1744 Chapters
Medium 9781780647906

2: Aims and Principles of Organic Pig Production

Blair, R. CABI PDF


Aims and Principles of Organic Pig Production

According to the Codex Alimentarius Commission and the Joint Food and Agriculture

Organization of the United Nations (FAO)/

World Health Organization (WHO) Food

Standards Programme, organic agriculture is:

[A] holistic production management system which promotes and enhances agroecosystem health, including biodiversity, biological cycles, and soil biological activity . . . emphasizes the use of management practices in preference to the use of off-farm inputs as opposed to using synthetic materials. The primary goal is to optimize the health and productivity of interdependent communities of soil life, plants, animals and people . . . the systems are based on specific and precise standards of production which aim at achieving optimal agroecosystems which are socially, ecologically and economically sustainable.

(Codex Alimentarius Commission, 1999)

Thus organic pig production differs from conventional production, and in many ways is close to the agriculture of Asia. It aims to fully integrate animal and crop production and develop a symbiotic relationship of recyclable and renewable resources within the farm system. Livestock production then becomes one component of a wider, more inclusive organic production system. Organic pig producers must take into consideration several factors other than the production of

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Medium 9781780647784

11 Viral Encephalopathy and Retinopathy

Woo, P.T.K.; Cipriano, R.C. CABI PDF


Viral Encephalopathy and Retinopathy

Anna Toffan*

OIE Reference Centre for Viral Encephalopathy and Retinopathy,

Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie, Legnaro (Padova), Italy

11.1  Introduction

Viral encephalopathy and retinopathy (VER), also known as viral nervous necrosis (VNN) is a severe neuropathological disease caused by RNA viruses of the genus Betanodavirus (Family: Nodaviridae).

This infectious agent, detected in the late 1980s, spread worldwide, became endemic and came to represent a major limiting factor for mariculture in several countries. The disease has recently been included among the most significant viral pathogens of finfish, given the expanding host range and the lack of properly effective prophylactic measures

(Rigos and Katharios, 2009; Walker and Winton,

2010; Shetty et al., 2012).

11.2  The Infectious Agents

The causative agent of the disease is a small

(25–30 nm diameter), spherical, non-enveloped virion, with a bi-segmented genome made of two singlestranded positive-sense RNA molecules. The name

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Medium 9781780645742

5: Attitudes to Risky Consequences

J.B. Hardaker; R.B.M Huirne; J.R. Anderson CAB International PDF


Attitudes to Risky



In Chapter 2 we have shown how a simple risky decision problem, such as that faced by the dairy farmer thinking about insuring against foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), can be solved. The key step was to transform the risky consequences of an event fork into the DM’s certainty equivalents (CEs). However, the assessment of CEs can become very tedious if there are many such risky event forks. Moreover, the introspective capacity needed to decide on CEs rises with the number of branches emerging from the fork.

As explained in Chapter 2, the central notion in decision analysis is to break this assessment of consequences into separate assessments of beliefs about the uncertainty to be faced, and of relative preferences for consequences. In Chapters 3 and 4 we dealt with the former of these assessments. Now it is time to look in more detail at how preferences for consequences can be assessed and how those preferences can be encoded.

In Chapter 2 we laid the theoretical foundation for this chapter on utility theory via the presentation of the axioms of the subjective expected utility hypothesis. Readers might find it useful to review the

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Medium 9781902375212


Tony Baxendale Chartridge Books Oxford ePub


Modelling Operations


Simulation is the representation of features of the behaviour of a physical or abstract system by the behaviour of another system. Queueing theory has provided general solutions for simple situations, but there are few such situations in construction to which it can be applied. A better appreciation of the situation may be gained by introducing a dynamic element in Monte Carlo simulation, a method of obtaining an approximate solution to a numeric problem by the use of random numbers. The application of Monte Carlo simulation to construction problems, which involve queues of all types, is where a dynamic model of a situation is produced from observations of that, or a similar, situation in order to predict the likely operation of the subject being modelled over a period of time. Simulation is used to carry out rapid cycles of experimental work in situations where durations are long and/or patterns of behaviour vary from cycle to cycle within bounds. The analysis of historic data can be translated into predictions of future behaviour, permitting the comparison of alternative courses of action in sufficient time to alter strategic and not just tactical decisions.

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Medium 9781601323286

Effective Representation of Object-oriented Program: the key to change impact analysis

Hamid R. Arabnia, Leonidas Deligiannidis, George Jandieri, Ashu M. G. Solo, Fernando G. Tinetti CSREA Press PDF

Int'l Conf. Software Eng. Research and Practice | SERP'14 |


Effective Representation of Object-oriented Program: the key to change impact analysis

Isong Bassey

Obeten Ekabua

Department of Computer Science

North-West University

Mafikeng, South Africa


Department Of Computer Science

North-West University

Mafikeng, South Africa obeten.ekabua@nwu.ac.za

Abstract— Today, object-oriented (OO) technology has gained worldwide popularity in software development and several OO software applications are currently in use. It is imperative that these systems are effectively and efficiently maintained. However, OO software components have different complex dependencies which often make it difficult to anticipate and identify ripple-effects of a change when faced with change proposal. In the perspective of

Software Engineering Education at the undergraduate level, software maintenance stands a software development phase where much has not been done to induct students into the act. The existing software change impact analysis (CIA) approaches seems complex for students at the undergraduate level. Thus, these students have to be taught how to maintain OO software system since they are the future software developers and any representation of OOS that is effec tive would aid program comprehension and facilitate CIA process at this level of study. In this paper, we have proposed an approach called

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