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7 Resistance to Pesticides



Resistance to Pesticides

The occurrence of resistance in an insect pest was first reported in the literature in 1914, where treatments of lime sulfur had been carried out each year for 25 years in Washington State to control San José scale,

Quadraspidiotus pernicious, which had entered the USA about 50 years earlier. The scale insect was now more resistant to the lime sulfur

(Melander, 1914; Forgash, 1984). Melander predicted that entire populations would not become resistant as long as some non-resistant insects survived, because their non-resistant genes would be passed on to future generations. However, a pure resistant line might result after repeated sprayings, if only the resistant individuals survived to reproduce.

He found that after 11 years, 74% of the scales survived, despite using a higher dose of lime sulfur.

Babers (1949) reported that soon after Melander’s observations, the

California red scale, Aonidiella aurantii, became more difficult to control with hydrocyanic acid fumigation and that the dosage required to control resistant strains was so high that it was unsafe for the tree, except in the most favourable conditions. Ripper (1956) noted that studies in 1929 using lime sulfur on citrus trees increased the number of red scales compared with untreated trees, but when Debach and Bartlett (1951) sprayed

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Thirteen The Japanese Situation—and a Second Japanese Dimension




INVARIABLY THE STORY of the Japanese, the Kaigun, and convoy has been told in terms of the creation of the General Escort Command in November 1943 and the subsequent course of events, which saw the devastation of Japanese shipping even before the start of the mining of home waters that was afforded a code-name that really did symbolize intent. Yet this story has been afforded little real consideration, in large measure because the increasing effectiveness of the American campaign against shipping was quite obviously overshadowed by fleet and amphibious operations—Saipan and the Philippine Sea, Leyte Gulf and the Philippines, Iwo Jima and Okinawa—and by the manner in which the war was ended. But in terms of real cause and effect, five matters should be at the forefront of any consideration of Japanese defeat at sea, and this leaves aside the abiding paradox of the U.S. campaign against Japanese shipping: over the last six months of the war the American submarine service was very largely redundant, for the simple reason that the high seas had been scourged of Japanese shipping and there was very little left to sink.

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8 Channel Catfish Viral Disease



Channel Catfish Viral Disease

Larry A. Hanson1* and Lester H. Khoo2


Department of Basic Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Mississippi

State University, Mississippi,USA; 2Thad Cochran Warmwater Aquaculture

Center, Stoneville, Mississippi, USA

8.1  Introduction

Channel catfish viral disease (CCVD) is an acute viraemia that occurs primarily among young (0–4 month old) channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) in aquaculture. CCVD outbreaks occur almost exclusively in the summer when water temperatures exceed 25°C and may exceed 90% mortality in less than 2 weeks. Older fish may experience a more chronic outbreak, often with secondary Flavo­ bacterium columnare or Aeromonas infections that can mask the underlying CCVD (Plumb, 1978).

Pond-to-pond spread is often reported within fingerling production facilities. The disease was first described by Fijan et al. (1970) and the most notable clinical signs were exophthalmia, abdominal distension, disoriented swimming and rapidly increasing mortality.

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9. Polyphenols




Agnès Ageorges, Véronique Cheynier* and Nancy Terrier

INRA, Montpellier cedex, France

9.1 Introduction

Polyphenols are a large class of plant secondary metabolites, ubiquitous in plants and structurally diverse. The earlier definition of polyphenols, proposed by

Bate-Smith and Swain (1962), implied the ability to precipitate alkaloids and proteins from solution, while many recent papers refer to all phenolic compounds as polyphenols. In fact, the term polyphenols should be restricted to plant phenolic compounds ‘derived exclusively from the shikimate derived phenylpropanoid and/or the polyketide pathway(s), featuring more than one phenolic ring and being devoid of any nitrogen-based functional group in their most basic structural expression’, as stated recently by Quideau et al. (2011).

This definition covers several groups, including flavonoids, hydroxystilbenes, lignans and benzoic acid derivatives such as gallotannins and ellagitannins. Wide structural diversity is encountered within each group, and especially the flavonoid family, comprising over 8000 molecules

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9: Employment Guarantee Programme and Income Distribution



Employment Guarantee Programme and Income Distribution

G. Mythili*

Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Mumbai, India


The Government of India has launched many schemes for the generation of additional income for the poor. One such scheme which has received the attention of many economists and political analysts is the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS).

