942 Chapters
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Medium 9781845939625

17. Insights into Plant Epigenome Dynamics

P Nath;  M Bouzayen; A K Mattoo CAB International PDF


Insights into Plant Epigenome Dynamics

James Giovannoni*

US Department of Agriculture and Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant

Research, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA

17.1 Introduction

Genetic information is housed and passed to subsequent generations via the DNA code. The epigenome provides additional information, context and regulatory constraint in addition to both transient and long-term genetic memory. The epigenome consists of information carried in the nature of chromatin packaging and organization, histone modifications (e.g. acetylation, methylation) and DNA (specifically cytosine) methylation. Specific genes involved in DNA or protein methylation, acetylation, small RNA (sRNA) processing and sRNA transcription contribute to epigenome architecture, and their mutations have provided opportunities to develop insights into the intricacies of the epigenome. Advanced sequencing and informatics capabilities permit genomescale analyses at modest cost, resulting in a wealth of data on epigenomes, and their variation and dynamics in response to development and external stimuli.

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Medium 9781780647326

7 The Marketing of Vegetables in a Northern Ghanaian City: Implications and Trajectories

WinklerPrins, A.M.G.A. CABI PDF


The Marketing of Vegetables in a

Northern Ghanaian City: Implications and Trajectories

Imogen Bellwood-Howard* and Eileen Bogweh Nchanji

Institute of Social and Cultural Anthropology, Göttingen University,

Göttingen, Germany



The proximity of urban production sites to markets is one factor that has let urban agriculture

(UA) flourish in both the Global North (GN) and the Global South (GS) (Drechsel and Dongus,

2010; Danso et al., 2014). Studying markets for urban produce provides an opportunity to consider consumption alongside production and income generation, and economic alongside social and ecological concerns (Chagomoka et  al.,

2014; Yusuf et al., 2014). This theme thus acts as a lens through which to consider the multifunctionality of UA (Atukunda and Maxwell,

1996; Mougeot, 2000).

In this chapter, we argue that the market function of UA, alongside specific characteristics of the urban zone, allows urban farmers and marketers to reconnect the ecological to the social and economic within their livelihood strategies. Referring to urban political ecology and livelihoods frameworks, we show this happening to varying extents across the GN and GS, due to different extents of politicization and connection between producers and consumers. We draw on primary data about vegetable marketing in Tamale, northern Ghana, and compare this with case studies from the Global North. The chapter concludes by considering the implications of these similarities and differences for the future

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Medium 9781786394873

3 Insecticides Post-1950

Matthews, G.A. CABI PDF


Insecticides Post-1950

Some of the insecticides developed in the mid-20th century have already been mentioned, but a number of important organophosphate and carbamate insecticides were developed and commercialized after 1960.


Following the marketing of parathion and concerns about its toxicity, over the next six decades the agrochemical companies were looking for less toxic insecticides that could be readily absorbed by plants in which they could move systemically from the roots (soil/seed treatment) to protect young growth without a need to respray. Nevertheless, many were classified by the WHO as class Ia or Ib and regarded as highly hazardous.

The organophosphates used as insecticides can be divided into groups, including aliphatic (e.g. demeton-S-methyl, dimethoate), heterocyclic

(e.g  chlorpyrifos, triazophos) and phenyl (e.g. fenitrothion, parathion, temephos). These vary in their mammalian toxicity and persistence in the environment. They were used extensively following the banning of organochlorine insecticides.

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Medium 9781780644707

4: Visual Evaluation of Grassland and Arable Management Impacts on Soil Quality



Visual Evaluation of Grassland and Arable Management Impacts on Soil Quality

Lars J. Munkholm1* and Nicholas M. Holden2

Aarhus University, Tjele, Denmark; 2University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland


4.1  Introduction

Soil management has a profound influence on soil quality1 through land use, crop rotation, manure spreading, fertilization, irrigation, liming, tillage and traffic. Management effects on soil quality are in many cases complex interactions, and therefore extensive research has been carried out to describe, quantify and understand these effects. Visual soil evaluation (VSE) is one of the tools developed over the last century to specifically evaluate management impact on soil quality.

During the early days of modern farming there was a focus on soil nutrients and mineral fertilizer; however by the mid-20th century

Görbing realized that factors like soil compaction, crusting or drainage also caused poor growth.

