996 Chapters
Medium 9781845938116

9 Reducing Invasive Plant Performance: a Precursor to Restoration

Monaco, T.A., Editor CAB International PDF

9

Reducing Invasive Plant

Performance: a Precursor to

Restoration

Joseph M. DiTomaso1 and Jacob N. Barney2

1 Department

2 Department

of Plant Sciences, University of California, USA of Plant Pathology, Virginia Tech, USA

Introduction

Most non-native plants in natural areas do not out-compete native species or cause significant impacts to ecosystem function

(Rejmánek, 2000, 2011; Smith and Knapp,

2001). It has been estimated that <10% of invasive species that have established and persist in natural areas actually transform the ecosystem by changing the character, condition, form, or nature of an area

(Richardson et al., 2000). There are many theories and reviews on why species become invasive, including release from natural enemies and herbivores in their native range

(Keane and Crawley, 2002; Daehler, 2003), improved competitive ability through a shift in allocation from defense to growth

(Blossey and Nötzold, 1995), and the development of novel growth or functional forms in invasive species that have competitive advantages over native species

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Medium 9781780646282

17: Productivity of 16 Forage Legumes Under Cutting in Belize on Contrasting Soils: a High Alluvial Terrace and A Lowland Pine Savanna I. Dry Matter Yields

Lazier, J.R.; Ahmad, N. CABI PDF

17 

Productivity of 16 Forage Legumes

Under Cutting in Belize on Contrasting

Soils: a High Alluvial Terrace and A

Lowland Pine Savanna I. Dry Matter Yields

J.R. Lazier*1

*Formerly International Livestock Centre for Africa

Abstract

In order to determine the relative productivity of 16 promising forage legumes (12 species, 8 genera) in two major environments of central Belize (a neutral heavy cracking clay on an upper river terrace, and an acid waterlogged sandy loam on the Low Pine Ridge coastal deposits), trials with three replicates were established and 12 harvests for dry matter were made at 6-week intervals. The high terrace site was a long-­established pasture of Coastal Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon). The grass and weeds proved to be aggressive and dominated the legumes tested, such that many low and viney legumes died out. Codariocalyx gyroides, Crotalaria anagyroides and Leucaena leucocephala, which grew above the grass, had the best total yields. The Bermuda grass production was very poor in the cool and dry seasons. At the waterlogged savanna site there was little competition from the native grass Mesosetum angustifolium, but very little legume growth until fertilizer was applied. Thereafter, C. anagyroides and C. gyroides were very vigorous, yielding well through the dry season and producing substantially more in the last 9 months of the trial than the high river terrace site. The wet soil conditions permitted best legume growth in the dry season. The legumes generally were more productive than at the heavy clay site. M. angustifolium yields were very low throughout the trial, and particularly in the cool season.

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Medium 9781780648002

8 Integrated Pest Management in Sugarcane Cropping Systems

Rapisarda, C.; Cocuzza, G.E.M. CABI PDF

8 

Integrated Pest Management in Sugarcane

Cropping Systems

François-Régis Goebel1,* and Amin Nikpay2

1CIRAD,

Unité de Recherche AIDA, Montpellier, France; 2Department of Plant

Protection, Sugarcane and By-products Development Company, Ahwaz, Iran

8.1  Introduction and General Context

Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) is grown in more than 100 countries worldwide producing a total of 170 million tons of sugar. Brazil is the main producer. It is a strategically important crop, having a profound economic impact on social and governmental issues in many countries around the world (James, 2004). According to statistics from the International Sugar Organization (ISO), sugar consumption per capita

(world average) stood at 23.3  kg/year or

63.9 g/day in 2014.

World trade, change in climate conditions, and simplification and intensification of agricultural systems has increased the risks of pest/disease incursions and outbreaks. As with many other tropical crops, sugarcane hosts a considerable quantity of insects and diseases, some of them having an economic impact on sugarcane farmers and industries. For example, the sugarcane industry in Australia is always threatened by neighbouring countries such as Indonesia and Papua New Guinea, which have a much wider range of pests. The response is the adoption in Australia of strong quarantine procedures and biosecurity strategies to avoid such risks (Goebel and Salam,

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Medium 9781845939946

10: Brief History of the Main Published Works on the Mites of Economic Plants

Vacante, V. CABI PDF

10  Brief History of the Main Published Works on the Mites of Economic Plants

The mites of economic plants are mainly included in the superfamily Eriophyoidea and the families Tetranychidae and

Tenuipalpidae. Other families, e.g. the Tarsonemidae and the

Penthaleidae, have relatively few injurious species. Summarizing the history of these mite groups according to their economic importance is very difficult because of the very large number of references. This brief history covers only the main works on economic acarology, and the references that are included on systematic and taxonomic aspects highlight the importance of basic knowledge in the intervention that is applied. The discussion is arranged by geographic area. The Mediterranean region is taken to include the North African countries, the Middle

East, Turkey and Cyprus; the northern Mediterranean countries are included in the section on Europe.

Europe

The European history of acarology follows for long stretches of time the world history of the discipline, in conjunction with North

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Medium 9781780647784

12 Iridoviral Diseases: Red Sea Bream Iridovirus and White Sturgeon Iridovirus

Woo, P.T.K.; Cipriano, R.C. CABI PDF

12

I�ridoviral Diseases: Red Sea

Bream Iridovirus and White

Sturgeon Iridovirus

Yasuhiko Kawato,1 Kuttichantran Subramaniam,2

Kazuhiro Nakajima,1 Thomas Waltzek2 and Richard

Whittington3*

1

National Research I­nstitute of Aquaculture, Japan Fisheries Research and

Education Agency, ­Nakatsuhamaura, Minami-Ise, Mie, Japan; 2Department of

Infectious D

­ iseases and Pathology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida,

USA; 3Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Sydney, Camden, New South

Wales, Australia

12.1  Red Sea Bream Iridovirus

12.1.1  Introduction

The red sea bream iridovirus (RSIV) has a doublestranded DNA genome in an icosahedral virion capsid that is 200 nm in diameter. According to the

International Committee on the Taxonomy of

Viruses (ICTV), it is in the genus Megalocytivirus within the family Iridoviridae, although it has not yet been approved as a species within that genus

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