996 Chapters
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Medium 9781780647326

10 A Political Ecology of Community Gardens in Australia: From Local Issues to Global Lessons

WinklerPrins, A.M.G.A. CABI PDF


A Political Ecology of Community

Gardens in Australia: From Local Issues to Global Lessons

Jason A. Byrne,1* Catherine M. Pickering,1

Daniela A. Guitart2 and Rebecca Sims-Castley3


Environmental Futures Research Institute, Gold Coast,

Queensland, Australia; 2Griffith School of Environment,

Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia; 3Independent scholar

10.1  Introduction

The local impacts of global urbanization (e.g. dwindling green spaces, food insecurity, land shortages, loss of biodiversity) have triggered resurgent interest in various forms of urban agriculture (Godfray et al., 2010; Evers and Hodgson,

2011). In many rapidly growing cities across the

Global North (GN) and Global South (GS), residents are clamouring for better access to places to grow safe and healthy food, for spaces that foster social inclusion, and improved environmental quality (Guitart et al., 2015). Urban cultivation initiatives are often framed around the social benefits of local food growing and typically seek to be ‘sustainable’ (Chapters 8 and 9, this volume). These twin goals have important implications for land-use planning and policy, implications that we address in this chapter.

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Medium 9781780647098

10: Aphid Movement: Process and Consequences

van Emden, H.F.; Harrington, R. CABI PDF


�Aphid Movement: Process and Consequences

Alberto Fereres,1* Michael E. Irwin2 and Gail E.



Spanish Research Council, ICA-CSIC, Madrid, Spain; 2Department of ­Natural

Resources and Environmental Sciences, University of Illinois, Urbana, USA;


Illinois Natural History Survey, Prairie Research Institute, University of Illinois,

Champaign, USA


This chapter reviews the movement of agriculturally important aphids. It includes information on how different morphs and life stages redistribute themselves in response to intrinsic factors and extrinsic perturbations over time and through

­spatial scales that span walking behaviour on individual plants to aerial transport over very long distances. The chapter explores the economic consequences of aphid movement and weaves the multiple roles of movement into the tapestry of pest management, providing insight into ways of manipulating aphid movement and thereby mitigating the negative economic impacts resulting from it.

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Medium 9781845939946

10: Brief History of the Main Published Works on the Mites of Economic Plants

Vacante, V. CABI PDF

10  Brief History of the Main Published Works on the Mites of Economic Plants

The mites of economic plants are mainly included in the superfamily Eriophyoidea and the families Tetranychidae and

Tenuipalpidae. Other families, e.g. the Tarsonemidae and the

Penthaleidae, have relatively few injurious species. Summarizing the history of these mite groups according to their economic importance is very difficult because of the very large number of references. This brief history covers only the main works on economic acarology, and the references that are included on systematic and taxonomic aspects highlight the importance of basic knowledge in the intervention that is applied. The discussion is arranged by geographic area. The Mediterranean region is taken to include the North African countries, the Middle

East, Turkey and Cyprus; the northern Mediterranean countries are included in the section on Europe.


The European history of acarology follows for long stretches of time the world history of the discipline, in conjunction with North

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Medium 9781780644325

10 Carbon Sequestration and Animal-Agriculture: Relevance and Strategies to Cope with Climate Change



Carbon Sequestration and

Animal-Agriculture: Relevance and Strategies to Cope with

Climate Change

C. Devendra*

Consulting Tropical Animal Production Systems Specialist,

Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia


Carbon sequestration is an important pathway to stabilize the environment with minimum effects of climate change. Farming systems provide a non-compensated service to society by removing atmospheric carbon generated from fossil fuel combustion, feed production, land restoration, deforestation, biomass burning and drainage of wetlands.

The resultant increase in the global emissions of carbon is calculated at 270 Gt, and increasing at the rate of 4 billion tonnes year–1. Strategies to maximize carbon sequestration through enhanced farming practices, particularly in crop–animal systems, are thus an important priority to reduce global warming. These pathways also respond to agricultural productivity in the multifaceted, less favoured rainfed environments. Sustainable animal-agriculture requires an understanding of crop–animal interactions and integrated natural resource management (NRM), demonstrated in the development of underestimated silvopastoral systems (tree crops and ruminants).

