942 Chapters
  Title Author Publisher Format Buy Remix
Medium 9781780647753

7: Allowing Entrepreneurs to Save Profits is Important to Motivation, Sustainability, and Resilience: Can All Cultures Support This?

Chan, C.; Sipes, B.; Lee, T.S. CABI PDF


Allowing Entrepreneurs to Save Profits is

Important to Motivation, Sustainability, and

Resilience: Can All Cultures Support This?

James R. Hollyer*

University of Guam, Mangilao, Guam

7.1  Introduction

Successful international development—skill development that creates societal transformation rather than a transfer of wealth—requires a keen understanding of the culture where one works (Hall, 1976). As leadership and business guru Peter Drucker said, “Culture eats strategy for breakfast.” All the great strategy and plans in the world will not create change or transformation if they do not, in some way, benefit the existing culture (or those in power). Anything that threatens a culture’s norms will be resisted by those who benefit from the status quo (Morris et al., 2011). In some cases, sole entrepreneurs striking out on their own to make their

“fortune” are such a threat in some countries’ cultures. Entrepreneurs are especially threatening in cultures where collective behaviors frown on individual success because it disturbs the status quo or the culture’s version of “sustainable” or “equilibrium” (Hall, 1976). Yet, a huge untapped potential of creativity and hard work exists just waiting to be given to the world’s 1.8 billion young people between the ages of 10 and

See All Chapters
Medium 9781780648200

17: Pestiferous Insects of Mustard: Biology and Integrated Management

Reddy, G.V.P. CABI PDF


Pestiferous Insects of Mustard:

Biology and Integrated Management

Dhana Raj Boina* and S. Jesu Rajan

National Institute of Plant Health Management, Hyderabad, India

17.1  Introduction

The crucifers comprising oilseed and vegetable crops are mainly grown during the rabi (winter– spring) season all over the world. Of these, mustard along with rapeseed forms an important oilseed crop, the seeds of which are rich in oil (35–45%)

(Firake et al., 2013; Anon., 2015a). During 2013/14, mustard and rapeseed together were cultivated in

36.15 million hectares worldwide with a production of 71.09 million tonnes and a productivity of 1970 kg/ha (Anon., 2015a). In decreasing rank order, Canada,

China, India and Australia are major players in mustard and rapeseed cultivation (Anon., 2015a).

Different mustard species are commercially cultivated in different geographical regions of the world.

Indian or oriental or brown mustard, Brassica juncea (L.) Ozern, is cultivated commercially in Asia

See All Chapters
Medium 9781780647098

14: Feeding Injury

van Emden, H.F.; Harrington, R. CABI PDF


Feeding Injury

Fiona L. Goggin,1* Sharron S. Quisenberry2 and Xinzhi Ni3


Department of Entomology, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, USA;

­Emeritus, Department of Entomology, Iowa State University, Ames, USA;


USDA-ARS Crop Genetics and Breeding Research Unit, Coastal Plain

Experiment Station, University of Georgia, Tifton, USA



The sternorrychan superfamily Aphidoidea includes aphids (Aphididae), adelgids (Adelgidae) and phylloxera (Phylloxeridae), and all three of these families pose a serious problem in the production of food and fibre crops. In fact, all of the world’s major crops are attacked by at least one species of Aphidoidea, although some plants suffer greater injury than others (Blackman and Eastop, 1994, 2006). The importance of crop losses caused by aphids and other insect herbivores has been described in these terms:

‘The shift of energy from plants to insects rivals in scale mankind’s own demands on the photosynthesizing world’ (Southwood, 1997). Moreover, aphids and other sap-sucking arthropods can extract more energy per unit area than grazers and browsers, and they do so without consuming any of the plant structural tissues (Dixon, 1985). Several well-known introduced pests illustrate the ability of the Aphidoidea to limit crop yields and to have profound ecological and sociological impacts. The Russian wheat aphid

See All Chapters
Medium 9781780645087

9. Fifty shades of green: Nutrient rich crops and the next generation: Clovers, Ryegrass

Warren, J. CABI PDF


Fifty shades of green

This final chapter identifies the fact that we appear to have preferentially domesticated plants from highly nutrient rich habitats. Neither this observation nor the role of pollination strategy had previously been considered to be important in the history of crop domestication. Earlier attempts to explain why we rely on so few crop species have argued that the limiting factor has been the availability of suitable plants. Here I conclude by proposing that what limits the number of species that we currently grow and consume, is our own imaginations, prejudices, traditions and vested interests. If this is true, in the future we may enjoy a whole myriad of new fruits and vegetables that are better for our health, and less demanding of the world’s limited resources.

