1706 Chapters
Medium 9780596008680

VoIP Readiness

Theodore Wallingford O'Reilly Media PDF

Chapter 8


VoIP Readiness

Let’s face it: VoIP isn’t exactly new, but IP telephony’s readiness for enterprise consumption is a fairly recent development. When it first appeared on the Internet scene, VoIP offered the ability for people to make free long-distance calls over the

Internet. In fact, products like Internet Phone came with substantial buzz about how they let in-laws with Microsoft Windows have half-duplex speakerphone conversations through their PCs over the Net.

Lack of interoperability, poor quality of service, and a drop in traditional long-distance calling rates ultimately killed the first generation of consumer VoIP software.

The short-lived voice-over-Internet craze of the late 1990s died. VoIP is still what historians might call a disruptive technology—it is changing the status quo—but as it becomes more standardized, quality-driven, and accepted, it also becomes a more sustaining technology, just as the PSTN has been for decades. In this regard, VoIP has proven much more valuable in the enterprise than in the home.

See All Chapters
Medium 9781780647098

13: Aphid Population Dynamics: From Fields to Landscapes

van Emden, H.F.; Harrington, R. CABI PDF


Aphid Population Dynamics:

From Fields to Landscapes

James R. Bell,1* Jean-Sébastien Pierre2 and Charles-Antoine Dedryver3


Rothamsted Insect Survey, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, UK;

UMR 6553, Ecosystèmes-Biodiversité-Evolution, Rennes, France;


Institut de Génétique, Environnement et Protection des Plantes INRA,

Le Rheu, France



There are close to 5000 aphid species in the world, of which about 200 are crop pests. For these pests, never before have decision support systems been in so much demand (Chapter 17, this volume) both to help reduce pesticide use and also to prevent damaging outbreaks. However, for only a handful of these species is there a sufficient level of ecological and biological understanding to merit undertaking a population dynamics approach. Unsurprisingly, the emphasis has been on aphids that cause the most serious crop damage (Table 13.1), and these are firmly our focus. The majority of aphid pest population studies are concentrated within agriculture, particularly on a small number of aphids that use cereals as their host. Rice, wheat and maize provide 60% of the world’s food energy intake, so it is perhaps not surprising that aphids feature heavily as biological threats, particularly in rice and wheat (FAO, 2016). There are considerable amounts of data concerning the ecology of these aphids, and consequently there have been repeated modelling attempts, statistical or otherwise, that have sought to capture and predict their population dynamics. These cereal aphid studies form the backbone of this chapter and will be discussed at length, but we shall also occasionally discuss the dynamics of aphids that use other annual crops and trees as their host.

See All Chapters
Medium 9781845939212

11 Total Factor Productivity in Thai Agriculture: Measurement and Determinants

Fuglie, K.O., Ball, V.E., Wang, S.L. CABI PDF


Total Factor Productivity in Thai Agriculture: Measurement and Determinants


Waleerat Suphannachart1 and Peter Warr2

Kasetsart University, Bangkok; 2Australian National University, Canberra



Agricultural growth is important for overall economic development and poverty reduction, particularly in developing countries, where the majority of poor people live in rural areas and depend directly or indirectly on agriculture for their livelihoods (Johnston and Mellor, 1961). Diminishing returns to conventional farm-level factor inputs, high fuel and fertilizer prices, environmental degradation, the possibility of output-reducing climate change, and the declining availability of arable land, fresh water supplies and other natural resources all point to the increased long-term importance of agricultural productivity growth.

In the case of Thailand, agriculture is an important source of export earning and rural income. Sustaining agricultural growth is thus important for maintaining export competitiveness and improving the living standard of the majority of poor people residing in rural areas and directly involved in agricultural production (Warr, 2004).

See All Chapters
Medium 9781902375212


Tony Baxendale Chartridge Books Oxford ePub


Management of


The general principles of recording data flow within a construction organisation are considered in order to specify an integrated management information system Recommendations for the initiation of a management information system are also made together with a range of possible objectives. Structured systems development is suggested to build a logical model that shows the interrelationship of data processing. The need for an interactive system is developed together with the requirement of a structured approach based on a selection of objectives. Finally a system for main contractor control and for directly employed resource control is proposed.

Data Flow

Data flow analysis is a well established methodology and has been used for management information flow in construction organisations. Other exponents of the data flow concept have modelled the regional office and site based information systems of a large contractor and an operational integrated data management system for a house building organisation.

See All Chapters
Medium 9781780645681

13 Extending Conservation Agriculture Benefits Through Innovation Platforms

Kassam, A.H.; Mkomwa, S.; Friedrich, T. CABI PDF


Extending Conservation

Agriculture Benefits Through

Innovation Platforms

Michael Misiko*

International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT),

Nairobi, Kenya

13.1  Introduction

African smallholder farmers engage in many attempts to overcome poverty through individual and collective processes that depend on natural resources management (NRM) for agricultural production and livelihood. NRM for land-use development is often seen as a collective process (IFAD, 2006; Di

Gregorio et al., 2012; also see World Bank, 2008; Oweis and Hachum, 2009;

Pathak et al., 2009; Rockström et al., 2010). Such collective action is common over forest or water resources management (Altieri and Toledo, 2005).

However, protected areas known for providing environmental services (forests and communal water resources) continue to deteriorate or disappear; populations are rapidly urbanizing, turning more virgin areas into irrigated lands and into individual farms or seeking alternatives away from NRMrelated livelihoods. NRM initiatives in smallholder contexts are therefore increasingly difficult to organize or sustain due to these complex target landscape changes. With decreasing scope for communal action and because of the increasing focus on household farm-level enterprises, there is a need for expanding the scope of NRM in land use and rural development (McCarthy et al., 2004). Smallholder household actions largely comprise agricultural practices, which often form part of the problem, including low investments in erosion control (Muchena et al., 2005). Smallholder agriculture, therefore, must play a multifunctional role beyond food production and fibre. Its functions need to include ‘renewable natural resources management, landscape and biodiversity conservation and contribution to the socio-economic viability of rural areas’ (Renting et al., 2009, p. 112). To support NRM among smallholders, a clear understanding of their agricultural contexts is needed

See All Chapters

See All Chapters