Görbing and others recognized that there was a need to supplement assessment of chemical properties with visual assessment of soil structure, root growth and biological activity. His visual assessment spade method (Görbing, 1947) has since been refined by Preuschen (1983), Beste (1999),

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Medium 9781780644837

6: Genomics of Brassica Oilseeds



Genomics of Brassica Oilseeds

Venkatesh Bollina,1 Yogendra Khedikar,1 Wayne E. Clarke1,2 and Isobel A.P. Parkin1*


Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Saskatoon; 2Department of Plant Sciences,

University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada


Brassica species are important for oilseed

­production worldwide and represent a significant agricultural commodity for a number of countries (http://www.fao.org). All brassica crops belong to tribe Brassiceae of the family

Brassicaceae. These are commonly known as mustards due to their natural production of high levels of the secondary metabolites glucosinolates, which contribute to the distinct pungent taste of the seed. In the 1970s breeding efforts to lower the levels of the perceived antinutritionals, glucosinolates and the long-chain saturated fatty acid, erucic acid, from Brassica napus (rapeseed) seed led to the development of the most widely grown and economically important brassica crop type, canola (Canadian oil low acid).

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Medium 9781780645087

6. Accidents of history: The role of chance events in domestication: Strawberries, Wheats, Bananas, Citrus, Rhubarb

Warren, J. CABI PDF


Accidents of history

Some crops seem just too good to be true. How on earth did our ancestors manage to develop bananas that don’t contain seeds? Or hybridize unrelated species to produce totally novel crops? This chapter covers a number of crops that have been created by our habit of growing related plants together and thus enabling them to unintentionally cross-pollinate each other. We also discover that although mutations are incredibly rare in nature, if you grow enough plants generation after generation, this random process can hit the jackpot and be responsible for the creation of new crops.

Humans have been domesticating crops for around 10,000 years. But not until 1900 and the rediscovery of Gregor Mendel’s experiments with breeding peas, did we have any real understanding of the laws of inheritance. In fact, it was as late as 1676 when plant anatomist, Nehemiah

Grew addressed the Royal Society that we started to appreciate that plants actually indulge in sex. In other words, for the vast majority of agricultural history we have not really had much of a clue about what we have been doing. The process of domestication has been one of simply identifying the most desirable or just unusual plants and propagating them.

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Medium 9781780646282

6: Searching for Pasture Legumes for Heavy Clay Soils in the Australian Dry Tropics and Subtropics: I. Initial Literature Reviews, Data Analysis and Choice of Material for Test

Lazier, J.R.; Ahmad, N. CABI PDF


Searching for Pasture Legumes for

Heavy Clay Soils in the Australian Dry

Tropics and Subtropics: I. Initial Literature

Reviews, Data Analysis and Choice of Material for Test

R.L. Burt† and J.R. Lazier*1

*Formerly International Livestock Centre for Africa


As a preliminary step in the selection of germplasm for heavy clay soils in the Australian tropics and subtropics a review was undertaken of known genera and species of leguminous plants with known and suspected potential.

Groupings were made of the genera based on the percentage of species occurring on clay soils. Assessments were then undertaken of their interest based on the environments in which they occur and their general forage characteristics. The report concludes with brief comments about the adequacy of genetic resource collections of the genera and species that have proven to be of value.

6.1  Introduction

Almost all Australian pasture legume cultivars are plants that have been introduced from elsewhere, and all crop varieties are ‘aliens’, with the sole exception of the Macadamia nut, which is native to Queensland but was developed for commercial use in the USA. This is not altogether surprising because Australian flora is unique since it has been long isolated from those regions in which the seed-bearing plants developed, and thus has relied on the evolution of endemic plants to cope with the ever-changing climate and decreasing levels of soil fertility. The dry areas of Australia illustrate the adaptations that have been necessary (White, 1994). There the soils are poor and sclerophyll–xerophyte grasslands

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Medium 9781786395177

10 Enhancing Productivity of Foodgrains

Paroda, R.S. CABI PDF


Enhancing Productivity of Foodgrains

Globally, India is the third-largest producer of cereals, with only China and the USA ahead of it.

India’s population is likely to reach 1.5 billion by

2030 and therefore the challenge facing the country is to produce more and more from diminishing per capita arable land and irrigation water resources and increasing abiotic and biotic stresses.