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Medium 9781786391216

10: Cell Cycle and Cell Size Regulation during Maize Seed Development: Current Understanding and Challenging Questions

Larkins, B.A. CABI PDF


Cell Cycle and Cell Size Regulation during Maize Seed Development: Current

Understanding and Challenging Questions

Paolo A. Sabelli*

School of Plant Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, USA

10.1 Introduction

Formation of the maize seed and that of related cereals occurs through coordination of different biological processes, including cell proliferation, cell fate specification, endoreduplication, cell differentiation, accumulation of storage metabolites, and programmed cell death (PCD). Development of the three genetically distinct seed compartments, the sporophyte (i.e. the embryo), the triploid endosperm, and the maternal pericarp, involves extensive crosstalk and tight regulation between and within maternal and filial structures, with genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors playing important roles. The objective of this chapter is to provide a perspective on the roles of cell cycle and cell size regulation during maize seed development, with an emphasis on what is not yet understood about these processes.

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Medium 9781780641409

10: Certification of Forest Management and Timber Origin

Bruenig, E.F. CABI PDF


Certification of Forest Management and Timber Origin

10.1  Roots: Forest Resource Rape;

Offshoots: Boycott of Tropical

Forestry and Timber

The Epic of Gilgamesh, and the second Book of Chronicles in the Old Testament, tell us of illegal timber logging and the murder of forest guards who tried to intervene. Millennia later, Plato (427–347 bc) lamented the less than platonic love of the social elite for wealth, prestige and power, and blamed that as the cause of the deforestation and denuding of hills in Attica. Much later, in the 18th century, the British Crown hammer-­marked large and suitably curve-shaped oak and hickory trees and declared them protected crown property. The navy kept a ledger of all hammer-marked trees and their shapes and locations, to enable collection when the navy shipyards needed them. The British settlers in the New England colonies did not like this – one reason for the War of Independence. In the 19th and 20th centuries, foresters in Germany were still murdered by poachers and timber thieves (Busdorf, 1928–1929). In the tropics, sixty years later, I had twice to take cover and retreat quietly on the advice of local foresters when we stumbled on illegal logging in Borneo and Papua New Guinea.

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Medium 9781845938178

10: Damage Assessment and Damage Surveys

Buckle, A.P.; Smith, R.H. CABI PDF


Damage Assessment and

Damage Surveys

A.P. Buckle

School of Biological Sciences, University of Reading, Reading, UK


The practice of damage assessment in rodent control is much neglected. The tendency of researchers is to concentrate on the study of control technologies and, similarly, the attitude of those involved in practical rodent control leans towards the immediate implementation of management programmes. However, carefully planned and executed damage surveys provide immensely useful information

(Judenko, 1973; Engeman, 2002). The reasons for conducting damage assessments may be considered under the following heads:

1. To establish the economic status of rodent pests, including justifiable expenditure on control and damage thresholds.

2. To determine the geographical distribution of pests, to assist decision making and to allow resources to be allocated where they are most needed.

3. To estimate the effectiveness of control measures, both on a small scale in experimental comparisons of different techniques and during large-scale management programmes.

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Medium 9781780645742

10: Decision Analysis with Multiple Objectives

J.B. Hardaker; R.B.M Huirne; J.R. Anderson CAB International PDF


Decision Analysis with

Multiple Objectives

Introduction with Some Examples

In earlier chapters we have defined utility functions that indirectly embody an important trade-off:

­expected monetary return versus variance. Such a utility function represents a preference model for choice that captures the DM’s attitude to expected return and variance. Obtaining high returns and reducing exposure to variability are usually two conflicting objectives in decision making. We have shown in

Chapters 5 and 7 how to model the preference trade-off between these objectives. In many situations, however, the action chosen depends on how each possible choice meets several objectives, as the following examples show.

A dairy farmer has become concerned about some long-term negative impacts of the current system of milk production on the farm and is therefore considering changing this system. The current production system is a high-input/high-output system. Large amounts of resources are used per cow to produce a high milk yield. In the short term, this system gives the farmer a good income and a high status in the local community. However, because of its intensive nature, it may cause some environmental problems in the future, as well as some problems with cow health and welfare. In thinking about changing the production system, the dairy farmer might consider diverse possible objectives such as the following: (i) maximizing current farm income; (ii) maximizing farm income in the future; (iii) minimizing environmental damage; (iv) maximizing animal health and welfare;

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Medium 9781786395177

10 Enhancing Productivity of Foodgrains

Paroda, R.S. CABI PDF


Enhancing Productivity of Foodgrains

Globally, India is the third-largest producer of cereals, with only China and the USA ahead of it.

