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24 Managing Soil Carbon for Multiple Benefits – Positive Exemplars: North America

Banwart, S.A., Noellemeyer, E., Milne, E. CABI PDF

24 

Managing Soil Carbon for Multiple

Benefits – Positive Exemplars:

North America

Rich Conant*

Abstract

Implementing land-use practices that maximize the soil carbon (C) stocks can simultaneously lead to additional economic and social benefits while maintaining or enhancing the ecological support functions of the land resources. This enhances the ability to meet our near-term needs while ensuring the ability of future generations to meet theirs. Within North America, numerous opportunities exist to increase soil fertility, enhance soil water balance, increase production efficiency and reduce reliance on external inputs, which will enhance the resilience of production and yields in the face of climate variability. Practices that build resilience in the face of current climate variability are also expected to ameliorate some of the effects of the forecast increase in future extreme events; thus, building C stocks can foster adaptation to a changing climate. This chapter reviews North American agricultural and grazing land management practices that can sequester C in soils, their potential to mitigation greenhouse gas emissions and the additional benefits that arise from these practices.

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Medium 9780253353597

Thirteen The Japanese Situation—and a Second Japanese Dimension

H. P. Willmott Indiana University Press ePub

CHAPTER THIRTEEN

THE JAPANESE SITUATION—AND A SECOND JAPANESE DIMENSION

INVARIABLY THE STORY of the Japanese, the Kaigun, and convoy has been told in terms of the creation of the General Escort Command in November 1943 and the subsequent course of events, which saw the devastation of Japanese shipping even before the start of the mining of home waters that was afforded a code-name that really did symbolize intent. Yet this story has been afforded little real consideration, in large measure because the increasing effectiveness of the American campaign against shipping was quite obviously overshadowed by fleet and amphibious operations—Saipan and the Philippine Sea, Leyte Gulf and the Philippines, Iwo Jima and Okinawa—and by the manner in which the war was ended. But in terms of real cause and effect, five matters should be at the forefront of any consideration of Japanese defeat at sea, and this leaves aside the abiding paradox of the U.S. campaign against Japanese shipping: over the last six months of the war the American submarine service was very largely redundant, for the simple reason that the high seas had been scourged of Japanese shipping and there was very little left to sink.

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7 Soil Carbon Dynamics and Nutrient Cycling

Banwart, S.A., Noellemeyer, E., Milne, E. CABI PDF

7 

Soil Carbon Dynamics and

Nutrient Cycling

David Powlson*, Zucong Cai and Philippe Lemanceau

Abstract

The quantity of organic carbon in soil and the quantity and type of organic inputs have profound impacts on the dynamics of nutrients. Soil organic matter itself represents a large reservoir of nutrients that are released gradually through the action of soil fauna and microorganisms: this is especially important for the supply of N, P and S to plants, whether agricultural crops or natural vegetation. Organic matter also modifies the behaviour and availability of nutrients through a range of mechanisms including increasing the cation exchange capacity of soil, thus leading to greater retention of positively charged nutrient ions such as Ca, Mg, K, Fe, Zn and many micronutrients. Carboxyl groups in organic matter, and in root exudates or microbial metabolites, form complexes with various metal ions, usually increasing their availability to plants. In some cases, the formation of stable complexes has a detoxifying effect, for example by making Al and Cu less available to plants or microorganisms. Organic matter influences soil physical conditions greatly, especially through the formation or stabilization of aggregates and pores; this indirectly influences the availability of water and dissolved nutrients to plant roots. Organic matter and organic inputs are the source of energy for heterotrophic soil organisms, variations in organic carbon content and composition, impacting biome size, diversity and activities. These complex interactions between organic carbon and the soil biome require additional research to be fully understood. The implications for nutrient dynamics differ between nutrient-rich situations such as agricultural topsoils and nutrient-poor environments such as subsoils or boreal forests. In agricultural soils, excessive inputs of organic matter in manures can lead to pollution problems associated with losses of N and P.

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16. Biotechnology of Fruit Quality

P Nath CAB International PDF

16

Biotechnology of Fruit Quality

Avtar K. Handa,1* Raheel Anwar1,2 and Autar K. Mattoo3

1Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, Purdue

University, West Lafayette, IN, USA; 2Institute of Horticultural Sciences,

University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan; 3Sustainable

Agricultural Systems Laboratory, USDA-ARS,Beltsville Agricultural

Research Center, Beltsville, MD, USA

16.1 Introduction

Fruit and vegetable crops are the major dietary source of vitamins, antioxidants and minerals and have the potential not only to ameliorate physiological disorders but also to decrease the incidence of human diseases such as cancer. Consequently, consumption of fruits and vegetables has increased in recent years, further increasing their global demand. Consumers expect good-quality fruit to be flavourful, succulent, juicy and nutritional, in addition to being attractive in size and appearance.

Other consumer-desirable characteristics of fruits include crispness, chewiness and oiliness. However, for the fruit handler, shipper and retailer, the desirable fruit quality attributes include being less prone to handling and shipping damages, slow softening during storage and longer shelflife, without affecting consumer appeal.

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Medium 9781780644370

17 Insect Resistance Management and Integrated Pest Management for Bt Crops: Prospects for an Area-wide View

Soberon, M. CABI PDF

17

Insect Resistance Management and Integrated Pest Management for Bt Crops: Prospects for an

Area-wide View

William D. Hutchison*

Department of Entomology, University of Minnesota, St Paul,

Minnesota, USA

Summary

Throughout this book, several authors have reviewed the pest resistance challenges within the context of the use of genetically modified (GM) crops, the solutions that are necessary to mitigate the evolution of insect pest resistance and the continued need for effective insect resistance management

(IRM). Clearly, the current selection pressure has resulted from the extensive adoption of

GM crops by millions of farmers worldwide due, in part, to their real or perceived benefits. Many of the benefits of GM maize and cotton have been well documented.

They include increased yields, reduced yield variability, increased economic returns to farmers, reductions in insecticide use, reductions in pesticide exposure to farm workers, the subsequent conservation of beneficial insects, and the environmental benefits resulting from less tillage. These benefits, however, are not universal for all

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