61 Chapters
Medium 9781780644851

4: Agroforestry in the UK

Gordon, A.M.; Newman, S.M.; Coleman, B.R.W. CABI PDF

4

Agroforestry in the UK

S.M. Newman,1* D.J. Pilbeam2 and S. Briggs3

1

Biodiversity International Ltd, Faversham, Kent, UK; 2School of Biology,

University of Leeds, Leeds, UK; 3Abacus Agri Ltd, Peterborough, UK

Introduction and History Pre-1950

Crops, trees and animals have been combined on the same area of land in the UK for centuries. Pigs (Sus spp.) were traditionally allowed to forage for acorns under broadleaved woodland and the practice was known as ‘pannage’. Trees were also pollarded (coppiced above waist height) to provide fodder for animals and wood fuel or poles. The pollarding allowed productive growth above the heads of grazing or browsing animals. Hedgerows were planted alongside pastures to enclose livestock and wood pasture still remains in areas of ancient forest. Orchard

­grazing is thought to be an ancient practice in some counties of England e.g. Herefordshire and Kent.

Air photographs appear to show a diverse agroforestry landscape in the UK with trees in the middle of fields, hedgerows and parklands but the trees and shrubs are rarely managed as profitable components in the system and play a subservient role. Despite this rich history and extensive landscape, there are few historic texts or guides on how to optimize the configuration of these systems. If we take 1950 as a cut-off date then three of the most significant texts are Sylva (Evelyn, 1679), The Compleat Planter and

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11: The Importance of Veteran Trees for Saproxylic Insects

Kirby, K.J.; Watkins, C. CABI PDF

11 

The Importance of Veteran Trees for Saproxylic Insects

Juha Siitonen1* and Thomas Ranius2

Natural Resources Institute Finland, Vantaa, Finland; 2Department of Ecology,

Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden

1

11.1 Introduction

Old trees – often referred to as ancient or

­veteran – have always attracted attention, but recently there has been a revival of interest in them from an ecological and conservation perspective. Ancient trees are old individuals that have clearly passed beyond maturity and often show features such as cavities or hollow trunks, bark loss over sections of the trunk and a large quantity of dead wood in the canopy. The term

‘veteran tree’ includes younger individuals that have developed similar characteristics as a result of adverse growing conditions or injury (Woodland Trust, 2008; Lonsdale, 2013).

Veteran trees are defined as being of interest biologically, culturally or aesthetically because of their age, size or condition (Read, 2000).

A large old tree has been described as an arboreal megalopolis for saproxylic species

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12: Temperate Agroforestry: Key Elements, Current Limits and Opportunities for the Future

Gordon, A.M.; Newman, S.M.; Coleman, B.R.W. CABI PDF

12

Temperate Agroforestry: Key

Elements, Current Limits and

Opportunities for the Future

S.M. Newman1* and A.M. Gordon2

1

Biodiversity International Ltd, Faversham, UK; 2School of Environmental

Sciences, University of Guelph, Canada

Introduction

The broad aims of this chapter are to compare and contrast the opportunities and constraints related to the development of temperate agroforestry based on the findings of research and practice outlined in the previous chapters. It will also be useful to review how the global situation and research environment has changed since the first edition of this book was published twenty years ago in 1997.

The specific aims of this chapter are to address the following list of questions:

1. How has the world changed in terms of problems and opportunities that drive innovation in agroforestry?

2. Does the classification of agroforestry subsystems still hold true?

3. Has any further evidence emerged that supports the idea that agroforestry may lead to yield advantages and if so what are the underpinning agroecological mechanisms?

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6: Coppice Silviculture: From the Mesolithic to the 21st Century

Kirby, K.J.; Watkins, C. CABI PDF

6 

Coppice Silviculture: From the

Mesolithic to the 21st Century

Peter Buckley* and Jenny Mills

Peter Buckley Associates, Ashford, UK

6.1  Introduction

Coppice refers to the repeated cutting of stems regrowing from a stump or ‘stool’ at intervals, typically from 5 to 30 years (Plate 6). It is one of the oldest silvicultural systems known, with well-documented archaeological evidence dating from Mesolithic, Neolithic, Roman and

Anglo-Saxon times in Europe. Such management would have maintained regular openness in woods, together with its many associated species. Rotation lengths are, however, generally too short to allow much development of conditions for late-successional species dependent on old growth, except in old coppice stools, or as occasional mature trees left on boundaries and as standards.

In modern Europe, the landscape now consists mainly of high forest patches, set in open landscapes dominated by agriculture.

Coppices have either been abandoned or converted to high forests, thereby reducing the intensity and frequency of disturbances and thus discriminating against species of open woodlands. In Britain, for example, woodland census data indicate an 80% contraction in the area of coppice from the post-war period 1947–

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23: Tree and Forest Pests and Diseases: Learning from the Past to Prepare for the Future

Kirby, K.J.; Watkins, C. CABI PDF

23 

Tree and Forest Pests and Diseases:

Learning from the Past to

Prepare for the Future

Clive Potter*

Centre for Environmental Policy, Imperial College London, UK

23.1  Introduction

Invasive pests and diseases, many of them unknown to science a decade or two ago, pose a significant threat to Europe’s woods and forests. The spread of Chalara fraxinea

(ash dieback, now properly identified and renamed as Hymenoscyphus fraxineus) throughout north-western Europe, and its arrival in the UK in 2012, is just the latest in a series of pest and disease outbreaks that have swept through

Europe’s forests over the last 10 years (Boyd et al., 2013). Well-documented epidemics include those caused by the oak processionary moth (Thaumetopoea processionea), an insect pest now widespread throughout Belgium, the

Netherlands and Germany, chestnut blight

(Cryphonectria parasitica), a fungal pathogen that was first recorded in Italy in 1938 but which has been spreading steadily since that date, and the pine tree lappet moth (Dendrolimus pini), a native of continental Europe, Russia and

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