996 Chapters
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Medium 9781780643755

5: Nematophagous Fungi: Virulence Mechanisms

Askary, T.H., Editor CAB International PDF


Nematophagous Fungi: Virulence


Pedro Luiz Martins Soares,1* Rafael Bernal de Carvalho,1

Paulo Roberto Pala Martinelli,1 Vanessa dos Santos Paes,1

Arlete Jose da Silveira,2 Jaime Maia dos Santos,1

Bruno Flavio Figueiredo Barbosa1 and Rivanildo Junior Ferreira1


Department of Plant Protection, UNESP, Jaboticabal,

São Paulo, Brazil; 2Department of Agrarian and Environmental Sciences,

State University of Santa Cruz, Ilheus-Bahia, Brazil

5.1  Introduction

may transform a conducive soil from suppressive soils; and collaborates to the integrated

Plant-parasitic nematodes cause physiological handling of nematode management in sustainchanges and injuries that reduce the absorp- able agriculture (Soares, 2006). tion and transportation of water and nutriBiological control aims to reduce the nema­ ents to the plant, affecting their development, tode population or their capacity to feed on or productivity and even product quality. They cause damage to plants through the action of cause an estimated loss of US$358 billion one or more living organism that occur naturally annually on a worldwide basis (see Abd-­ in the soil, or through the manipulation of the

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Medium 9781786395177

25 Linking Research with Extension for Accelerated Agricultural Growth

Paroda, R.S. CABI PDF


Linking Research with Extension for Accelerated Agricultural Growth

The Asian region is rich in natural resources, human capital and indigenous knowledge, and much faster progress can be achieved if innovations are outscaled on farmers’ fields. This chapter draws attention to issues concerning the need for linking research with extension for faster agricultural growth in Asia. The Asian region is agriculturally vibrant. With 38% of the world’s total agricultural land, it houses 80% of smallholder farmers supporting 74% of the world’s agricultural population. The region encompasses 39 countries, including 19 commonwealth members with two of the world’s most populous countries, China (1.41 billion) and India (1.34 billion). With 3.5 billion people, the region accounts for 58% of the world’s population (7.6 billion) (http://www.worldometers.info).

Agriculture (crops, livestock, fishery, forestry, and the associated natural resources endowments) is the main source of livelihood for nearly 2 billion people. The region is the largest supplier of the world’s food and agricultural products, and has witnessed several innovations in agricultural development. It is evident that the Green Revolution was brought out by a science-led synergistic extension approach capitalizing genetic potential, irrigation, fertilizer, appropriate policies and farmers’ hard work. This led to an unprecedented transformation in food security and rural development in the region. Since the mid-1960s,

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Medium 9781786393647

12 Games Without Frontiers: Development, Crisis and Conflict in the African Agro-Pastoral Belt

Zurayk, R.; Woertz, E.; Bahn, R. CABI PDF


Games Without Frontiers:

Development, Crisis and Conflict in the African Agro-Pastoral Belt

Michele Nori1,* and Edoardo Baldaro2

European University Institute (EUI), Firenze, Italy; 2University of Naples ‘L’Orientale’,

Naples, Italy



Pastoralism and pastoralists are facing important challenges today, due mostly to the reshaping of socio-economic and agro-ecological landscapes of their territories. While in the past herding groups were considered the wealthiest amongst rural people, today the situation is more articulated, and people living on rangelands constitute a large fraction of the world’s most vulnerable.

Many pastoral populations rank today amongst the poorest and most destitute agricultural peoples in the world and are the most excluded from basic socio-­economic services and infrastructure

(WHO/UNICEF, 2005; Haughton and Khander,

2009; African Union, 2010). Human development reports indicate that over 50% of the world’s most disadvantaged countries are in dryland

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Medium 9781845938291

16. Planococcus minor (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae): Bioecology, Survey and Mitigation Strategies

Pena, J.E., Editor CAB International PDF


Planococcus minor

(Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae):

Bioecology, Survey and Mitigation



Amy Roda,1 Antonio Francis,2 Moses T.K. Kairo2 and Mark Culik3

USDA-APHIS-PPQ, Center for Plant Health Science and Technology, Miami,

Florida 33158, USA; 2Center for Biological Control, College of Engineering

Sciences, Technology and Agriculture, Florida Agricultural and Mechanical

University, Tallahassee, Florida, USA; 3Instituto Capixaba de Pesquisa,

Assistência Técnica e Extensão Rural – INCAPER, Vitória,

Espírito Santo, Brazil

16.1  Introduction: Host Range,

Economic Impact and Pest Status

Planococcus minor (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) is commonly referred to as the passionvine mealybug, pacific mealybug or guava mealybug. P. minor is one of 35 species belonging to a genus that is native to the Old World (Cox, 1989), which includes many well-known pests of economic importance