India’s population is likely to reach 1.5 billion by

2030 and therefore the challenge facing the country is to produce more and more from diminishing per capita arable land and irrigation water resources and increasing abiotic and biotic stresses.

India produced 277.49 million t of foodgrains in

2017–18 to meet the needs of a current population of 1.34 billion. The current situation in

India is that cereal production has to be doubled by 2050 in order to meet the needs of an expected population of 1.8 billion, in addition to meeting the needs of livestock and poultry. Since land is a shrinking resource for agriculture, the pathway for achieving these goals can only be higher productivity per unit of arable land and irrigation water. Factor productivity will have to be doubled, if the cost of production is to be reasonable and the prices of farm products are to be globally competitive. The average farm size is going down and nearly 80% of farm families belong to the marginal and small-farmer categories. Enhancing small-farm productivity, increasing small-farm income through crop-livestock-aquaculture integrated production systems and multiple livelihood opportunities through agro-processing and biomass utilization, are essential to meet food production targets and for reducing hunger, poverty, nutritional insecurity and rural unemployment.

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Medium 9781780642109

10: Erosion and Sedimentation Effects on Soil Organic Carbon Redistribution in a Complex Landscape in Western Ecuador

Brearley, F.Q., Editor CAB International PDF


Erosion and Sedimentation Effects on Soil Organic Carbon Redistribution in a Complex Landscape in Western Ecuador

Marife D. Corre,1* Jeroen M. Schoorl,2 Free de Koning,3

Magdalena López-Ulloa4 and Edzo Veldkamp1


Büsgen Institute – Soil Science of Tropical and Subtropical Ecosystems,

Georg-August University Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany; 2Soil Geography and

Landscape, Wageningen University, Wageningen, the Netherlands;


Conservation International Ecuador, Quito, Ecuador; 4Environmental Engineering,

Universidad de las Americas, Quito, Ecuador

10.1  Introduction

Soil organic carbon (SOC) contains a large

­proportion of the nutrient-holding capacity of most soils and contributes to important structural properties such as aggregate stability, fertility, erodibility and water-holding capacity.

In recent years, losses of SOC due to land-cover change and agricultural practices have contributed about 12 to 15% of the anthropogenic CO2 emissions to the atmosphere (~1.2 Pg C year–1), the bulk of  which is released from tropical regions (Le Quéré et al., 2009, Van der Werf et al.,

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Medium 9781845939625

10. Ethylene Biosynthesis

P Nath;  M Bouzayen; A K Mattoo CAB International PDF


Ethylene Biosynthesis

Donald Grierson*

Laboratory of Fruit Quality Biology/The State Agriculture Ministry

Laboratory of Horticultural Plant Growth, Development and Quality

Improvement, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China; Plant and Crop

Sciences Division, School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham,

Loughborough, UK

10.1 Introduction

Research during the first few decades of the 20th century showed that hydrocarbon gases in the environment influence plant growth, development and fruit ripening.

Once it was realized that ethylene was the key molecule in this process, and that plants produce it themselves, it was recognized as a bona fide hormone. This stimulated interest in determining the pathway of ethylene biosynthesis and led, ultimately, to the discovery of the enzymes, genes and regulatory factors that control ethylene production and action at different stages in the life cycle. All plants produce ethylene, but increased ethylene production occurs at many stages of development, particularly in response to developmental signals (e.g. flower development and sex determination, abscission, fruit ripening, leaf senescence), hormones

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Medium 9781786393050

10: Fair Trade Certification on Plantations: Household Wealth and Welfare Implications for Hired Labour

Parvathi, P.; Grote, U.; Waibel, H. CABI PDF


Fair Trade Certification on Plantations:

Household Wealth and Welfare

Implications for Hired Labour


Katharina Krumbiegel* and Meike Wollni

University of Goettingen, Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Development, Germany

10.1 Introduction

10.1.1  Fair Trade certified plantation agriculture

About 1.3 billion workers are employed in the agricultural sector worldwide, of which about

500 million work as casual, temporary or permanent workers on plantations. Hired labour on plantations or in factories are considered one of the most vulnerable groups in the global trade system. They are often exposed to discrimination, difficult working conditions, low wages and lack of bargaining opportunities. In recent years, however, consumers have become increasingly aware of unfavourable employment conditions in the food producing industry. This awareness has been mirrored by the rise of private food and sustainability standards, such as Fair Trade.

