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Medium 9781845938291

21. Invasion of Exotic Arthropods in South America’s Biodiversity Hotspots and Agro-Production Systems

Pena, J.E., Editor CAB International PDF

21 

Invasion of Exotic Arthropods in

South America’s Biodiversity Hotspots and Agro-Production Systems

K.A.G. Wyckhuys,1 T. Kondo,2 B.V. Herrera,1 D.R. Miller,3

N. Naranjo4 and G. Hyman1

1

International Center for Tropical Agriculture CIAT, Recta Palmira-Cali,

Cali, Valle del Cauca, Colombia; 2Corporación Colombiana de Investigación

Agropecuaria,Corpoica, Colombia; 3Systematic Entomology Laboratory, Agricultural

Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, Maryland 20705, USA;

4

Horticulture Research Center CIAA, Universidad Jorge Tadeo Lozano,

Bogota, Colombia

21.1  Introduction

Worldwide, exotic invasive species are of increased concern, and are responsible for environmental and economic problems. Although some exotic species are efficiently kept at bay through both biotic and abiotic processes, several lack effective natural enemies and undergo explosive population increases and geographic spread. Such species commonly transform and negatively affect (native) ecosystems, threaten biotic integrity and contribute to the disappearance of endangered species (Reid and Miller,

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Medium 9781845938178

3: Rodents in Agriculture and Forestry

Buckle, A.P. CABI PDF

3 

Rodents in Agriculture and Forestry

B.J. Wood1 and G.R. Singleton2

Merrivale Research, Exton Lane, Exeter, UK; 2International

Rice Research Institute (IRRI), Metro Manila, Philippines

1

Introduction

Rodents occur in virtually every terrestrial environment that supports life, be it wild, agricultural or urban. Many species comprise relatively small individuals with the capacity to multiply rapidly. Generally, rodents are omnivorous, feeding mainly on plant materials, which may include seeds, leaves, roots, whole young plants, fruit, grain and tree bark; and animal tissue, for example, insects, snails, other invertebrates and the bodies of vertebrates. They may also feed on living plants and animals, and by scavenging. Some species are fairly restricted in diet, but most are quite versatile, and some can adapt readily to manufactured food products and wastes. Many species are fossorial, nesting and living much of the time in burrows; others live at ground level, progressing through tree climbing to completely arboreal species. Rodents are represented in all climatic zones from Arctic tundra to the equatorial tropics, and they ­include species that are well adapted to arid conditions. In common with most taxonomic groups, rodents show a tendency to  having a greater number of species in warmer, wetter environments. All of these characteristics predispose rodents to live freely in competition with humans (i.e. to be pests), including their role in important depredations in

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Linux as a PBX

Theodore Wallingford O'Reilly Media PDF

Chapter

3 3

CHAPTER

Linux as a PBX

Evaluating VoIP for enterprise or for your home phone setup means a lot of experimentation, and you’ll need to build a test server with which to hone your VoIP skills.

That test server should be something you can get a lot out of without spending a bundle or committing to a specific vendor’s commercial VoIP platform before you’ve done your homework. Free telephony software lets you do that homework.

Free Telephony Software

If you were learning engine repair instead of VoIP, you probably wouldn’t use a Ferrari for your experiments. You would want something more forgiving and easier to work on, like a nice Dodge Omni. Luckily, there’s Asterisk PBX software—the very open, roomy-under-the-hood telephony server. Like a Dodge Omni, Asterisk is easy to work on, support is a snap to find, and experimenting is cheap. In fact, Asterisk is free

(although its development is supported by Digium, Inc., http.//www.digium.com). So is its source code.

But like a Ferrari, Asterisk is very powerful. Asterisk supports several Voice over IP communication protocols: H.323, SIP, IAX, and others (see Chapter 7 for more on these). Using these protocols, it can support just about any IP telephone, as well as traditional analog and digital telephones. Asterisk has some industrial-strength features like call-queuing, conference calling, voice mail, and caller ID.

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Medium 9781786390325

7 Management of Soilborne Plant Pathogens with Beneficial Root-Colonizing Pseudomonas

Singh, H.B. CABI PDF

7 

Management of Soilborne Plant Pathogens with Beneficial Root-Colonizing Pseudomonas

Dmitri V. Mavrodi,1 Mingming Yang,2* Olga V. Mavrodi1 and Shanshan Wen2

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg,

Mississippi, USA; 2Department of Agronomy, Northwest A&F University, Yangling,

Shaanxi, China

1

7.1 Introduction

Soilborne plant pathogens are a significant constraint to crop production worldwide.

There are no adequate seed treatments against many soilborne diseases, no resistant cultivars, and current trends towards reduced tillage and longer crop rotations favour the disease. Soilborne diseases reduce the quantity and quality of marketable yields, and their control adds considerably to the cost of production. Economic losses due to soilborne diseases in the United States alone are estimated at >$4 billion per year (Lumsden et al., 1995). It has been estimated that from

2001 to 2003 an average of 7–15% of crop loss occurred on the main world crops due to soilborne fungi and oomycetes (Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici, Fusarium

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ele-opt-com-ind

Anil Kumar Shukla Laxmi Publications PDF

INDEX

Cladding modes, 25

A

Critical angle, 17

Absorption, 29

Cutback method, 93

Absorption of light, 15

Cutoff wavelength, 23, 96

Acceptance angle, 20

Acceptance cone, 20

D

Analog, 155

Analog applications, 132

Dark current, 141

Analog transmission, 157

Dead-zone, 110

Angle of incidence, 12

Depressed cladding, 45

Angle of reflection, 13

Destructive interference, 23

Angular misalignment, 68

Device operating principles, 124

Attenuation, 28, 92

Diffusion of light, 15

Avalanche photodiodes, 143

Digital, 155

Digital applications, 132

Digital transmission, 155

B

Directional couplers, 84

Backscatter capture coefficient, 111

Dispersion, 24, 32

Bandwidth, 98

Dopants, 124

Baseband frequency response, 99

Baseband signal, 157

E

Bidirectional averaging, 113

Bound rays, 19

Edge-emitting LEDs, 127

Butt-jointed connectors, 76

Expanded-beam connectors, 76

Extrinsic absorption, 30

C

F

Cable designs, 54

Cable jacket or sheath material, 53

Fabrication of optical fibers, 48

Cable strength, 53

Ferrule connectors, 76

Chromatic dispersion, 24, 99

Fiber alignment, 67

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