It is frequently but apocryphally claimed that Eskimos have 50 words to describe snow. Closer to reality, but almost never quoted is the observation that there are 45 words for shades of green in the Icelandic language. In fact in most languages there are many more words to differentiate shades of green than there are for any other colour. This is because we live on a planet dominated by the colour green, where the forces of natural selection have equipped our species with eyes that are particularly sensitive to light in the green sector of the spectrum. We have evolved as botanists with acute abilities to differentiate plant species.

See All Chapters
Medium 9781780642109

5: Impact of Land-use Changes in the Amazon on Bacterial Diversity, Composition and Distribution

Brearley, F.Q., Editor CAB International PDF


Impact of Land-use Changes in the Amazon on Bacterial Diversity, Composition and


Lucas W. Mendes,1,2 Acácio A. Navarrete,1,2 Clóvis D. Borges,1

Eiko E. Kuramae2 and Siu Mui Tsai1*


Cell and Molecular Biology Laboratory, Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture

CENA, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; 2Microbial Ecology Department,

Netherlands Institute of Ecology NIOO-KNAW, Wageningen, the Netherlands.

5.1  Introduction

Soil-living microorganisms represent the largest biodiversity pool on Earth, with more than 1030 microbial cells and estimates of 104 to 106 species per gram of soil (Whitman et al., 1998; Torsvik et al., 2002; Roesch et al., 2007). With their enormous numbers, large biomass and involvement in numerous key biogeochemical functions, soil microbial communities hold a central place in terrestrial ecosystems. Soil microbial communities carry out essential ecosystem functions (Bardgett et al., 2008), including nutrient cycling, facilitating plant nutrition, ­disease suppression, water purification and biological attenuation of pollutants. Nowhere are soil microbial communities likely to be more complex than under tropical rain forests, which house the majority of plant diversity on Earth (Dirzo and Raven, 2003; Kreft and

See All Chapters
Medium 9781786390325

20 Unravelling the Dual Applications of  Trichoderma spp. as Biopesticide and Biofertilizer

Singh, H.B.; Sarma, B.K.; Keswani, C. CABI PDF


Unravelling the Dual Applications of Trichoderma spp. as Biopesticide and Biofertilizer

Vivek Singh,1,2 Shatrupa Ray,1,2 Kartikay Bisen,2 Chetan Keswani,3 R.S. Upadhyay,1

B.K. Sarma2 and H.B. Singh2*


Department of Botany, Institute of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India;


Department of Mycology and Plant Pathology, Institute of Agricultural Sciences,

Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India; 3Department of Biochemistry, Institute of

Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India

20.1 Introduction

The commercial development and market success of biopesticides depend upon formulating biological control agents with a broad spectrum of activity and an easy application technology. Market penetration of biopesticide products for pest control management has increased significantly in recent years (Glare et al., 2012; Singh et al., 2014c), owing largely to increasing awareness in the public of the adverse effects of chemical pesticides on human health and the environment (Gašić and Tanović, 2013). However, major drawbacks that restrict the field application of biopesticides are their relatively slow microbial action and restricted shelf life, along with application techniques that are complicated in comparison to those of chemical pesticides (Frey, 2001).

See All Chapters
Medium 9781780644998

19: Insect Pests of Coffee and their Management in Nature-friendly Production Systems

Vacante, V.; Kreiter, S. CABI PDF


Insect Pests of Coffee and their

Management in Nature-friendly

Production Systems

Juan F. Barrera*

El Colegio de la Frontera Sur (ECOSUR), Tapachula, Mexico


It is speculated that at least 700 years ago,

­coffee (Coffea arabica L.) came out of the Abyssinian Mountains (present-day Ethiopia) in merchant and slave-trader caravans heading for the Arabian Peninsula. There, in Yemen, the first coffee plantations flourished. However, it was not until the end of the 17th and beginning of the 18th century that the Dutch and French began coffee cultivation in their colonies abroad, putting an end to the Arabians’ monopoly, and C. arabica commenced the adventure of colonizing the world. Much later, in the 19th century, another coffee species, robusta (Coffea canephora Pierre ex

A. Froehner), was discovered on the plains of western Africa (Coste, 1964; Haarer, 1964;

Smith, 1985; Wrigley, 1988).