(Williams and Watson, 1988; Cox, 1989). As a phloem feeder, P. minor can cause stunting and defoliation that eventually leads to reduced yield and fruit quality. The pest also causes indirect or secondary damage due to the sooty mold growth on honeydew produced by the mealybug. P. minor is also likely to transmit plant viruses such as

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Medium 9781786394873

10 Regulations and the Manufacturers of Pesticides and Related Organizations

Matthews, G.A. CABI PDF


Regulations and the

Manufacturers of Pesticides and Related Organizations

The first country to introduce legislation was the USA when they introduced the Federal Insecticide Act in 1910. The full title was ‘An Act for preventing the manufacture, sale, or transportation of adulterated or misbranded Paris greens, lead arsenates, and other insecticides, and also fungicides, and for regulating traffic therein and other purposes’. This Act stood the test of time, but following World War II, the application of synthetic organic insecticides increased from 100 million pounds in 1945 to over 300 million pounds by 1950, so in 1947 Congress passed the Federal

Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act to address some of the shortcomings of the previous Act and address the growing issue of potential environmental damage and biological health risks associated with such widespread use of pesticides. Then the responsibility was moved from the Department of Agriculture in 1972, when the Federal Environmental

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Medium 9781786395177

26 Empowering Farmers through Innovative Extension Systems

Paroda, R.S. CABI PDF


Empowering Farmers through Innovative

Extension Systems

Agriculture must liberate India from the twin scourges of hunger and poverty while ensuring sustainability of natural resources. It must also address effectively the concerns of malnutrition among children and empowerment of women; being important SDGs. To ensure these, needs and aspirations of resource-poor smallholder farmers must be addressed through innovationled, accelerated and sustainable agricultural growth. Historically, adoption of high-yielding dwarf varieties of wheat and rice during the

Green Revolution era addressed both hunger and poverty. Of late, however, the yield gaps in agriculture, and income divide, in the farm and non-farm sectors have widened, primarily due to gaps in knowledge and skills and lack of timely access to improved technologies. Outscaling of appropriate technologies to reach farmers has emerged as a complex issue. Why farmers are not able to access or adopt new technologies are the major issues that create problems for the development officials and scientists alike. Further, growing challenges of natural resource degradation, escalating input costs, market volatility and, above all, the effects of global climate change contribute to declines in yield as well as farm ­income, thus making agriculture both non-profitable and unattractive. Thus, it is crucial to ensure inclusive growth in agriculture through innovative and synergistic approaches for achieving sustainable food and nutritional security. Therefore, ‘agriculture research for development (AR4D)’ requires a paradigm shift to

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Medium 9781780647784

25 Yersinia ruckeri

Woo, P.T.K.; Cipriano, R.C. CABI PDF


Yersinia ruckeri

Michael Ormsby and Robert Davies*

Institute of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK

25.1  Introduction

Yersinia ruckeri is a Gram-negative member of the

Enterobacteriaceae and causes enteric redmouth

(ERM) disease or yersiniosis of salmonids. Since its isolation in the USA and Canada (Ross et al., 1966;

Bullock et al., 1978; Busch, 1978; Stevenson and

Daly, 1982), Y. ruckeri has also been detected in

Europe, South America, Africa, Asia and Australasia

(Horne and Barnes, 1999). The disease was first isolated in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) but it has since been recovered from both salmonid and non-salmonid fishes (Horne and Barnes, 1999;

Carson and Wilson, 2009). Y. ruckeri has increasingly become an important pathogen of Atlantic salmon

