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8 Rhizosphere, Mycorrhizosphere and Hyphosphere as Unique Niches for Soil-Inhabiting Bacteria and Micromycetes

Singh, H.B.; Sarma, B.K.; Keswani, C. CABI PDF

8 

Rhizosphere, Mycorrhizosphere and

Hyphosphere as Unique Niches for SoilInhabiting Bacteria and Micromycetes

Elena Voronina* and Irina Sidorova

Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

8.1 Introduction

Soil is a natural body abounding in diverse life forms which belong to all domains of life and to a range of functional groups. Soil heterogeneity at a fine scale provides numerous microhabitats and hosts a number of microbial communities different in size and composition, influenced by soil properties (Haq et al., 2014). Vice versa, fungi, especially, symbiotic in mycorrhizas and bacteria, act as soil engineers, and it was revealed that more than 50% of the humus in boreal forest soil originated from roots and their microbe associates (Clemmensen et al.,

2013).

Soil microbial communities since the

20th century were known to play a key role in plant growth, health and productivity both at individual and ecosystem levels. Root microorganisms interfere with plant nutrition, attack the plant or protect it from attackers, and carry out multiple functions in plant life often based on intense interactions within the microbial community (Keswani et al., 2013; Bisen et al., 2015; Mishra et al., 2015;

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19 Harnessing Bio-priming for Integrated Resource Management under Changing Climate

Singh, H.B.; Sarma, B.K.; Keswani, C. CABI PDF

19 

Harnessing Bio-priming for

Integrated Resource Management under Changing Climate

Deepranjan Sarkar,1 Sumita Pal,2 H.B. Singh,2 Ranjeet

Singh Yadav1 and Amitava Rakshit1*

1

Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Institute of Agricultural

Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India; 2Department of Mycology and Plant Pathology, Institute of Agricultural Sciences,

Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India

19.1 Introduction

Agriculturists are facing huge pressure with escalating world population, increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration and growing climate variability, which is difficult to predict by how much and over what time. The drastic impacts will be seen on plant growth by warmer and drier conditions, changes in wind speed, occurrence of new pests and diseases and many more understated variations resulting from altered interactions among the components of crop agro-ecosystems

(Smith and Almaraz, 2004). Agrochemical pollution leads to ecological disruptions that cause a loss of ecosystem services, viz. land resources, biodiversity and food sources, which has adverse impacts on human health

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11 Endophytomicrobiont: A Multifaceted Beneficial Interaction

Singh, H.B.; Sarma, B.K.; Keswani, C. CABI PDF

11  Endophytomicrobiont: A Multifaceted

Beneficial Interaction

Shatrupa Ray,1 Vivek Singh,1 Kartikay Bisen,2 Chetan Keswani,3

Surendra Singh1 and H.B. Singh2*

1

Department of Botany, Institute of Science, Banaras Hindu University,

Varanasi, India; 2Department of Mycology and Plant Pathology, Institute of

Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India; 3Department of

Biochemistry, Institute of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India

11.1 Introduction

Successful interaction between plants and beneficial microbes lays a foundation for improving plant growth and soil structure.

However, several attempts to introduce beneficial bacteria into the rhizospheric region of agricultural plants have met with varying degrees of failure, particularly because of the huge competition posed by the pre-existing established rhizomicrobiota (Keswani et al.,

2013, 2014; Bisen et  al., 2015, 2016; Keswani, 2015; Keswani et al., 2016a, b). Moreover, several reports claim loss of microbial bioactivity owing to long-term storage (Nautiyal, 1997). Considering the biodiversity and population density of indigenous soil microbiota, causing permanent structural changes to the rhizospheric microbiota may become quite hectic and cumbersome, or to be more succinct, impossible (Singh et al.,

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24 Role of Trichoderma Secondary Metabolites in Plant Growth Promotion and Biological Control

Singh, H.B.; Sarma, B.K.; Keswani, C. CABI PDF

24 

Role of Trichoderma Secondary

Metabolites in Plant Growth Promotion and Biological Control

Jyoti Singh,1 Rahul Singh Rajput,2 Kartikay Bisen,2 Surendra Singh1 and H.B. Singh2*

1

Department of Botany, Institute of Science, Banaras Hindu University,

Varanasi-221005, India; 2Department of Mycology and Plant Pathology, Institute of

Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005, India

24.1 Introduction

After World War II ended, the world’s population started rising due to instant increase in population of less developed countries.