It is basically an employment generation programme for the rural poor households with the policy of direct transfer of money to them through provision of public works.

The scheme stems from the enactment of the National Rural Employment Guarantee

Act (NREGA) notified in September 2005, which was later renamed as the Mahatma

Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA). It intends to enhance the livelihood security in rural areas by providing at least 100 days of guaranteed wage employment in a financial year to every rural household whose adult member volunteers to do unskilled manual work.1

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1 Defining and Theorizing Global Urban Agriculture


1  Defining and Theorizing Global Urban


Antoinette M.G.A. WinklerPrins*

Johns Hopkins University, Washington, District of Columbia, USA

Urban agriculture (UA) is sprouting up in empty spaces of post-industrial landscapes throughout the industrialized world – in vacant lots, road medians, parks – reminiscent of the patchwork of vegetable gardens and livestock enclosures that are part of the urban streetscape in much of the Global South.

(McClintock, 2010, p. 191)

1.1  Introduction

Time has come to rethink and theorize urban agriculture (UA) at a global scale as its importance continues to rise in a world that is becoming ever more urban, and perhaps more importantly, a world in which the differences between the Global North (GN) and the Global South

(GS) regarding the practice and motivations for urban agriculture are lessening. The objective of this volume is to bring together research that focuses on productive cultivation in urban spaces from around the world and to place these empirics in a theoretical context to provide cohesion. The motivation for compiling this book and titling it as I have come from years of research on home gardens and urban agriculture in the Global South (e.g. WinklerPrins, 2002, 2006; Murrieta and WinklerPrins, 2003; WinklerPrins and de Souza, 2005,

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Part III: People as a Sustainable Resource



People as a Sustainable Resource

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How to Attract, Retain and Develop

Talent within the Industry

Colin T. Whittemore,1* Falko Kaufmann2 and

Robby Andersson2


Society of Animal Science, UK; 2University of Applied Sciences

Osnabrueck, Germany


People choosing their profession or occupation usually ask themselves: ‘Do I want to do that for the rest of my life?’, ‘What if I am not happy with that?’,

‘How about my career prospects?’ The danger is that for the agricultural sector there may be an increasing tendency for the answer to be negative, resulting in the avoidance of careers in the agricultural sector. The perception of agriculture in general and of the poultry industry in particular, has steadily deteriorated over recent years. At the same time, the poultry sector has become more transparent and publicly available. However, because the general public and consumers necessarily lack professional knowledge, well-established production systems are viewed with suspicion. In addition, livestock industries are failing to promote the positive aspects of a poultry industry career, and at the same time are also failing to counter the lack of positive information available to the public at large. Certain fields such as animal welfare, animal health and risk-oriented food safety have moved to the centre of public attention, and thus political interest. It follows that the political and legal framework for all intensive husbandry systems, and in particular all stages of poultry production upstream and downstream, are placed under critical scrutiny. The ‘negative image’ of intensive livestock production has resulted in reducing numbers of young people deciding to opt for vocational and/or academic training in the poultry sector. This is, to say the least, unfortunate as the poultry industry offers a broad spectrum of highly diverse and challenging jobs. Moreover, the poultry sector is rapidly growing and therefore skilled employees are urgently sought, meaning career prospects are highly attractive.

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17: Productivity of 16 Forage Legumes Under Cutting in Belize on Contrasting Soils: a High Alluvial Terrace and A Lowland Pine Savanna I. Dry Matter Yields



