271 Chapters
Medium 9781845938116

1 Managing Invasive Species in Heterogeneous Ecosystems

Monaco, T.A., Editor CAB International PDF

1

Managing Invasive Species in

Heterogeneous Ecosystems

Joel R. Brown and Brandon T. Bestelmeyer

US Department of Agriculture, New Mexico State University, USA

Introduction

Ecologically based invasive plant management (Sheley et al., 2010) provides a mechanistic framework for diagnosing causes of plant invasions and selecting management responses. This approach requires the organization of multiple sources of information, much of which is highly dependent upon spatial and temporal context. Although there have been substantial efforts to identify the characteristics of successful invaders as a means to predict which plants are likely to be successful when introduced into new environments, the use of species attributes alone is a poor predictor of which plants will invade a particular landscape (Mack et al., 2000). In fact, many of the plants currently defined as ‘invaders’ in ecological terms and ‘noxious weeds’ in legal terms are native to the regions and landscapes, if not the plant communities, they invade. This combination of species attributes (invasiveness) and plant community or landscape susceptibility (invasibility) complicates the development of a universal set of principles for prediction, and even post hoc analysis, of the interactions of invasive plants and landscapes. Because the information necessary for successful implementation of management responses is so highly variable in both time and space, as well as by invasive species, a systematic approach to organization, analysis, and decision-making is essential.

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Medium 9781845939946

3: Internal Morphology

Vacante, V. CABI PDF

3  Internal Morphology

Like other Arthropoda, the internal morphology of mites primarily involves the idiosoma, which includes the ‘haemocoel’, a cavity that extends also to the legs and surrounds the internal organs that constitute the different systems of the body

(circulatory, nervous, reproductive, glandular, digestive and excretory).

degree of sexual dimorphism may depend on neurosecretory development (Krantz, 2009a). The cholinergic system (acetylcholine, choline acetylase, cholinesterase) and synaptic action are basic to nerve function.

Supraoesophageal ganglion

Circulatory System

The haemocoel is filled with ‘haemolymph’, a free-flowing liquid whose circulation is facilitated by body movement and the dorsoventral contraction of the idiosomal muscles. The haemolymph contains various substances, such as amino acids (Boctor,

1972), lipids (Woodring and Galbraith, 1976), sugars (Aboul-Nasr and Bassal, 1971), etc. and several cellular elements, the ‘haemocytes’, which are adapted to different functions, such as clotting, macrophagy and tissue dissolution, the development of which may involve germinal cells (Evans, 1992; Alberti and

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Medium 9781845939625

5. Aroma Volatiles

P Nath;  M Bouzayen; A K Mattoo CAB International PDF

5

Aroma Volatiles

Bo Zhang and Kun-Song Chen*

Laboratory of Fruit Quality Biology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou,

PR China

5.1 Introduction

Plants are multifaceted chemical factories that produce at least 1000 volatile compounds, and the molecules involved in the biosynthesis and release of these volatiles comprise more than 1% of plant secondary metabolites (Qualley and Dudareva, 2009;

Dicke and Loreto, 2010). Some plants allocate up to 10% of their carbon to the production of volatile secondary metabolites (Firn and Jones, 2006). Several years ago, an argument was raised focusing on the role of volatile compounds released by plants. This argument was presented in an article entitled, ‘Plant volatiles: a lack of function or a lack of knowledge?’

(Pichersky et al., 2006). In recent years, thanks to the development of integrative biological approaches, more and more papers regarding volatiles have been published, giving rise to a molecular understanding of the function of volatiles. In

March 2010, a special issue of Trends in

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Medium 9781780648200

4: Biology and Management of Sucking Pests of Canola

Reddy, G.V.P. CABI PDF

4

Biology and Management of Sucking

Pests of Canola

Surendra K. Dara*

University of California Cooperative Extension, San Luis Obispo, California, USA

4.1  Sucking Pests of Canola

A complex of insect pests attack canola worldwide, including species of Coleoptera, Diptera, Hemiptera,

Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, Orthoptera and

Thysanoptera (Burgess and Weegar, 1988; Lamb,

1989; Schwartz and Foottit, 1992; Buntin and

Raymer, 1994; Miles and McDonald, 1999;

Cárcamo et al., 2002; Weiss et al., 2006). The sucking pests that feed on canola leaves, stems, buds, flowers, pods or seeds (Table 4.1) include several

Hemiptera (such as aphids and plant bugs), with piercing and sucking mouthparts, and some thrips, with rasping and sucking mouthparts.

The importance of these different pests and their presence varies in different countries and even within local regions. Several aphids, mirids and thrips are pests of canola in different countries (Burgess and Weegar, 1988; Lamb 1989; Buntin and Raymer,

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5: Ecology

Vacante, V. CABI PDF

5    Ecology

Study of the ecology of mites is a crucial step in the process of acquiring knowledge of mites (and other organisms), and includes traditional natural history, taxonomy, modern evolutionary and behavioural ecology, and theoretical models. Such studies can also provide insight into the evolution of plant mites. Here, the focus is on those aspects that help a better understanding of the dynamics of populations and on outbreaks of pest mites in the field. Readers interested in further insights can consult the contributions of Sabelis (1985a,c, 1996) or the more recent work of Saito¯ (2010), and other publications.

Feeding Habits and Habitats

The feeding habits of mites involve various aspects of their morph­ ology and lifestyle. Their morphological features (mouthparts, postoral digestive systems, etc.) usually reflect the ecological approach that these animals exhibit with respect to various food resources and habitats. From this viewpoint, morphology, habitats and behavioural patterns are interdependent and may markedly influence systematic features.

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