Of more than 100 species of the genus

See All Chapters
Medium 9781780646862

11: Irrigation Scheduling

Finley, S. CABI PDF


Irrigation Scheduling

Goals of Irrigation Scheduling

As introduced in Chapter 3, only a portion of the water held in the soil is available to plant roots. The soil itself will have a certain water holding capacity (field capacity), above which point no new water can be stored. Within that capacity, part of the water (below wilting point) is never accessible to plants. Stored soil water between field capacity and the wilting point is called available water. Of this quantity, only part (typically 20–80%) will be readily available to the crop plant, and this proportion will vary by species.1 The goal of irrigation scheduling is to ensure that the soil always maintains some degree of readily available water within the crop’s root zone. Below the critical point of minimum readily available water, the plant suffers irreversible water stress and its yield is reduced.2

Soil water content conditions that lie below field capacity but above this critical point are considered to fall within the optimal range of soil moisture for plant development (Fig. 11.1).

See All Chapters
Medium 9781780648002

3 Options and Challenges for Pest Control in Intensive Cropping Systems in Tropical Regions

Rapisarda, C.; Cocuzza, G.E.M. CABI PDF


Options and Challenges for Pest

Control in Intensive Cropping Systems in

Tropical Regions

Silvana V. Paula-Moraes1,*, Fábio Maximiano de Andrade Silva2 and Alexandre Specht3


and Nematology Department, West Florida Research and

Education Center, University of Florida, Jay, USA; 2Insecticide Resistance

Action Committee Paulínia, Brazil; 3Embrapa Cerrados, Planaltina, Brazil

3.1 Introduction

The Food and Agriculture Organization

(FAO) estimates that, by mid-century, global demand for food production will be

60% higher than it is currently, and there will be a need to provide food for an additional 2 billion people (FAO, 2012). Thus the demand to develop more hectares of arable land has been highlighted, particularly with respect to the potential for farmland expansion in sub-Saharan Africa and

Latin America (Morris et al., 2012).

In Brazil, the successful agricultural transformation of a broad savanna, commonly called Cerrado, is an example of the adoption of a green revolution programme.

See All Chapters
Medium 9781780647784

10 Koi Herpesvirus Disease

Woo, P.T.K.; Cipriano, R.C. CABI PDF


Koi Herpesvirus Disease

Keith Way* and Peter Dixon

Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (Cefas)

Weymouth Laboratory, Weymouth, UK

10.1  Introduction

Koi herpesvirus disease (KHVD) is a herpesvirus infection (Hedrick et al., 2000) that induces a lethal acute viraemia that is highly contagious in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and varieties of C. carpio such as koi carp and ghost carp (koi × common carp) (Haenen et al., 2004). The causative agent is classified as Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3), a member of the family Alloherpesviridae and one of ten alloherpesviruses that infect fishes (Boutier et al., 2015a).

The transmission of CyHV-3 is horizontal and can occur directly or indirectly. Uchii et al. (2014) suggested that CyHV-3 in recovered fish reactivates periodically when the water temperature increases and transmits to naive fish when they are in close contact, such as at spawning. Direct transmission occurs by skin-to-skin contact between infected and naive carp, and through the cannibalistic and necrophagous behaviour of carp. Several vectors may facilitate the indirect transmission of CyHV-3.

See All Chapters
Medium 9781780642789

Potato (Solanum tuberosum Linn.)

Kumar, P.; Sharma, M.K. CAB International PDF

POTATO (Solanum tuberosum Linn.)



1. The entire plant may become light green to pale yellow in appearance (Plate 640).

2. Nitrogen is mobile within plants and it is readily mobilized from older to younger tissues when nitrogen supply to the plant is restricted.

3. The deficiency symptoms appear primarily on older leaves and then move to the younger leaves.

4. Older leaves become uniformly yellow while young leaves may remain light green (Plate 641).

5. In prolonged deficiency, yellow older leaves turn dark yellow then brown.

6. Eventually, the leaves become necrotic then dry and fall off early.

Plate 640. Entire plant pale green and stunted.

(Photo by Dr Prakash Kumar.)

Developmental stages

Stage I: In the early stage or in mild deficiency, the entire plant appears uniformly pale green (Plate 640).

Stage II: When deficiency persists, the older leaves turn uniformly yellow and the upper leaves appear pale green (Plate 641).

Stage III: In severe deficiency, the old leaves turn dark yellow

See All Chapters
Medium 9781780648651

12: Habitats

Peterken, G.; Mountford, E. CABI PDF



Woods contain a host of habitats that enable particular species to thrive within their bounds.