Productivity of 16 Forage Legumes

Under Cutting in Belize on Contrasting

Soils: a High Alluvial Terrace and A

Lowland Pine Savanna I. Dry Matter Yields

J.R. Lazier*1

*Formerly International Livestock Centre for Africa


In order to determine the relative productivity of 16 promising forage legumes (12 species, 8 genera) in two major environments of central Belize (a neutral heavy cracking clay on an upper river terrace, and an acid waterlogged sandy loam on the Low Pine Ridge coastal deposits), trials with three replicates were established and 12 harvests for dry matter were made at 6-week intervals. The high terrace site was a long-­established pasture of Coastal Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon). The grass and weeds proved to be aggressive and dominated the legumes tested, such that many low and viney legumes died out. Codariocalyx gyroides, Crotalaria anagyroides and Leucaena leucocephala, which grew above the grass, had the best total yields. The Bermuda grass production was very poor in the cool and dry seasons. At the waterlogged savanna site there was little competition from the native grass Mesosetum angustifolium, but very little legume growth until fertilizer was applied. Thereafter, C. anagyroides and C. gyroides were very vigorous, yielding well through the dry season and producing substantially more in the last 9 months of the trial than the high river terrace site. The wet soil conditions permitted best legume growth in the dry season. The legumes generally were more productive than at the heavy clay site. M. angustifolium yields were very low throughout the trial, and particularly in the cool season.

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8 Stored Product Pests



Stored Product Pests

Stored product insects comprise only two insect groups or orders. These insect orders are moths

(Lepidoptera) and beetles (Coleoptera). These are further classified as either:

●● Internal feeders: Internal feeders of stored products feed internally, causing damage in the grain kernel as grub or larvae. For example, grain weevils and grain borers.

●● External feeders: External feeders of stored products feed on grain that has been damaged or milled during processing. Damaged grain kernels have exposed endosperm that is accessible food for insects and fungi. For example, Indian meal moths.

Depending on the type of food processed and type of stored ingredients, the risk of internal or external feeders can easily be identified. For example, bakeries predominantly use milled flour and other milled ingredients; these face damage from external feeders. Breweries or snack food manufacturers that store whole grain or kernel ingredients mostly have a risk of internal feeders (Figs 8.1 and 8.2).

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N2O produced as a by-product of denitrification processes is a GHG 298 times more potent than

CO2, and it is estimated that agriculture contributes approximately 58% of total anthropogenic

N2O emission (IPCC, 2007b). Irrigated cropping systems with a large N fertilizer input are particularly susceptible to N2O emissions, particularly during heavy rainfall events (Harris et al.,

2013). Several studies have estimated that only ~1% of applied N is lost as N2O during the cotton-­ growing season from flood-irrigated alkaline clay soils in Australia (Rochester, 2003; Grace et al.,

2010). This is largely due to the high soil pH of the studied system, as alkaline soils produce relatively less N2O than N2 during denitrification. In fact, it is estimated that approximately

16% of applied N is lost through denitrification as N2O and N2. Furthermore, recent studies have identified the occurrence of bacteria responsible for anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox)

– a process that converts ammonium and nitrite into dinitrogen in agricultural soils (Humbert et al.,

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22 Feed-based Approaches in Enteric Methane Amelioration



Feed-based Approaches in

Enteric Methane Amelioration

P.K. Malik,* R. Bhatta, N.M. Soren, V. Sejian, A.

Mech, K.S. Prasad and C.S. Prasad

National Institute of Animal Nutrition and Physiology, Bangalore,



22.1 Introduction

Mitigation of methane (CH4) emissions from ruminants is necessary not only from the global warming point of view but also for saving dietary energy. Livestock being the significant contributors to the anthropogenic

CH4 pool have remained the prime target of global research for the past two decades, in order to find suitable, sustainable and economical possibilities of reducing enteric

CH4 emission. The adoption of a particular strategy by the stakeholders depends on the input cost, economic status, toxicity to host/ inhabiting microbes, mitigation potential and persistency in long run. Among all the available options, feed-based intervention seems remarkable, and can be tried anywhere by making little alterations to the available feed resources and prevailing feeding practices. This chapter deliberates the pros and cons of various nutritional interventions, along with their future prospects to reduce enteric CH4 emission. Issues like necessity of methanogenesis in the rumen, the feasibility of reducing livestock numbers and cutting down emissions, and the expected reimbursements that arise from this practically feasible reduction, are well debated in the chapter.