India produced 277.49 million t of foodgrains in

2017–18 to meet the needs of a current population of 1.34 billion. The current situation in

India is that cereal production has to be doubled by 2050 in order to meet the needs of an expected population of 1.8 billion, in addition to meeting the needs of livestock and poultry. Since land is a shrinking resource for agriculture, the pathway for achieving these goals can only be higher productivity per unit of arable land and irrigation water. Factor productivity will have to be doubled, if the cost of production is to be reasonable and the prices of farm products are to be globally competitive. The average farm size is going down and nearly 80% of farm families belong to the marginal and small-farmer categories. Enhancing small-farm productivity, increasing small-farm income through crop-livestock-aquaculture integrated production systems and multiple livelihood opportunities through agro-processing and biomass utilization, are essential to meet food production targets and for reducing hunger, poverty, nutritional insecurity and rural unemployment.

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Medium 9781780648002

4 Biological Pest Control in the Tropics

Rapisarda, C.; Cocuzza, G.E.M. CABI PDF


Biological Pest Control in the Tropics

Odair Aparecido Fernandes1,*, José Gilberto de Moraes2 and Vitalis Wafula Wekesa3


de Fitossanidade, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Jaboticabal, Brazil; de Entomologia e Acarologia, Piracicaba, Brazil; 3Department of

Biological Science and Technology, Technical University of Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya


4.1 Introduction

The use of natural enemies to control arthropod pests has long been important in the tropics and successful cases have already been reported elsewhere (Prado, 1991; Parra et al., 2002; Neuenschwander et al., 2003;

Pinto et al., 2006; Alves and Lopes, 2008;

Sampaio et al., 2008; Bueno, 2009). Both arthropods and microorganisms have been used as biological control agents by growers to target pests in annual, semi-annual and perennial crops. Undoubtedly, microorganisms such as Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch.)

Sorokin are by far the most used biological control agents. However, despite the increasing awareness about food safety, growers still rely heavily on chemical pesticides to reduce pest problems in tropical regions.

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Medium 9781780647326

11 Urban Agriculture as Adaptive Capacity: An Example from Senegal

WinklerPrins, A.M.G.A. CABI PDF

11  Urban Agriculture as Adaptive

Capacity: An Example from Senegal

Stephanie A. White*

Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, USA

11.1  Introduction

This chapter discusses how resilience theory can help to better qualify and situate urban agriculture (UA) in relation to city food systems and urban food security. Specifically, it demonstrates how UA can be regarded as a food practice that builds urban adaptive capacity in a number of ways and across a range of scales. It then uses these conceptual frames to examine urban agriculture in M’Bour, Senegal, drawing attention to:

1. how city processes and space, or urban assemblages, are implicated in producing various food vulnerabilities and resiliencies;

2 . how food practices are leveraged to survive and thrive in dynamic and variable urban environments.

Although the research specifically addresses the food environment in M’Bour, Senegal, the conceptual framing is generalizable, and is intended to reveal the diversity of food environments and the contingent ways people experience them.

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Medium 9781786393050

10: Fair Trade Certification on Plantations: Household Wealth and Welfare Implications for Hired Labour

Parvathi, P.; Grote, U.; Waibel, H. CABI PDF


Fair Trade Certification on Plantations:

Household Wealth and Welfare

Implications for Hired Labour


Katharina Krumbiegel* and Meike Wollni

University of Goettingen, Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Development, Germany

10.1 Introduction

10.1.1  Fair Trade certified plantation agriculture

About 1.3 billion workers are employed in the agricultural sector worldwide, of which about

500 million work as casual, temporary or permanent workers on plantations. Hired labour on plantations or in factories are considered one of the most vulnerable groups in the global trade system. They are often exposed to discrimination, difficult working conditions, low wages and lack of bargaining opportunities. In recent years, however, consumers have become increasingly aware of unfavourable employment conditions in the food producing industry. This awareness has been mirrored by the rise of private food and sustainability standards, such as Fair Trade.