(Salmo salar) in Australia (Carson and Wilson, 2009),

Chile (Bastardo et al., 2011), Norway (Shah et al.,

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Medium 9781780644370

11 The Lessons that Caenorhabditis elegans Has Taught Us About the Mechanism of Action of Crystal Proteins

Soberon, M.; Gao, Y.; Bravo, A. CABI PDF


The Lessons that

Caenorhabditis elegans Has

Taught Us About the Mechanism of Action of Crystal Proteins

Anand Sitaram and Raffi V. Aroian*

Program in Molecular Medicine, University of Massachusetts

Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts, USA


Caenorhabditis elegans is susceptible to three domain crystal proteins similar to those that intoxicate insects. Investigations of this organism have several important strengths, for example, ease of forward genetic screens, range of molecular genetic tools available and ease of carrying out RNAi (RNA interference) studies. These have been exploited to study cellular responses known as cellular non-immune defences (CNIDs) to the crystal proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and pore-forming toxins in general. We will discuss what we have learned through genetics and RNAi

(including genome-wide RNAi) to elucidate the pathways that allow cells to respond productively to crystal protein attack. In addition, key results will be discussed from investigations with mammalian poreforming proteins to highlight the conservation of cellular responses to crystal proteins with cellular responses to poreforming proteins in general.

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Medium 9781786393647

15 India: Rural Roots of Naxalite–Maoist Insurgency

Zurayk, R.; Woertz, E.; Bahn, R. CABI PDF


India: Rural Roots of

Naxalite–Maoist Insurgency

Archana Prasad*

Centre for Informal Sector and Labour Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University,

New Delhi, India

Agrarian Capitalism and Conflicts

This chapter explores the relationship between the classical and contemporary agrarian questions and the rise of Naxalite–Maoist insurgency in rural India. It situates the origins and the character of such insurgency within the debates on the nature of agrarian capitalism in India and the evolving resistance to it. In this sense this chapter will be located in the contemporary history of agrarian transformations in constitutionally designated ‘tribal areas’ of central India, which are popularly known as the Red Corridor or the areas of operation of the Maoists. In this chapter, the term ‘Maoists’ is used for political activists who are associated with or identify themselves with the Communist Party of India

(Maoist). It is not used for local Adivasi people, who may participate in struggles but do not form the cadre of the Communist Party of India

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Medium 9781780644370

10 The Role of Proteolysis in the Biological Activity of Bt Insecticidal Crystal Proteins

Soberon, M.; Gao, Y.; Bravo, A. CABI PDF


The Role of Proteolysis in the

Biological Activity of Bt

Insecticidal Crystal Proteins

Igor A. Zalunin,1 Elena N. Elpidina2 and Brenda



State Research Institute for Genetics and Selection of

Industrial Microorganisms, Moscow, Russia; 2A.N. Belozersky

Institute of Physico-Chemical Biology, Moscow State University,

Moscow, Russia; 3USDA Agricultural Research Service, Center for Grain and Animal Health Research, Manhattan, Kansas,



The crystal toxins (Cry) produced by the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have been successfully used in both spray formulations and transgenic crops to control some of the most problematic insect pests, as has been discussed in previous chapters.

The -endotoxins of Bt are functionally active in the insect gut and interact with and are processed by proteolytic enzymes. The structure of Cry proteins has specific features that not only permit them to retain their biological activity in the hostile environment of the insect gut, but also to use the process of proteolysis in the solubilization and activation of Cry protoxins. Because the proteolysis of Cry proteins is critical to their biological activity, we review the literature on studies related to insect and mammalian proteases and their effects on toxin structure and toxicity.

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Medium 9781780642703

1 Introduction




The study of naturally occurring toxins found in plants, animals and microorganisms in the field of toxicology is termed as toxinology.

These natural toxins range from simple to complex molecules and are lethal. Many have been studied for years but have yet to be thoroughly described. There are many plant species that produce toxic compounds for their own defence. Hundreds of microorganisms produce toxins that cause toxicity in other living organisms. There are hundreds of toxins produced by marine flora and fauna.

Overall, with the introduction of modern scientific methods of research, our knowledge of insecticidal plants, microorganisms and marine flora and fauna has expanded vastly.

Such compounds were documented in our earlier volume Insecticides of Natural Origin

(Dev and Koul, 1997), but since then there has been an enormous addition to our knowledge of this subject. Therefore, in this book

I describe the natural toxins that are purely toxic to insects, i.e. excluding feeding deterrents discussed in another volume (Koul,

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Medium 9781780646862

4: Plants and Water

Finley, S. CABI PDF


Plants and Water

Water availability is a principal limiting factor to plant development and crop yield. In laboratory studies, the total dry matter production of crop plants has been shown to have a linear relationship to water uptake: the more water used, the more yield produced, up to the point where the full plant water requirement is met.1

Water plays several roles in plant development and crop production:

1. Water is the principal transport mechanism for moving essential nutrients, minerals and dissolved carbohydrates through plant tissues. Water moves from regions of low to high potential, pulling it from the soil into roots, upward through plant tissues, and out through the leaf surface into the atmosphere in a continuous sequence driven by transpiration. As it moves through the plant, water delivers essential elements from roots to shoots and leaves where they are used in plant metabolic processes.

