1433 Slices
Medium 9781780645322

12 Water Supply and Quality

Banwart, S.A., Noellemeyer, E., Milne, E. CABI PDF

12 

Water Supply and Quality

David Werner* and Peter Grathwohl

Abstract

Water is filtered while passing through soil, and soil organic carbon plays an important role in water purification through the retention of organic and inorganic pollutants. But no filter lasts forever, and no matter how strongly pollutants adsorb to soil organic matter, they will not be retained indefinitely and will eventually break through organic carbon-rich soil horizons and may reach the groundwater.

Therefore, the organic pollutant biodegradation in soil by microorganisms is a most important complementary process to pollutant retention by sorption. Soil organic carbon also shapes soil microbial communities and activities as an important substrate and habitat, and forms the metabolic capabilities and activities leading to pollutant breakdown in soils. If released into soil pore water, dissolved or colloidal organic matter may cause problems for drinking water supply as a carrier of associated pollutants, by giving taste, odour or colour to water and through the formation of disinfection by-products.

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Medium 9781780645308

Part V: Avian and Human Health – Interactions, Opportunities and Threats

Edited by Emily Burton, Joanne Gatliffe, Helen Masey O'Neill and Dawn Schoely CABI PDF

PART V

Avian and Human Health –

Interactions, Opportunities and Threats

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CHAPTER 8

Food Safety: Prevention is Better than

Crisis Management

Patrick Wall* and Zhongyi Yu

University College Dublin, Ireland

INTRODUCTION

Poultry meat and eggs are affordable sources of valuable protein and will be a large part of the solution to meeting the needs of the growing world population.

In addition, as human nutritionists increasingly address the requirements of people at different life stages, and different levels of activity, both poultry and eggs are bioavailable sources of high quality protein. Therefore the commercial opportunities for the sector are many, and the future is looking good, provided adverse publicity can be avoided associated with: (i) food safety; (ii) animal welfare; (iii) health and nutrition; and (iv) environmental impact. Public perception is often informed by sensational news coverage and items are placed higher on the agendas of policy makers as a result of the intensity of the media coverage of an issue. Policy makers and regulators are not consistent in how they address risk along the food chain, or in society at large, and often their response is in proportion to the media coverage rather than the risk to public health. At times the regulatory response can be disproportionate to the risk. In most instances there are several solutions to a crisis and the focus should be on delivering the optimum level of consumer health protection whilst doing the minimum damage to both commercial interests and consumer confidence. Sadly this is rarely the case, emphasizing the importance of focusing on prevention rather than crisis management.

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Medium 9781902375212

Selection of plant

Tony Baxendale Chartridge Books Oxford ePub

CHAPTER 2

Decision Making
Methodology for
Methods of Production

Introduction

The aims of this methodology for decision making are to identify production opportunities and problems and also to develop strategies for the production of complex contracts. Decisions will be both of a ‘policy’ and a ‘hard’ decision in nature. Decisions will need to be made upon:

     Level, type, balancing of mechanisation to manpower resources.

     Extent and type of temporary works.

     Specific safety and protection measures.

     Storage facilities.

     Sequencing and timing of activities.

     Direction of working and access requirements.

     Whether or not the production method is economical and achieves the performance and quality requirements of binding.

The decision making process is not linear and requires constant reappraisal; be prepared to choose solutions, test them and make changes.

Methodology

Information

Consider what information you require to make a decision. On most large contracts, the information provided may well be substantial. You will need to sort out what is relevant, assess its quality and identify whether there are any information gaps.

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Medium 9788131807484

bamech-en-1

Mohan Sen Laxmi Publications PDF

1

Engineering Ma terials

Materials

1.1 INTRODUCTION

Engineers from all disciplines should have some basic and applied knowledge of engineering materials so that they can do their work more efficiently while using them. Since ancient times, human civilization right from the beginning of stone age to iron and steel age and now to silicon age has seen the impact of these materials on the quality of human life.

In all engineering disciplines, the desired performance of a component or structure depends on the right choice of a material. Mechanical engineers want light weight high strength and durable material for producing mechanical components such as connecting rods, cranks, etc.

Aerospace engineers demand light weight, high strength and high temperature resistant materials like glass fiber reinforced materials. Electrical engineers demand good quality ceramic and insulating materials so that their switches can react quickly and insulators can withstand high temperatures efficiently. Civil engineers will naturally like to select those materials from which they can design and construct safe, reliable and corrosion free structures like bridges, dams, and flyovers etc. As usual, chemical engineers prefer to use corrosion resistant and eco-friendly materials for the pipeline and other storing chemicals in industries.

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Medium 9789351382492

APP

Saradindu Panda Laxmi Publications PDF

APPENDIX

SPECIAL ARITHMETIC VLSI

CIRCUITS

A CARRY LOOKAHEAD ADDER

A carry lookahead adder is a type of adder used in digital logic. It can be contrasted with the simpler, but usually slower, ripple carry adder.

A ripple-carry adder works in the same way as pencil-and-paper methods of addition.

Starting at the rightmost (least significant) digit position, the two corresponding digits are added and a result obtained. It is also possible that there may be a carry out of this digit position

(for example, in pencil-and-paper methods, “9 + 5 = 4, carry 1”). Accordingly all digit positions other than the rightmost need to take into account the possibility of having to add an extra 1, from a carry that has come in from the next position to the right.

This means that no digit position can have an absolutely final value until it has been established whether or not a carry is coming in from the right. Moreover, unless the sum without a carry is 9 (in pencil-the-paper methods) or 1 (in binary arithmetic), it is not even possible to tell whether or not a given digit position is going to pass on a carry to the position on its left. At worst, when a whole sequence of sums comes to ...99999999... (in decimal) or ...11111111... (in binary), nothing can be deduced at all until the value of the carry coming in from the right is known, and that carry is then propagated to the left, one step at a time, as each digit position evaluated “9 + 1 = 0, carry 1” or “1 + 1 = 0, carry 1”. It is the “rippling” of the carry from right to left that gives a ripple-carry adder its name, and its slowness. When adding 32-bit integers, for instance, allowance has to be made for the possibility that a carry could have to ripple through everyone of the 32 one-bit adders.

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