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Medium 9781780643755

1: Impact of Phytonematodes on Agriculture Economy

Askary, T.H., Editor CAB International PDF


Impact of Phytonematodes on

Agriculture Economy

Mahfouz M.M. Abd-Elgawad1* and Tarique Hassan Askary2

Phytopathology Department, National Research Centre, Giza, Egypt;


Division of Entomology, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India


1.1  Introduction

­ roduction potential in the agricultural sector. p

Moreover, individuals and groups of mankind

It is well known that the 2008 global financial cannot save huge financial resources to continue crisis, considered by many economists to be the policy of securing reasonable development the worst financial crisis since the Great De- for other reasons widely known all over the pression of the 1930s, has played a key role in world – economic losses due to war damage hindering many small and large businesses, effected globally, new diseases which demand and causing a decline in consumer wealth ample costs to overcome, and non-optimal utiland downturn in economic activity creating ization of available resources. All these in one high unemployment, unfavourable condi- way or another minimize such resources which tions for new businesses, increase in prices of could be directed to fill in the gap of agriculgoods and services and low income per cap- tural produce. In addition, a continuous challenge ita. In this context, agriculture, as a far-reaching is to face an ever-increasing world population activity in terms of both economy and soci- with more and better food. Now, experts at ology throughout world civilization in the almost all levels in developing and more dehistory of mankind, has been adversely affected. veloped countries recognize the seriousness

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Medium 9781780648156

7: Climate Variability and Agriculture

Raju, K.V.; Wani, S.P.; Raju, K.V.; Wani, S.P. CABI PDF

Climate Variability and



A.V.R. Kesava Rao,* Suhas P. Wani and K. Srinivas

International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics

(ICRISAT), Patancheru, India

7.1  Introduction

Evidence over the past few decades has shown that significant changes in climate are taking place all over the world as a result of enhanced human activities in deforestation, emission of various greenhouse gases and indiscriminate use of fossil fuels. The results of climate change research indicate that climate variability and change may lead to more frequent weather-related disasters in the form of floods, droughts, landslides and sea level rise. Many countries, including India, are making efforts to undertake adaptation measures as well as to mitigate the challenges posed by global warming and climate change. There is an urgent need to develop a climate change network for Indian agriculture that will go a long way to build the resilience of the community to cope with the impacts of climate change, particularly in rainfed areas

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Medium 9781845939946

23: Minor Families

Vacante, V. CABI PDF

23   Minor Families

This chapter includes mites in five families (Dolichocybidae,

Siteroptidae, Pygmephoridae, Scutacaridae, Microdispidae) that have in common a capacity to be either directly or indirectly injurious to mushrooms.

The Family Dolichocybidae Mahunka

Morphological characteristics, systematics and bio-ecology

The Dolichocybidae are small mites that are 100–280 μm long.

The prodorsal shield of the female lacks anterolateral stigmata and the associated tracheae; it has 2–3 pairs of setiform setae that may or may not have anterolateral bothridia with capitate sensilla (the normal scapular setae in the male). The prodorsum and the tergite C are normal in form, without wing-like expansions. In the genus Formicomotes Sevastyanov, the opisthosomal tergites C, D and EF are distinct, while the segment H may be consolidated with the pseudoanal segment Ps, and the aggenital region Ag into the undivided plate HPsAg located ventrally

(Magowski, 1988). The female has a small genital aperture, with 1–3 pairs of small or vestigial genital setae (g1–3) (Figs 23.1 and 23.2), which are sometimes absent, and 1 pair of aggenital setae (ag). Species of the genus Dolichocybe Krantz show tergites C, D, EF and Ps distinctly (Khaustov, 2006a). The tergites

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Medium 9781780644707

6: Valuing the Neglected: Lessons and Methods from an Organic, Anthropic Soil System in the Outer Hebrides



Valuing the Neglected: Lessons and

Methods from an Organic, Anthropic Soil

System in the Outer Hebrides

Mary Norton Scherbatskoy,1* Anthony C. Edwards2 and Berwyn L. Williams3


Blackland Centre, Grimsay, North Uist, Scotland, UK; 2SRUC,

Craibstone, Aberdeen, Scotland, UK; 3formerly Macaulay

Land Use Research Institute, Aberdeen, Scotland, UK

It is too simple to say that the ‘marginal’ farms of New England were abandoned because they were no longer productive or desirable as living places. They were given up for one very practical reason: they did not lend themselves readily to exploitation by fossil fuel technology . . . Industrial agriculture sticks itself deeper and deeper into a curious paradox: the larger its technology grows in order to ‘feed the world’, the more potentially productive ‘marginal’ land it either ruins or causes to be abandoned.

(Wendell Berry, 1979)

6.1  Introduction

Small-scale abandoned agricultural systems can be found worldwide: throughout Europe (MacDonald et al., 2000; Marini et al., 2011), on American prairie and hill farms (Manning, 1995; Berry,

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