996 Chapters
Medium 9781786395177

2 Agriculture for Achieving Sustainable Development Goals

Paroda, R.S. CABI PDF


Agriculture for Achieving Sustainable

Development Goals

The Context

Globally, poverty and hunger are still the twin challenges before human civilization despite specific temporal and spatial efforts. Though extreme poverty has been reduced by more than half since 1992, more than 800 million people live on less than US$1/day and roughly half of the world’s population lives below US$2.50/day.

One in nine people is undernourished. Poor nutrition is the cause of 45% of the deaths among children under the age of 5, nearly 3 million each year. Every 3.5 seconds a child dies due to poverty.

Therefore, it is necessary to produce affordable, nutritional, safe and healthy food more efficiently and sustainably.

Agriculture is facing a bigger threat now than ever before on account of degradation of natural resources, especially land and water, as well as the adverse impact of global climate change. Hence combating climate change, reducing emissions and conserving natural resources, without compromising economic development, especially on the food front, would require a new set of policies, institutional reforms and additional investment in the agricultural sector (NITI

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Medium 9781780645308

Part III: People as a Sustainable Resource



People as a Sustainable Resource

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How to Attract, Retain and Develop

Talent within the Industry

Colin T. Whittemore,1* Falko Kaufmann2 and

Robby Andersson2


Society of Animal Science, UK; 2University of Applied Sciences

Osnabrueck, Germany


People choosing their profession or occupation usually ask themselves: ‘Do I want to do that for the rest of my life?’, ‘What if I am not happy with that?’,

‘How about my career prospects?’ The danger is that for the agricultural sector there may be an increasing tendency for the answer to be negative, resulting in the avoidance of careers in the agricultural sector. The perception of agriculture in general and of the poultry industry in particular, has steadily deteriorated over recent years. At the same time, the poultry sector has become more transparent and publicly available. However, because the general public and consumers necessarily lack professional knowledge, well-established production systems are viewed with suspicion. In addition, livestock industries are failing to promote the positive aspects of a poultry industry career, and at the same time are also failing to counter the lack of positive information available to the public at large. Certain fields such as animal welfare, animal health and risk-oriented food safety have moved to the centre of public attention, and thus political interest. It follows that the political and legal framework for all intensive husbandry systems, and in particular all stages of poultry production upstream and downstream, are placed under critical scrutiny. The ‘negative image’ of intensive livestock production has resulted in reducing numbers of young people deciding to opt for vocational and/or academic training in the poultry sector. This is, to say the least, unfortunate as the poultry industry offers a broad spectrum of highly diverse and challenging jobs. Moreover, the poultry sector is rapidly growing and therefore skilled employees are urgently sought, meaning career prospects are highly attractive.

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Medium 9781780647753

8: Assessing Gender Gaps in Information Delivery for Better Farming Decisions: The Case of Albania

Chan, C.; Sipes, B.; Lee, T.S. CABI PDF


Assessing Gender Gaps in Information

Delivery for Better Farming Decisions:

The Case of Albania

Edvin Zhllima1* and Klodjan Rama2

Agriculture University of Tirana, Albania; 2European University of Tirana, formerly

Leibniz Institute of Agriculture Development in Transition Economies

(IAMO) and Martin Luther University, Halle-Wittenberg, Germany


8.1  Introduction

Public sector agricultural advisory services remain one of the most crucial and critical mechanisms to enhance farmers’ efficiency and profitability in both developed and developing countries. These services are means for disseminating and changing the modality of supply and adoption of innovative technologies. In transitioning economies, including those exiting conflict or the transitional ones, where structural and institutional changes happen rapidly during the transition, well functioning agricultural advisory services are critical for delivering effective new practices and knowledge to farmers.

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Medium 9781780644325

23 Methanotrophs in Enteric Methane Mitigation



Methanotrophs in Enteric

Methane Mitigation

N.M. Soren,* P.K. Malik and V. Sejian

National Institute of Animal Nutrition and Physiology, Bangalore,



emission are debated elaborately in the following chapter.

In recent years, greater concern for environmental health, especially the mitigation of greenhouse gases, has been debated on various platforms. Methane

(CH4) is a potent greenhouse gas (GHG) and is produced globally by both biotic and anthropogenic activities. The most important recognized sources of CH4 are natural wetlands (21%); fossil fuel related to natural gas, coal mines and the coal industry

(16%); enteric fermentation (16%); paddy

(11%); biomass burning (7%); landfills (7%); and animal waste (5%). Enteric fermentation in ruminants represents a major source of anthropogenic CH4. Several CH4 lowering strategies are being attempted by animal scientists across the globe to enhance livestock production vis-à-vis lower CH4 production. Each strategy that is being attempted has its advantages as well as limitations. So it is imperative to look for a strategy that is viable and environmentally friendly too. CH4-oxidizing bacteria, obligate and facultative, as well as anaerobic CH4oxidizing archaea are known to play a fundamental role in the carbon cycle by metabolizing CH4 before it is released into the atmosphere. Therefore, CH4 mitigation by employing methanotrophic microorganisms may be a viable and novel approach in controlling enteric CH4 emissions in ruminants. The prospects of methanotrophs for eradicating enteric CH4

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Medium 9781845939212

15 Measures of Fixed Capital in Agriculture

Fuglie, K.O., Ball, V.E., Wang, S.L. CABI PDF




Measures of Fixed Capital in Agriculture*

Rita Butzer,1 Yair Mundlak2 and Donald F. Larson3

University of Chicago; 2Hebrew University of Jerusalem;


Development Research Group, World Bank


Data on sectoral investment and capital stocks are essential for empirical research in sectoral productivity, yet cross-country panels are rare for countries outside of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Crego et al. (1998) introduce a database on the capital stock in the agricultural and manufacturing sectors for 57 developed and developing countries for the years 1967–1992. We have updated the agricultural component of this database to the year 2000 for a subset of 30 countries.

We construct three capital sub-components series: treestock, livestock and fixed capital in agriculture. We modify a commonly used methodology for integrating investment to obtain the fixed capital stock. This methodology can also be used to compute comparable fixed capital stocks for other sectors and for the economy as a whole, in order to facilitate comparative analyses. An analysis of capital stocks in manufacturing and agriculture,

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