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Medium 9781780648651

10: Field Maple and Hazel, the other Coppice Species

Peterken, G.; Mountford, E. CABI PDF


Field Maple and Hazel, the other

Coppice Species

In regularly cut coppices, field maple and hazel grow every bit as vigorously as the other trees – indeed, hazel and field maple are major contributors to the underwood – but as soon as coppices are neglected, their slower height growth and their ultimately smaller stature oblige them to grow in shade and become subordinate in high forest and most forms of natural woodland. Together with ash as coppice and pedunculate oak as standards, they form the characteristic lowland coppice type on neutral-alkaline clays and loams, and jointly dominate a few coppices in Essex and Dorset, but both become less frequent on light, acid soils, especially maple. In Lady Park, maple is never more than frequent, even on the most alkaline soils, whereas hazel is abundant and still dominates parts of the young-growth stands. Both could be characterised as either large shrubs or small trees.


Field Maple

Field maples were common components of the underwood in the ancient coppices of the lowlands, south-east lowlands and borderlands of England and Wales, especially on alkaline soils. They can grow into trees, but have rarely been allowed to do so, and they never attain the size of oaks and other canopy dominants. Widespread also in mixed hedges, where they have sometimes been pollarded, they can grow into sizeable boundary trees. They compete in the scrub that colonises open ground, but not vigorously. Their lives became more difficult in the 20th century with the spread of grey squirrels, which debark them almost as enthusiastically as they debark sycamore.

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Medium 9781786391445

10 Global Market of Nanomaterials and Colloidal Formulations for Agriculture: An Overview

Singh, H.B.; Mishra, S.; Fraceto, L.F. CABI PDF


Global Market of Nanomaterials and Colloidal Formulations for Agriculture: An Overview

Estefânia V.R. Campos,1 Jhones L. de Oliveira,1

Leonardo Fernandes Fraceto1 and Renato Grillo2*

São Paulo State University (UNESP), Institute of Science and Technology of Sorocaba, São Paulo, Brazil; 2São Paulo State University (UNESP),

Department of Physics and Chemistry, São Paulo, Brazil


10.1 Introduction

The increase in the growth rate of the global population, together with the need to produce greater amounts of high-quality food in smaller areas, has contributed to an expansion of the agricultural sector in recent years. New tools and farming policies have emerged, ranging from sustainable agriculture to mechanization, biotechnology and nanotechnology (Dethier, 2011; Unsworth et al., 2016). In this chapter, we will focus on nanotechnology, whose activity is related to the creation, processing, characterization and application of materials at the nanoscale

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Medium 9781845938291

10. Host Range of the Nettle Caterpillar Darna pallivitta (Moore) (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae) in Hawai’i

Pena, J.E., Editor CAB International PDF


Host Range of the Nettle Caterpillar

Darna pallivitta (Moore) (Lepidoptera:

Limacodidae) in Hawai’i

Arnold H. Hara,1 Christopher M. Kishimoto2 and Ruth Y. Niino-Duponte1


Department of Plant and Environmental Protection Sciences, Komohana

Research and Extension Center, University of Hawai’i at Manoa,

875 Komohana Street, Hilo, Hawai’i 96720, USA;


Honolulu, Hawai’i 96819, USA

10.1  Introduction

The stinging nettle caterpillar, Darna pallivitta

(Moore) (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae), was first discovered on the Island of Hawai’i in September 2001

(Pana’ewa 119° 39 min 13 s N / 155° 3 min 32 s W), and probably arrived from Taiwan on a shipment of rhapis palm seedlings (Conant et al., 2002). The native range of D. pallivitta is China, Taiwan,

Thailand, Java and Indonesia (Godfray et al., 1987), where it is regarded as a minor pest mainly on palms and grasses, including maize. D. pallivitta quickly became established, and caused extensive feeding damage on numerous agricultural and nursery crops, and on landscape plants. Moreover,

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