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Preamble to Part 2


Preamble to Part 2

Although agricultural literature devotes much of its attention to irrigation methods and equipment, the vast majority of farms across the world, and especially across the tropics, are exclusively rainfed. Globally, rainfed agriculture represents 80% of all cultivated farmland, on which 60% of the world’s food crops are grown.1 In sub-Saharan Africa over 95% of all farmland is purely rainfed, and a full 90% of all crops are produced in this way. Rainfed farming also dominates in Latin America (90% of farmed land), South Asia (60%), East Asia

(65%) and the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) countries (75%).2 Most of the world’s grain crops are purely rainfed.3

These statistics, however, reflect a misconception that there is a clear dividing line between ‘rainfed’ and ‘irrigated’ agriculture projects. In fact, the distinction is rarely so cut and dry. As introduced in Chapter 1, farming includes a continuum of water management practices spanning from purely rainfed to purely irrigated agriculture, and most projects lie somewhere between these two extremes. Just as many rainfed projects incorporate some degree of irrigation in order to mitigate dry spells, irrigated agriculture projects should also strive to make the best use of available rainfall in order to minimize blue water withdrawals.

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12. Bactrocera Species that Pose a Threat to Florida: B. carambolae and B. invadens



Bactrocera Species that Pose a Threat to Florida: B. carambolae and B. invadens

Aldo Malavasi,1 David Midgarden2 and Marc De Meyer3

Medfly Rearing Facility – Moscamed Brasil, Juazeiro, Bahia, Brazil;


USDA/APHIS, Guatemala City, Guatemala; 3Royal Museum for Central Africa,

Tervuren, Belgium


12.1  Introduction

Tephritidae is one of the largest families of

Diptera and contains more than 500 genera and

4000 species, divided into three subfamilies

(White and Elson-Harris, 1992; Norrbom et al.,

1999). Tephri­tidae pests are particularly important because of their ability to invade regions far  from their native distribution. Introduced populations attack commercial fruit species, which causes ­countries imp­orting fruit to impose quarantine regulations (McPheron and

Steck, 1996). These restrictions can inhibit the sale of produce and the development or expansion of fruit production in the areas in which the pest species are established.

As their name implies, many members of the family are frugivorous (feed on fruit), and the most important pest species have a high capacity to disperse to and colonize new areas. There are three major characteristics that give Tephritidae a status of good potential invasive species:

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8: Agroforestry Systems in Temperate Australia



Agroforestry Systems in Temperate


R. Reid1,2* and R. Moore2


School of Forest and Ecosystem Science, The University of Melbourne,

Victoria, Australia; 2Australian Agroforestry Foundation, Victoria, Australia

Why Australian Farmers Plant Trees

Australia is a vast island continent covering a wide range of climate zones, from the wet and dry tropics in the north through the large arid interior to the cool temperate areas in the south. Across all these regions the landscape is typically characterized by erosion prone soils and high climatic (rainfall and temperature) variability (Nelson et  al.,

2004). Even in the temperate regions, continental and oceanic influences result in a highly variable climate where temperatures exceeding 35°C, severe frosts, occasional heavy snow falls and torrential rainfall events are not uncommon. For the purpose of this chapter the classification of Australia’s agroecological regions by Williams et al. (2002), which delineates three temperate zones (dry, coastal and highland), provides a useful basis for differentiating the temperate region of Australia (Fig. 8.1). The particular focus of this chapter is on the dry and coastal zones where the predominant land use (covering more than 70 per cent by area) is agriculture, and farmers, largely operating as private individuals or families, are the predominant landowner group.

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4: More about Probabilities for Decision Analysis



More about Probabilities for Decision Analysis

Having introduced what might be called the basics of the principles and practice of using probability to measure beliefs for decision analysis, in this chapter we address some issues relating to the application of those principles, covering the derivation of probability distributions in situations where there are abundant, sparse or no data available for the task. We then introduce the Bayesian approach to updating prior probability judgements in light of new information. Finally, we address the thorny issue of how to account for situations where a number of uncertain quantities impinge on the outcomes of some risky choice and these quantities are correlated in some way.

The Relevance of Data in Probability Assessment

Making the best use of abundant data

Although we have argued in the previous chapter that all probabilities for decision analysis are necessarily subjective, for those occasions when there are abundant, reliable and relevant data that are pertinent to some uncertain quantity of interest, any sensible person will want to base probability judgements on such information. Probabilities in such cases may be viewed as ‘public’ because many people can be expected to share almost the same probabilities – at least once the information has been brought to their notice. Note, however, that everyone may not agree on the relevance of a given set of data. For example, farmers will often not share the confidence of a research agronomist that data from trials on the research station can be replicated on their own farms – scepticism that, unfortunately, is too often well founded.

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