2. Water is a critical reactant in chemical reactions occurring in plant cells.

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Medium 9781780643304

9 Good Intentions vs Good Ideas: Evaluating Bioenergy Projects that Utilize Invasive Plant Feedstocks

Quinn, L.D., Editor CAB International PDF


Good Intentions vs Good Ideas:

Evaluating Bioenergy Projects that

Utilize Invasive Plant Feedstocks

Lloyd L. Nackley*

University of Cape Town and South Africa National Biodiversity

Institute, Cape Town, South Africa


This chapter evaluates the sustainability of using naturalized or cultivated invasive plant species as feedstocks for bioenergy, including electrical power, liquid biofuels, and chemical substitutes. The evaluations apply a sustainability framework that recognizes economic and social development, as well as environmental protection. The necessity of using a sustainability framework is illustrated by revealing how historical bioenergy developments, which did not consider multiple aspects of sustainability (e.g., only economics), fell short of providing socially acceptable and environmentally neutral/ beneficial bioenergy. There are two divergent issues regarding the use of invasive plants in bioenergy: (i) dedicated energy feedstocks that may foster biological invasions; and (ii) harvesting existing invasive plant biomass for bioenergy conversion. Fertile dedicated feedstocks are shown to be a less sustainable option than sterile species with no history of invasion. No species with a history of invasion should be used as a dedicated energy feedstock. Harvesting existing invasive populations is shown to be economically unsustainable if the bioenergy conversion process is dependent on the invasive plant population. When invasive plant populations represent a small portion of the overall energy supply (<10%) there are possible synergies available for thermal energy conversion processes (e.g., bioelectricity, or syngas production), but not for liquid biofuels, which currently cannot tolerate a heterogeneous feedstock mix. Lastly, invasive plant-based biochar is deemed the most suitable option, because it meets all sustainability criteria.

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Medium 9781786390325

23 PGPR: A Good Step to Control Several of Plant Pathogens

Singh, H.B.; Sarma, B.K.; Keswani, C. CABI PDF



PGPR: A Good Step to Control Several of Plant Pathogens

Laith K. Tawfeeq Al-Ani1,2

School of Biological Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Pinang, Malaysia;


Department of Plant Protection, College of Agriculture-Baghdad University,

Baghdad 10071, Iraq

23.1 Introduction

Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are able to play a very important role in protecting plants from infection, as well as promoting plant growth through colonizing the roots. PGPRs are a beneficial group of soil microorganisms that very efficiently colonize the rhizoplane and rhizosphere. One third of the crops produced globally get damaged due to infection from diseases, irrespective of the use of several protective measures. The prime factor is the use of synthetic chemicals that protects plants from numerous diseases, but in contrast severely affect the environment, including humans, animals, plants, beneficial microorganisms, rivers, lakes, etc. The environment is already exposed to residues of chemicals that are sprayed to control plant pathogens.

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Medium 9781845938178

14: Sociology and Communication of Rodent Management in Developing Countries

Buckle, A.P.; Smith, R.H. CABI PDF


Sociology and Communication of Rodent Management in

Developing Countries

G.R. Singleton and R.J.B. Flor

International Rice Research Institute, Metro Manila, Philippines


In 2010, approximately 925 million people in the world suffered from hunger (FAO

2010). Rodents compete with humans for food in urban, peri-urban and rural communities. In developing countries in particular, there is a great demand for effective rodent management because rodents cause staggering production losses (Singleton, 2003;

Stenseth et al., 2003; John, 2014). In Asia alone, annual production losses to rodents of cereal crops have been documented to be

5–15% in most countries (Singleton and

Petch, 1994; Singleton, 2003), with occasional outbreaks of rodent populations typically leading to losses of >50% for smallholder farmers (Singleton et al., 2010).

If losses to rodents of food crops in agricultural landscapes were reduced by just 5%, then almost 280 million undernourished people could be fed for a year (Meerburg et al., 2009). This chapter will focus on sociological and communication approaches that have been applied to tackling the management of rodent pests in agricultural landscapes in developing countries.

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