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S. Swapna Kumar Laxmi Publications PDF

144 A Guide to Wireless Sensor Networks





One of the biggest challenges facing companies deploying wireless sensors is the disparate standards, protocols and methods of communication and data formats. A standards body is typically slow and is to utilize as interoperability of standards to drive the adoption of wireless sensors.

The Table 9.1, short list some of the standards that is being used in wireless sensor networking. Standards are very important not only for the adoption of wireless sensor technology but also it leads to an eventual explosion of end products build on that standard which is a necessity for any emerging market. 

Table 9.1 List of the wireless standards

Wireless Standards

Wireless Standards Description


A family of specifications developed by IEEE for local area networks. Typically, high bandwidth and high speed data rates and larger data packets.


A family of specifications developed by IEEE for personal-area networks.

Typically low power, low rates, and small data packet size.

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B. Element List

Thomas Tregner XML Press ePub

AutoExcludeNonTaggedFiles is an attribute of <CatapultProjectImport> in a Flare Project Import File. When set to true, Flare will only import files that are tagged with conditions specified in the ConditionTagExpression attribute. Setting this attribute is the same as checking the Auto-include linked files option in the Project Import Editor.

The root element of an alias (*.flali) file. A <CatapultAliasFile> contains <Map> elements with Name, Link, and Skin (optional) attributes. These elements map an identifier to a relative path for a topic. The identifier is mapped to a numerical value in a header file.

The root element of a Flare Condition Tag Set (*.flcts) file. This element contains <ConditionTag> sub-elements.

The root element of a Flare Destination (*.fldes) file. <CatapultDestination> has attributes for the field values in the Flare application’s Destination Editor. For example, Type="ftp"corresponds to a value of FTP in the Type drop down in the Destination Editor.

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1. Digital Audio and the Computer

Bruce Fries O'Reilly Media ePub

In the simplest terms, computer audio is a catch-all concept for music or other audio that is created, listened to, downloaded, shared, or edited using a personal computer. By nature, all computer audio is digital audio, but unlike the digital audio on compact discs (CDs) and MiniDiscs, computer audio isn’t tied to specific media.

The term downloadable music refers to music in the form of digital audio files (MP3 files are a good example) that you can download from a web site, play on your computer or portable player, or burn to a CD. Streaming audio uses similar technology but allows you to listen to music via an Internet connection, similar to the way you listen to AM and FM radio.

The concept of downloadable music evokes a world without records, tapes, or pre-recorded CDs, while streaming audio suggests a world without transmitters, antennas, or geographic limitations. Both technologies have spawned legal and philosophical discussions that rage across the Web and throughout the courts. Digital audio and downloadable music have, without a doubt, changed the face of the recording industry, the way we listen to music, and the way we’ll consume music and other types of audio in the future.

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Mark Frauenfelder Maker Media, Inc ePub

“Press a button and a light flashes a pattern. What makes it flash? It seems like there’s a tiny monkey in there flipping the switch. If so, many household items contain these monkeys.”

Sparkle Labs, Microcontroller Programming

from the pages of MAKE


Ask anyone how many computers they own and they’ll likely say one, or two, or maybe a few more (if they count their TiVo and their cellphone). The actual answer is hundreds. Your house, your car, nearly every electronic gizmo you own has one or more computers-on-a-chip, called a microcontroller. There’s a quiet revolution going on of precocious users messing around with these microcontrollers, programming them for fun and profit. The chips are cheap, and the programming software and other tools get easier to use by the day. Here’s some of what you need to know to become your own digital controller.

By Sparkle Labs

Easy-to-program chips tell circuitry to do what you want.

Press a button and a light flashes a pattern. What makes it flash? It seems like there’s a tiny monkey in there flipping the switch. If so, many household items contain these tiny monkeys. They’re what send the infrared (IR) codes out of our remote controls and then decode them in our televisions. They run our washing machines and toasters. These tiny monkeys are microcontrollers, and you can train them to help you with your own projects.

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11. Remote

Jeff Carlson Take Control Books ePub

Apple's free Remote app (http://itunes.com/apps/remote) isn't included with the iPhone, but it should have been. Its premise is simple: control iTunes remotely using your iPhone or iPod touch. In my house, we listen to music streamed to an AirPort ExpressApple's small wireless base station that includes audio hookupsconnected to the stereo. We listen to music from my wife's laptop in the living room or my laptop in my home office upstairs.

Remote lets me change playlists, pause the music, and control other aspects of iTunes without having to go to one of those computers. Remote also lets you control an Apple TVnot just music playback, but also navigating the full interface.

Remote can control as many iTunes libraries as you like (one at a time). However, you must pair the iPhone or iPod touch with iTunes before you're granted access.

When you launch Remote, it looks for any available libraries on the network (Remote requires a Wi-Fi connection). Do the following to pair the device with iTunes or an Apple TV:

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