996 Chapters
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Medium 9781780648651

3: The Ecological Reserve

Peterken, G.; Mountford, E. CABI PDF


The Ecological Reserve

Lady Park is an attractive place and an ecologically interesting wood, but its main significance for ecologists lies in its early establishment as a research reserve and the long and detailed record of its trees. From

1945 onwards, we have the curriculum vitae of some

21,000 individuals, from huge, spreading trees of

18th century origin to saplings that only briefly grew large enough to be recorded before they perished.

The creation of the reserve and the circumstances in which the record has been compiled and preserved is a story of shifting institutional relationships, scientific endeavour and human and organisational limitations spanning the entire post-war decades.



Lady Park Wood is almost unique in becoming a research reserve before nature conservation was officially established in Britain, and it remained an anomaly for 40 years as an ‘ecological reserve’ on

Ordnance Survey maps, but neither a Site of Special

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Medium 9781780644325

23 Methanotrophs in Enteric Methane Mitigation



Methanotrophs in Enteric

Methane Mitigation

N.M. Soren,* P.K. Malik and V. Sejian

National Institute of Animal Nutrition and Physiology, Bangalore,



emission are debated elaborately in the following chapter.

In recent years, greater concern for environmental health, especially the mitigation of greenhouse gases, has been debated on various platforms. Methane

(CH4) is a potent greenhouse gas (GHG) and is produced globally by both biotic and anthropogenic activities. The most important recognized sources of CH4 are natural wetlands (21%); fossil fuel related to natural gas, coal mines and the coal industry

(16%); enteric fermentation (16%); paddy

(11%); biomass burning (7%); landfills (7%); and animal waste (5%). Enteric fermentation in ruminants represents a major source of anthropogenic CH4. Several CH4 lowering strategies are being attempted by animal scientists across the globe to enhance livestock production vis-à-vis lower CH4 production. Each strategy that is being attempted has its advantages as well as limitations. So it is imperative to look for a strategy that is viable and environmentally friendly too. CH4-oxidizing bacteria, obligate and facultative, as well as anaerobic CH4oxidizing archaea are known to play a fundamental role in the carbon cycle by metabolizing CH4 before it is released into the atmosphere. Therefore, CH4 mitigation by employing methanotrophic microorganisms may be a viable and novel approach in controlling enteric CH4 emissions in ruminants. The prospects of methanotrophs for eradicating enteric CH4

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Medium 9781780648002

13 Integrated Pest Management in Citrus

Rapisarda, C.; Cocuzza, G.E.M. CABI PDF


Integrated Pest Management in Citrus

Giuseppe E. Massimino Cocuzza* and Carmelo Rapisarda

Dipartimento di Agricoltura, Alimentazione e Ambiente, Università degli Studi,

Catania, Italy

13.1 Introduction

Citrus is a typical cultivation of the tropical and subtropical areas of the world. In

2014, citrus was grown in 9,080,780  ha, with a total production of 139,796,997  t

(­FAOSTAT, 2016), 75% of which is concentrated in ten countries (Table 13.1). The main citrus productions are sweet oranges, mandarins (with tangerines and clementines), grapefruits and lemons/limes, with prevalence and relative importance

Table 13.1.  Citrus production and harvested areas in the main producing countries. (From FAOSTAT,






United States






South Africa



(in tons)

Harvested area

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Medium 9781780643373

17: Białowieza Primeval Forest: A 2000-year Interplay of Environmental and Cultural Forces in Europe’s Best Preserved Temperate Woodland

Kirby, K.J.; Watkins, C. CABI PDF


Białowiez˙a Primeval Forest:

A 2000-year Interplay of Environmental and Cultural Forces in Europe’s Best

Preserved Temperate Woodland

Małgorzata Latałowa,1* Marcelina Zimny,1

Bogumiła Je˛ drzejewska2 and Tomasz Samojlik2


Department of Plant Ecology, University of Gdan´sk, Poland;


Mammal Research Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences, Białowiez˙a, Poland

17 .1  Introduction

Białowiez˙  a Forest covers about 1500 km2 along the border between Poland and B

­ elarus in central eastern Europe (Fig. 17.1) (­Falin´ski,

1986). The unique preservation of the forest ecosystem and rich historical documents describing use of the forest resources during the last several 100 years, make Białowiez˙ a ­Primeval

Forest (BPF) of special value as a ­subject for long-­term ecological studies. The history of this forest can be used to explore ideas arising from the ongoing discussion on the natural openness of European primeval forests and the role of game in shaping landscape structure (Vera,