The resultant effects of this tremendous growth will be observed on living standards, resource use and the environment for a long span of time (UNPD, 2008). Cultivation of plants is closely linked to the development of human civilization, which has been ongoing for more than 10,000 years, and therefore plant diseases have been a major concern to mankind for a long time.

In agriculture, the maximum loss is due to plant diseases, which is a major challenge faced by cultivators of each crop at any time.

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5 Role of Plant Growth-Promoting Microorganisms in Sustainable Agriculture and Environmental Remediation

Singh, H.B.; Sarma, B.K.; Keswani, C. CABI PDF

5 

Role of Plant Growth-Promoting

Microorganisms in Sustainable Agriculture and Environmental Remediation

Rama Kant Dubey,1 Vishal Tripathi,1 Sheikh Adil Edrisi,1 Mansi Bakshi,1 Pradeep

Kumar Dubey,1 Ajeet Singh,1 Jay Prakash Verma,1 Akanksha Singh,2 B.K. Sarma,3

Amitava Rakshit,4 D.P. Singh,5 H.B. Singh3 and P.C. Abhilash1*

1

Institute of Environment and Sustainable Development, Banaras Hindu University,

Varanasi, India; 2Microbial Technology and Nematology Division, CSIR-Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, Lucknow, India; 3Department. of Mycology and

Plant Pathology, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi,

India; 4Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Institute of Agricultural

Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India; 5ICAR-National Bureau of

­Agriculturally Important Microorganisms, Kushmaur, Mau Nath Bhanjan, Mau, India

5.1  Introduction: Plant GrowthPromoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR)

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9 Security and Privacy in an Era of Ubiquitous Connectivity

Wadhwa, Vivek; Salkever, Alex Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

In an episode of the popular TV series Homeland, Vice President William Walden is killed by a terrorist who hacked into Walden’s heart pacemaker. The hacker raises Walden’s heart rate, pushing him into a serious, inevitable cardiac arrest. Walden’s pacemaker had been connected to the Internet so that his doctors could monitor his health. That was the fatal mistake. Viewers watched in shock and disbelief, but this assassination plot seemingly out of science fiction was actually not that far-fetched.

These days, many complicated, critically important medical devices include onboard computers and wireless connectivity. Insulin pumps, glucose monitors, and defibrillators have all joined the Internet of Things. Every year at security conferences, hackers are demonstrating new ways to compromise the devices we rely on to keep us alive. Former Vice President Dick Cheney famously asked his doctors to disable the wireless connectivity of the pacemaker embedded in his chest. “It seemed to me to be a bad idea for the vice president to have a device that maybe somebody on a rope line or in the next hotel room or downstairs might be able to get into—hack into,” Cheney’s cardiologist, Jonathan Reiner of George Washington University Hospital in Washington, D.C., told 60 Minutes in an interview in October 2013.1

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5 The Amazing and Scary Rise of Artificial Intelligence

Wadhwa, Vivek; Salkever, Alex Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

Many of us with iPhones talk to Siri, the iPhone’s artificially intelligent assistant. Siri can answer many basic questions asked verbally in plain English. She (or, optionally, he) can, for example, tell you today’s date; when the next San Francisco Giant’s baseball game will take place; and where the nearest pizza restaurant is located. But, though Siri appears clever, she has obvious weaknesses. Unless you tell her the name of your mother or indicate the relationship specifically in Apple’s contact app, Siri will have no idea who your mother is, and so can’t respond to your request to call your mother. That’s hardly intelligent for someone who reads, and could potentially comprehend, every e-mail I send, every phone call I make, and every text I send. Siri also cannot tell you the best route to take in order to arrive home faster and avoid traffic.

That’s OK. Siri is undeniably useful despite her limitations. No longer do I need to tap into a keyboard to find the nearest service station or to recall what date Mother’s Day falls on. And Siri can remember all the pizza restaurants in Oakland, recall the winning and losing pitcher in any of last night’s baseball games, and tell me when the next episode of my favorite TV show will air.

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11 Designer Genes, the Bacteria in Our Guts, and Precision Medicine

Wadhwa, Vivek; Salkever, Alex Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

In the near future, we will routinely have our genetic material analyzed; late in the next decade, we will be able to download and “print” at home medicines, tissues, and bacteria custom designed to suit our DNA and keep us healthy. In short, we will all be biohackers and amateur geneticists, able to understand how our genes work and how to fix them. That’s because these technologies are moving along the exponential technology curve.

