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Medium 9781780643373

6: Coppice Silviculture: From the Mesolithic to the 21st Century

Kirby, K.J.; Watkins, C. CABI PDF

6 

Coppice Silviculture: From the

Mesolithic to the 21st Century

Peter Buckley* and Jenny Mills

Peter Buckley Associates, Ashford, UK

6.1  Introduction

Coppice refers to the repeated cutting of stems regrowing from a stump or ‘stool’ at intervals, typically from 5 to 30 years (Plate 6). It is one of the oldest silvicultural systems known, with well-documented archaeological evidence dating from Mesolithic, Neolithic, Roman and

Anglo-Saxon times in Europe. Such management would have maintained regular openness in woods, together with its many associated species. Rotation lengths are, however, generally too short to allow much development of conditions for late-successional species dependent on old growth, except in old coppice stools, or as occasional mature trees left on boundaries and as standards.

In modern Europe, the landscape now consists mainly of high forest patches, set in open landscapes dominated by agriculture.

Coppices have either been abandoned or converted to high forests, thereby reducing the intensity and frequency of disturbances and thus discriminating against species of open woodlands. In Britain, for example, woodland census data indicate an 80% contraction in the area of coppice from the post-war period 1947–

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Medium 9781845938291

11. Fruit flies Anastrepha ludens (Loew), A. obliqua (Macquart) and A. grandis (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae): Three Pestiferous Tropical Fruit Flies That Could Potentially Expand Their Range to Temperate Areas

Pena, J.E., Editor CAB International PDF

11  Fruit Flies Anastrepha ludens (Loew),

A. obliqua (Macquart) and A. grandis

(Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae): Three

Pestiferous Tropical Fruit Flies That

Could Potentially Expand Their Range to Temperate Areas

Andrea Birke,1 Larissa Guillén,1 David Midgarden2 and Martin Aluja1

1

Red de Manejo Biorracional de Plagas y Vectores, Instituto de

Ecología A.C., Xalapa, Veracruz, México; 2USDA APHIS Medfly

Program, Guatemala City, Guatemala

11.1  Introduction

The family Tephritidae (Diptera) comprises over

4000 species of which c. 250 belong to the genus

Anastrepha. Of these, fewer than ten species are considered to be economically important pests.

In  this review, we have concentrated on three

­pestiferous Anastrepha species considered highly polyphagous and identified as potential exotic invaders: Anastrepha ludens (Loew), Anastrepha obli­ qua (Macquart) and Anastrepha grandis (Macquart).

Anastrepha ludens, known as the Mexican fruit fly, is an important pest of citrus that poses a considerable threat to production areas in the southern

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Medium 9781780647005

4 Characterization of the Experimental Diets

Bedford, M.R.; Choct, M.; O'Neill, H.M. CABI PDF

4

Characterization of the

Experimental Diets

H.V. MASEY O’NEILL*

AB Agri Ltd, Peterborough, UK

4.1 Introduction

One of the key tenets of the scientific method is the ability for experiments to be reproduced (Blow, 2014). To allow for reproduction, experimental methods, published or presented, must be described in such a way that every stage can be carried out by an independent laboratory (see Chapter 8). The intricate detail of an experimental diet is no exception, as this is likely to impact the outcome greatly and will form the basis of any experimental treatment in a feeding experiment. Clarity is important, not only for scientific rigour in the community, but also to enable the reader to interpret the results and fully understand the experiment. It also follows that the justification for the choice of diet or ingredients should be clear. A literature review is usually performed at the conception of an idea for an experimental study (Johnson and Besselsen, 2002). In order to maximize the likelihood of a successful outcome, scientists need to be able to interpret the literature that went before.

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Medium 9781780644325

4 Nitrogen Emissions from Animal Agricultural Systems and Strategies to Protect the Environment

Malik, P.K CABI PDF

4

Nitrogen Emissions from Animal

Agricultural Systems and

Strategies to Protect the

Environment

Richard A. Kohn*

University of Maryland, College Park, USA

Abstract

Animal production systems are among the largest contributors of reactive nitrogen to the environment. Nitrogen (N) is lost from animal agriculture through volatilization to the atmosphere (NH3, N2O, NO) and runoff and leaching to water resources (NH4+,

NO3–, organic N). Most N losses from agriculture are in a form (NH4+, NH3, NO3–) that does not directly affect climate change.

However, these compounds have serious environmental consequences of their own, including contributing to haze, acidity of rain, eutrophication of surface water bodies and damage to forests. In addition, a significant amount of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions result from animal agriculture because the ammonium and nitrates from agriculture are converted to N2O during manure storage and crop production. N2O is a potent greenhouse gas. Although animals emit very little nitrogen directly to the air, animal excreta (urine and faeces) contains environmentally reactive nitrogen, which begins moving to the air and water from the moment it leaves the animal, unless it is incorporated into a crop or converted to molecular nitrogen (N2). Nitrogen is lost from the barn floor or pen, storage facility and from cropland during manure application and crop growth. Additional nitrogen is lost to the environment when

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Medium 9781780645322

23 Managing Soil Carbon for Multiple Ecosystem Benefits – Positive Exemplars: Latin America (Brazil and Argentina)

Banwart, S.A., Noellemeyer, E., Milne, E. CABI PDF

23 

Managing Soil Carbon for Multiple

Ecosystem Benefits – Positive Exemplars:

Latin America (Brazil and Argentina)

Carlos Eduardo P. Cerri*, Newton La Scala Jr, Reynaldo

Luiz Victoria, Alberto Quiroga and Elke Noellemeyer

Abstract

Agriculture provides food, fibre and energy, which have been the foundation for the development of all societies. Soil carbon plays an important role in providing essential ecosystem services. Historically, these have been viewed in terms of plant nutrient availability only, with agricultural management being driven to obtain maximum benefits of this soil function. However, recently, agricultural systems have been envisioned to provide a more complete set of ecosystem services, in a win–win situation, in addition to the products normally associated with agriculture. The expansion and growth of agricultural production in Brazil and Argentina brought about a significant loss of soil carbon stocks, and consequently the associated ecosystem services, such as flooding and erosion control, water filtration and storage. There are several examples of soil carbon management for multiple benefits in Brazil and

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