2000; Birks, 2005; Mitchell, 2005; Holl and

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Medium 9781786391216

6: Aleurone

Larkins, B.A. CABI PDF

6 Aleurone

Bryan C. Gontarek and Philip W. Becraft*

Department of Genetics, Development and Cell Biology,

Iowa State University, Iowa, USA

6.1 Introduction

6.2  Biological Functions of Aleurone

The aleurone cell layer forms at the surface of the endosperm and is present in seeds of most flowering plants. It has epidermal-like characteristics, except that it is not directly exposed to the atmosphere; rather, it is covered by maternally derived testa and pericarp. Maize aleurone has a rich history, being instrumental in fundamental discoveries by pioneering geneticists, including

Barbara McClintock. Anthocyanin pigmentation of aleurone provides a convenient genetic marker that has led to the discovery of genes that regulate anthocyanin biosynthesis and endosperm development. Anthocyanin pigmentation in the aleurone has also been utilized to study the inheritance patterns and behaviors of genes. Transposable elements, imprinting and paramutation are among the significant discoveries facilitated by anthocyanin in the aleurone (McClintock, 1950; Brink, 1956; Kermicle, 1970). More recently, attention has focused on the aleurone per se, due to its important biological functions, implications for agronomic performance and industrial applications, and healthful properties.

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Medium 9781780644851

8: Agroforestry Systems in Temperate Australia

Gordon, A.M.; Newman, S.M.; Coleman, B.R.W. CABI PDF


Agroforestry Systems in Temperate


R. Reid1,2* and R. Moore2


School of Forest and Ecosystem Science, The University of Melbourne,

Victoria, Australia; 2Australian Agroforestry Foundation, Victoria, Australia

Why Australian Farmers Plant Trees

Australia is a vast island continent covering a wide range of climate zones, from the wet and dry tropics in the north through the large arid interior to the cool temperate areas in the south. Across all these regions the landscape is typically characterized by erosion prone soils and high climatic (rainfall and temperature) variability (Nelson et  al.,

2004). Even in the temperate regions, continental and oceanic influences result in a highly variable climate where temperatures exceeding 35°C, severe frosts, occasional heavy snow falls and torrential rainfall events are not uncommon. For the purpose of this chapter the classification of Australia’s agroecological regions by Williams et al. (2002), which delineates three temperate zones (dry, coastal and highland), provides a useful basis for differentiating the temperate region of Australia (Fig. 8.1). The particular focus of this chapter is on the dry and coastal zones where the predominant land use (covering more than 70 per cent by area) is agriculture, and farmers, largely operating as private individuals or families, are the predominant landowner group.

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Medium 9781780642789

Cluster bean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L.) Taub)

Kumar, P.; Sharma, M.K. CAB International PDF

CLUSTER BEAN (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L.) Taub)



Plate 308. Entire plant appearing light green. (Photo by Dr Prakash Kumar and Dr Manoj Kumar Sharma.)

1. Nitrogen deficiency is usually found during the initial stages of crop growth when root symbiotic nitrogen fixation nodules are yet to develop.

2. Nitrogen deficiency may also occur during later stages of crop growth when the symbiotic nitrogen-supplying mechanism is disturbed for some reason such as nodule infestation, nodule pathogenic disease or physiological causes.

3. Nitrogen is mobile in plants and under short supply conditions it is easily mobilized from older to younger leaves. The deficiency symptoms appear first and more severely on old leaves (Plate 307).

4. In mild deficiency conditions or when deficiency occurs in the young stage, the entire plant appears uniformly light green in colour (Plates 308 and 309).

5. If deficiency persists and becomes more severe, the older leaves show uniform pale green to pale yellow chlorosis (Plate 307).

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Medium 9781780642109

5: Impact of Land-use Changes in the Amazon on Bacterial Diversity, Composition and Distribution

Brearley, F.Q., Editor CAB International PDF


Impact of Land-use Changes in the Amazon on Bacterial Diversity, Composition and


Lucas W. Mendes,1,2 Acácio A. Navarrete,1,2 Clóvis D. Borges,1

Eiko E. Kuramae2 and Siu Mui Tsai1*


Cell and Molecular Biology Laboratory, Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture

CENA, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; 2Microbial Ecology Department,

Netherlands Institute of Ecology NIOO-KNAW, Wageningen, the Netherlands.

5.1  Introduction

Soil-living microorganisms represent the largest biodiversity pool on Earth, with more than 1030 microbial cells and estimates of 104 to 106 species per gram of soil (Whitman et al., 1998; Torsvik et al., 2002; Roesch et al., 2007). With their enormous numbers, large biomass and involvement in numerous key biogeochemical functions, soil microbial communities hold a central place in terrestrial ecosystems. Soil microbial communities carry out essential ecosystem functions (Bardgett et al., 2008), including nutrient cycling, facilitating plant nutrition, ­disease suppression, water purification and biological attenuation of pollutants. Nowhere are soil microbial communities likely to be more complex than under tropical rain forests, which house the majority of plant diversity on Earth (Dirzo and Raven, 2003; Kreft and

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Medium 9781626569737

11 Designer Genes, the Bacteria in Our Guts, and Precision Medicine

Wadhwa, Vivek; Salkever, Alex Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

In the near future, we will routinely have our genetic material analyzed; late in the next decade, we will be able to download and “print” at home medicines, tissues, and bacteria custom designed to suit our DNA and keep us healthy. In short, we will all be biohackers and amateur geneticists, able to understand how our genes work and how to fix them. That’s because these technologies are moving along the exponential technology curve.

