are particularly valued for the richness of their field layers, seed bank species, migrant warblers and abundant insect fauna. The lack of old trees means fewer niches for mature forest specialists, but the interspersing of small coupes, spanning early to mid-successional stages, sometimes complemented by standard

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12: The Changing Fortunes of Woodland Birds in Temperate Europe

Kirby, K.J.; Watkins, C. CABI PDF


The Changing Fortunes of Woodland

Birds in Temperate Europe

Shelley A. Hinsley,1* Robert J. Fuller2 and Peter N. Ferns3

Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Wallingford, UK; 2British Trust for Ornithology, Thetford, UK; 3School of Biosciences,

Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK


12.1  Introduction

We explore what is known of the history of woodland birds in Europe and how they have responded to changes in woodland extent, composition and management. Beyond the simple availability of habitat, woodland structure is a critical factor in species survival and distribution. Despite the huge transformation of postglacial forests, no woodland bird species has actually become extinct, and with forest cover now increasing, as long as diverse habitat structures can be maintained across a range of scales, forest birds should not only survive, but also thrive.

12.2  The Birds of the Early


Our knowledge of the bird fauna of postglacial woodlands (from about 13,000 years ago) is based mainly on bone fragments left by predators and found in cave deposits. Additional information can be inferred from the present bird fauna of sites where the climate is similar today, and from molecular evidence indicating if, and when, species divergence

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4 Impacts of leasehold forestry

Thierry, B. CABI PDF

Chapter 4

Impacts of leasehold forestry

The experience of leasehold forestry has shown a number of impressive results in terms of the conditions of the forests as well as the lives and livelihoods of the poorest segments of society that use them.

During the past 20 years, numerous studies and evaluations have been conducted throughout the different phases of the programme in order to understand what differences, if any, the programme was making. To measure change taking place in such a holistic and evolving approach is quite a challenge. Few programmes attempt to span improvements in tenure, natural resources management, agroforestry production, livestock development, inclusion and empowerment, microfinance, livelihoods development and well-being – all of the elements necessary to address the needs of marginal forest users. Monitoring and evaluation of such a breadth of activity can be daunting, especially when wider changes are taking place in the community.

Despite these challenges, key findings did emerge in the different dimensions of leasehold forestry outcomes (more immediate results, such as changes in forest management practice) and impacts (livelihoods and poverty reduction, environmental change and social effects). The findings come from past studies, project monitoring and evaluation reports, as well as the findings of a recent independent impact study that was commissioned by the government 7. The independent study placed a special emphasis on comparing a robust representative and stratified random sample of

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