Scientists published the first draft analysis of the human genome in 2001. The effort to sequence a human genome was a long and costly one. Started by the government-funded Human Genome Project and later augmented by Celera Genomics and its noted scientist CEO, Craig Venter, the sequencing spanned more than a decade and cost nearly $3 billion. Today, numerous companies are able to completely sequence your DNA for around $1,000, in less than three days. There are even venture-backed companies, such as 23andMe, that sequence parts of human DNA for consumers, without any doctor participation or prescription, for as little as $199.

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3 Real-time PCR as a Tool towards Understanding Microbial Community Dynamics in Rhizosphere

Singh, H.B.; Sarma, B.K.; Keswani, C. CABI PDF

3 

Real-time PCR as a Tool towards

Understanding Microbial Community

Dynamics in Rhizosphere

Gautam Anand, Upma Singh, Abhineet Sain, Virendra S. Bisaria and Shilpi Sharma*

Department of Biochemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Indian

Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi, India

3.1 Introduction

Soil is a complex amalgam of minerals,

­organic phase, porous phase and diverse life forms. Soil processes, such as nutrient cycling, are of prime importance for the maintenance of our ecosystem (Keswani et al., 2013;

2016; Bisen et al., 2015; Mishra et al., 2015).

Microorganisms play a pivotal role in these soil processes. Changes in the soil microbial community have been linked with varying soil functional capabilities (Torsvik and Øvreås,

2002; Nannipieri et al., 2003; Singh et al.,

2014) that are still poorly understood. Despite the meticulous efforts of scientists to unravel the vast expanse of the microbial community in soil, till now only 1–2% of the total microorganisms present in the soil have been cultured in the laboratory (Amann et al., 1995).

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17 Phytoremediation and the Key Role of PGPR

Singh, H.B.; Sarma, B.K.; Keswani, C. CABI PDF

17 

1

Phytoremediation and the Key Role of PGPR

Elisabetta Franchi1* and Gianniantonio Petruzzelli2

Eni S.p.A, Renewable Energy & Environmental R&D, S. Donato Milanese, Italy;

2

Institute of Ecosystem Study, National Council of Research, Pisa, Italy

17.1 Phytoremediation

The original concept of phytoremediation is derived from studies on plants which can uptake and tolerate extremely high levels of heavy metals. These plants were defined hyperaccumulators (Brooks et al., 1977) and these studies originated from an article

(Minguzzi and Vergnano, 1948), describing the ability of Alyssum bertolonii to accumulate very high amounts of nickel. Brooks

(1998) underlined the seminal importance of this article for the development of phytoremediation: ‘a small perennial shrub in

Tuscany, Italy, was destined to lead the way to a whole range of new technologies and discoveries’. Nowadays, phytoremediation identifies a series of plant-based technologies that can be applied to a wide range of organic and inorganic contaminants for remediating polluted soil, water and sediments, by exploiting the multiple properties of plants, which can be used in different specific processes.

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6 Pseudomonas Communities in Soil Agroecosystems

Singh, H.B.; Sarma, B.K.; Keswani, C. CABI PDF

6 

Pseudomonas Communities in Soil

Agroecosystems

Betina Cecilia Agaras,* Luis Gabriel Wall and Claudio Valverde

Laboratorio de Bioquímica, Microbiología e Interacciones Biológicas en el Suelo,

Departamento de Ciencia y Tecnología, Universidad Nacional de Quilmes,

Buenos Aires, Argentina

6.1 Introduction

Among all soil bacterial genera having a representative described as a plant-growth promoter, Pseudomonas comprise a wide variety of PGPR species, with different mechanisms of action (Lugtenberg and Kamilova,

2009). Several pseudomonads have demonstrated high rhizosphere competence, production of different kinds of secondary

­metabolites involved in antagonism, phytostimulation or fertilization, and an ability to degrade complex organic compounds, hence being able to contribute not only to plant health but also to bioremediation of soils

(Lugtenberg and Dekkers, 1999; Haas and

Défago, 2005; Tapadar and Jha, 2013; Agaras et al., 2015; Mishra et  al., 2015; Kumar,

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12 Contribution of Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria to the Maize Yield

Singh, H.B.; Sarma, B.K.; Keswani, C. CABI PDF

12 

Contribution of Plant Growth-Promoting

Bacteria to the Maize Yield

Vivian Jaskiw Szilagyi Zecchin,1* Angela Cristina Ikeda2 and Átila Francisco Mógor1

1

Federal University of Parana Department of Plant Science and

Crop Protection, Curitiba, Brazil; 2Federal University of Parana,

Department of Forest Science, Curitiba, Brazil

12.1 Introduction

Maize (Zea mays L.) is one of the most important cereal crops, revered widely for its high nutritional value and as a resource for animal feed and bioenergy. Responding to the increasing demands of society, modest initiatives, such as the development of plant production technologies promoting maize yield as well as reduction of synthetic inputs thereby improving farmers’ profits, however, remain an unresolved issue. Fortunately, natural reservoirs, particularly rhizospheric and/or endophytic bacteria, can act as plausible alternative sources for plant nutrition or growth promotion (Barretti et al., 2008).

