732 Chapters
Medium 9781780646282

12: The Cattle Industry of Belize: A Brief History of Research and Development to the Mid-1970s

Lazier, J.R.; Ahmad, N. CABI PDF

12 The Cattle Industry of Belize:

A Brief History of Research and

Development to the Mid-1970s

J.R. Lazier*1

*Formerly International Livestock Centre for Africa


Belize, one of the sites of the collaborative IDRC/UWI–CSIRO research reported in this volume, is a small Central

American country whose economy is little known compared with that of Australia, thus background information on its livestock industry is presented here to set the scene for the chapters that follow. With a small population and extensive areas of grassland, it has been seen as having potential as a source of protein for the countries of CARICOM. Though cattle had long been used as draught animals in logging, a cattle industry for beef has been considered seriously only since the 1930s. Despite the industry having since been given high priority in

Government-development plans, research has been sporadic, mainly dependent on special programmes funded from abroad and on temporary personnel. Considerable progress was made in developing the industry, but by the mid-1970s there were major problems including lack of infrastructure, uncertain markets and lack of management skills. Some adapted, improved pasture species were identified, but more work was required, particularly on forage legumes. Cattle raising had been encouraged with some success as a step in the development of sedentary farming from shifting agriculture. In 1970 the cattle population was 38,000 head and 92% of the 1322 herds in the country had 50 animals or less.

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Medium 9781780642826

3: Food Consumption Pattern and Nutritional Security among Rural Households in India: Impact of Cross-cutting Rural Employment Policies

Brouwer, F.; Joshi, P.K. CABI PDF


Food Consumption Pattern and Nutritional

Security among Rural Households in India: Impact of Cross-cutting

Rural Employment Policies


Praduman Kumar1* and P.K. Joshi2

Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi; 2International Food

Policy Research Institute, New Delhi, India


work at the statutory minimum wage. In

2009, these wages were Rs120 (US$2.39)

The Government of India has launched various per day (GoI, 2005). The wages paid under programmes from time to time in order to MGNREGA correspond to the minimum alleviate poverty in rural areas. These include: wages stated by the central government but

Integrated Rural Development Program (IRDP), vary across states. In 2014/15, the per day

Employment Assurance Scheme (EAS), wages varied from Rs154 in Himachal PraPradhan Mantri Rojgar Yojna (Prime Minister desh to Rs236 in Haryana (GoI, 2014).

For operation of a scheme under MGNJob Scheme), Swaranjayanti Gram Swarojgar

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Medium 9781789240733

9 More on Objectives: Family Influences, Origins and Modification

Nuthall, P.L. CABI PDF


More on Objectives:

Family Influences, Origins and Modification


A farmer’s objectives strongly impact on the decisions made. This is one of the reasons why the outcomes from every farm tend to be different as each farmer’s objectives will be unique. Also important to decisions is the farm family including a spouse. Thus, objectives and families are further considered in this chapter.

Part of comprehending a manager is the understanding of his or her objectives, and the origins of these objectives. So, one of the first steps in helping a farmer is determining whether his objectives are correctly stated. Progress cannot be measured without these yardsticks. But, while determining the objectives

(perhaps using the questionnaire listed earlier, or through careful observation) is important, of even greater value is the understanding why the farmer holds the particular set. Possibly the farmer has concluded incorrectly and so discussion and assessment may lead to modifications. To this end one of the sections in this chapter contains a discussion on the objectives and the influence of the family. Similarly, as a farmer’s locus of control (LOC) may be important in constricting progress, factors which give rise to a particular attitude are considered with a view to understanding a farmer’s LOC, and what might be done about improving the situation.

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Medium 9781786393050

1: An Overview of Organic Agriculture and Fair Trade Systems

Parvathi, P.; Grote, U.; Waibel, H. CABI PDF


An Overview of Organic Agriculture and Fair Trade Systems

Priyanka Parvathi* and Hermann Waibel

Institute of Development and Agricultural Economics,

Leibniz University Hannover, Germany

1.1 Introduction

Since the Brundtland Commission coined the term

‘sustainable development’ in its report Our Common Future (Brundtland Commission, 1987), this approach has increasingly gained global prominence. The concept relating to agriculture and rural development has been at the heart of many discussions among supporters and sceptics of sustainability. In this context, eco-friendly and ethical aspects of production like organic agriculture and fair trade have been discussed. Also global awareness concerning economic development, social equity and environmental protection has grown considerably.

In international agricultural debates, certification systems like Fair Trade and organic farming are considered as serving niche markets.

Fair Trade certification is used as a unique selling proposition in markets like coffee, banana, cocoa, mango and traditional handicrafts. Organic certification is more centred on high-value markets like cotton, tea, coffee and spices. In recent years, organic fruit and vegetables have also captured consumer interest in the developed nations. Though extensive agricultural debates on these subjects are lacking, both these certification systems provide a possibility for agriculture

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Medium 9781780643373

22: The UK’s Ancient Woodland Inventory and its Use

Kirby, K.J.; Watkins, C. CABI PDF


The UK’s Ancient Woodland

Inventory and its Use

Emma Goldberg*

Natural England, Peterborough, UK

22.1  Introduction

One approach to woodland conservation relies on designating large natural areas where forest cover has been unbroken and where the full range of biodiversity, from genetic to ecosystem processes, can be maintained. This approach has its roots in the North American preservationist idea (Leopold, 1949), and it was developed by MacArthur and Wilson (1967) into a discussion on how large such reserves need to be for the species populations within them to be sustainable. However, what do we mean by ‘natural’? Is any forest in Europe large enough, and with so little evidence of past or present human intervention, for this approach to be practical? Even large forest systems such as those of Białowieza in Poland

(Nilsson, 1997; Latałowa et al., Chapter 17) or

Fontainebleau in France (Pontailler et al., 1997) show evidence of human activity; they are ancient forests but they cannot be claimed as wholly ‘natural’, ‘primary’ or ‘virgin’ forests

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