Within Lady Park, we have, for example, tracks, rock faces and tufa-forming seepages, but not streams, save for the not inconsiderable bulk of the Wye at its foot. This chapter gives more detail on the habitats most directly related to stand dynamics, dead wood and open spaces.


Dead Wood

If there was one feature that foresters sought to minimise, it was dead wood. Managers who grow utilisable timber see dead wood as waste, timber defects, a source of disease and, in some forest types, an invitation to fire. And yet, in natural forests, dead wood is not just inevitable but an important habitat, and a state through which the nutrients are recycled into new growth. Moreover, just as bald heads and gammy legs are part of the human condition, so dead branches and hollow trunks form a natural stage in the life of trees.

In Lady Park Wood, dead wood takes many forms. Stumps of trees felled in 1942 are still prominent (see Fig. 7.19). Coppice stools remain, some completely dead, most the foundation of living trees

See All Chapters
Medium 9781780647784

11 Viral Encephalopathy and Retinopathy

Woo, P.T.K.; Cipriano, R.C. CABI PDF


Viral Encephalopathy and Retinopathy

Anna Toffan*

OIE Reference Centre for Viral Encephalopathy and Retinopathy,

Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie, Legnaro (Padova), Italy

11.1  Introduction

Viral encephalopathy and retinopathy (VER), also known as viral nervous necrosis (VNN) is a severe neuropathological disease caused by RNA viruses of the genus Betanodavirus (Family: Nodaviridae).

This infectious agent, detected in the late 1980s, spread worldwide, became endemic and came to represent a major limiting factor for mariculture in several countries. The disease has recently been included among the most significant viral pathogens of finfish, given the expanding host range and the lack of properly effective prophylactic measures

(Rigos and Katharios, 2009; Walker and Winton,

2010; Shetty et al., 2012).

11.2  The Infectious Agents

The causative agent of the disease is a small

(25–30 nm diameter), spherical, non-enveloped virion, with a bi-segmented genome made of two singlestranded positive-sense RNA molecules. The name

See All Chapters
Medium 9781780644233

5: Assessment of Maize-based Conservation Agriculture Production Systems (CAPS) in Rainfed Uplands of Odisha, India

Chan, C.; Fantle-Lepczyk, J. CABI PDF


Assessment of Maize-based

Conservation Agriculture

Production Systems (CAPS) in Rainfed Uplands of Odisha,


Pravat Kumar Roul,1* Aliza Pradhan,2 Kshitendra

Narayan Mishra,1 Plabita Ray,1 Travis Idol,2 Satya

Narayan Dash,1 Catherine Chan2 and Chittaranjan Ray2



Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar, India;

University of Hawai‛i at Maˉnoa, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA

5.1  Introduction

Rainfed agroecosystems, the purported gray patches untouched by the Green

Revolution or most technological advances, occupy a prominent position in

Indian agriculture. However, since productivity of the country’s irrigated areas has almost reached a plateau, future growth in farm productivity will likely come from rainfed agroecosystems. The rainfed zones of India, with annual rainfall ranging from 500 to 1,500 mm, constitute 60% of the country’s net cultivated area. Calculations based on rainfall distribution pattern and soil type showed that even if the full irrigation potential of the country was realized, 50% of the net sown area would remain rainfed.

See All Chapters
Medium 9781786393050

5: Methodological Toolbox

Parvathi, P.; Grote, U.; Waibel, H. CABI PDF


Methodological Toolbox

Hermann Waibel and Priyanka Parvathi*

Institute of Development and Agricultural Economics, Leibniz University

Hannover, Germany

5.1 Introduction

Rigorous scientific studies on organic and Fair

Trade agriculture can be undertaken with standard economic methodologies such as adoption studies, impact assessment, cost–benefit analysis and environmental economic analysis. However, organic and Fair Trade agriculture is expected to have effects that cannot be fully captured by standard economic analysis that is focused on economic efficiency criteria. Organic products address the health and environmental concerns of consumers and therefore environmental sustainability and health economics should be

­incorporated in the analysis. Fair Trade incorporates a pro-poor social premium in the price of their products and so distributional aspects with regards to wealth and access to resources should be included in the study. Methods that go beyond neoclassic welfare analysis, like assessment of indicators for ecological and social sustainability, poverty reduction and long-term wealth effects, are necessary tools that complement

See All Chapters

Load more