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6 Remaking Education with Avatars and A.I.

Wadhwa, Vivek; Salkever, Alex Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

Let’s imagine that I am a fourteen-year-old boy. (Some of us never really grow up!) I am sitting in class, feeling sleepy (as always). My eyes droop. It’s after lunch, and I would dearly like to take a nap, but naps are not in the curriculum. The teacher rambles on. Or the video rambles on. Or the pages of the book I am trying to read float together. I am fighting to retain the information, drifting in and out. What did I just learn? I don’t entirely remember. This lesson is boring. Or it’s too hard to comprehend. Or it’s taught in a way that seems strange to me. I want to learn, but I know that I won’t remember half of this information. Worst of all, I can’t hit the replay button. Now the bell rings, and my time has gone. The information has gone. I’m going to flunk the class, or I’ll have to spend a lot of time catching up on my own.

This isn’t purely imaginary; it is the reality that students in schools everywhere around the world live daily. There are few institutions as inefficient and broken as the traditional education systems of the world, because we treat education as an industrial good, a unit of knowledge served up to the masses in a one-size-fits-all box. We have made some attempts at personalization, but they have remained marginal at best.

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12 Your Own Private Driver: Self-Driving Cars, Trucks, and Planes

Wadhwa, Vivek; Salkever, Alex Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

In a popular children’s book called If I Built a Car, a fanciful fledgling engineer (who is probably about ten) waxes enthusiastically about designing a car that houses an onboard swimming pool, makes milk shakes, and can both fly and dive under water.1 Of course, the car has a robot driver that can take over if the humans need a snooze.

We aren’t getting cars that can make milk shakes or are big enough to house a decent sized swimming pool, and flying cars remain a couple of decades away. But our robot drivers are here.

There are debates in mainstream media over whether driverless cars will ever be adopted and whether we can trust our lives to a machine. A survey by the American Automobile Association in March 2016 revealed that three out of four U.S. drivers would feel “afraid” to ride in self-driving cars, and that just one in five would entrust his or her life to a driverless vehicle.2

When I first encountered the Google car in Mountain View, back in 2014, I had the same doubts. If I had taken the survey, I would have been in the three out of four who are afraid. And then, in July 2016, I took delivery of a new Tesla that had some of these self-driving capabilities.

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1 Mechanisms of Growth Promotion by Members of the Rhizosphere Fungal Genus Trichoderma

Singh, H.B.; Sarma, B.K.; Keswani, C. CABI PDF

1 

Mechanisms of Growth Promotion by Members of the Rhizosphere

Fungal Genus Trichoderma

Artemio Mendoza-Mendoza,1,* Guillermo Nogueira-López,1

Fabiola Padilla Arizmendi,1 Natalia Cripps-Guazzone,1

María Fernanda Nieto-Jacobo,1 Robert Lawry,1 Diwakar Kandula,1

Fatima Berenice Salazar-Badillo,2 Silvia Salas-Muñoz,3

Jorge Armando Mauricio-Castillo,2 Robert Hill,1 Alison Stewart4 and Johanna Steyaert1

1

Bio-Protection Research Centre, Lincoln University, Canterbury, New Zealand;

2

Unidad Académica de Agronomía, Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas,

Zacatecas, México; 3CONACYT- Campo Experimental Zacatecas, Instituto de Investigaciones Forestales, Agrícolas y Pecuarias, Calera de V. R. Zacatecas,

México; 4SCION, Rotorua, New Zealand

1.1 Introduction

Trichoderma species are cosmopolitan filamentous fungi found in agricultural, native prairie, forest, salt marsh, and desert soils of all biomes (rainforests, savannas, deserts, grasslands, temperate deciduous forest, temperate, conifer forest, Mediterranean scrub, taiga and tundra), as well as in lake water, dead plant material, living roots of virtually any plant species, seeds and air

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