Scientists published the first draft analysis of the human genome in 2001. The effort to sequence a human genome was a long and costly one. Started by the government-funded Human Genome Project and later augmented by Celera Genomics and its noted scientist CEO, Craig Venter, the sequencing spanned more than a decade and cost nearly $3 billion. Today, numerous companies are able to completely sequence your DNA for around $1,000, in less than three days. There are even venture-backed companies, such as 23andMe, that sequence parts of human DNA for consumers, without any doctor participation or prescription, for as little as $199.

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Medium 9781780647326

7 The Marketing of Vegetables in a Northern Ghanaian City: Implications and Trajectories

WinklerPrins, A.M.G.A. CABI PDF


The Marketing of Vegetables in a

Northern Ghanaian City: Implications and Trajectories

Imogen Bellwood-Howard* and Eileen Bogweh Nchanji

Institute of Social and Cultural Anthropology, Göttingen University,

Göttingen, Germany



The proximity of urban production sites to markets is one factor that has let urban agriculture

(UA) flourish in both the Global North (GN) and the Global South (GS) (Drechsel and Dongus,

2010; Danso et al., 2014). Studying markets for urban produce provides an opportunity to consider consumption alongside production and income generation, and economic alongside social and ecological concerns (Chagomoka et  al.,

2014; Yusuf et al., 2014). This theme thus acts as a lens through which to consider the multifunctionality of UA (Atukunda and Maxwell,

1996; Mougeot, 2000).

In this chapter, we argue that the market function of UA, alongside specific characteristics of the urban zone, allows urban farmers and marketers to reconnect the ecological to the social and economic within their livelihood strategies. Referring to urban political ecology and livelihoods frameworks, we show this happening to varying extents across the GN and GS, due to different extents of politicization and connection between producers and consumers. We draw on primary data about vegetable marketing in Tamale, northern Ghana, and compare this with case studies from the Global North. The chapter concludes by considering the implications of these similarities and differences for the future

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Medium 9781780645681

10 How to Make Conservation Agriculture EverGreen

Kassam, A.H.; Mkomwa, S.; Friedrich, T. CABI PDF


How to Make Conservation

Agriculture EverGreen

Dennis P. Garrity*

World Agroforestry Centre, Nairobi, Kenya

10.1  Introduction

After decades of research, and the sustained efforts of many pioneering farmers, the concept of Conservation Agriculture (CA) has been steadily expanding (Kassam et al., 2015). Globally, more than 155 million hectares of annual cropland are now managed under zero-tillage CA systems. Meanwhile, worldwide concerns about the potentially devastating effects of climate change on food production continue to intensify. CA has been highlighted as an important component of climate-smart agriculture (CSA) (FAO, 2013;

Lipper et al., 2014).

Investments in CA in the developing world are increasing. However, the uptake of CA in Africa, and in the rainfed upland areas of Asia, has been quite modest so far. Evidence from research, and from widespread indigenous practice, indicates that successful CA systems for tropical smallholders benefit substantially from the integration of trees into these systems (Garrity et al.,

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Medium 9780253014993

1. The Name of the Game Is Jocktronics: Sport and Masculinity in Early Video Games

Thomas P Oates Indiana University Press ePub

Michael Z. Newman

ALTHOUGH IT MAY NEVER BE SETTLED WHICH VIDEO GAME deserves to be called the first, it’s notable that two games based on racquet sports always come up in talk of the medium’s origins. Tennis for Two, a demonstration using an analog computer and an oscilloscope at Brookhaven National Laboratory (1958), and Pong, the first hit coin-operated game from Atari (1972), are in some ways quite similar.1 Both are competitions between two players given the ability to direct the movement of a ball, which bounces back and forth between them. Both are examples of sports games, a genre that would prove to be among the most enduring, enjoyable, and lucrative in the history of electronic play. And both can be placed within a tradition of masculine amusements adapted from professional athletics, which had already been popular in American society in penny arcades and around gaming tables for more than a half century when electronic games were new. We can regard Pong not just as an early and influential video game, but as part of a history of sports simulations and adaptations and as an electronic version of tavern and rec room amusements such as pool and Ping-Pong, from which it gets its name.

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Medium 9781786395177

26 Empowering Farmers through Innovative Extension Systems

Paroda, R.S. CABI PDF


Empowering Farmers through Innovative

Extension Systems

Agriculture must liberate India from the twin scourges of hunger and poverty while ensuring sustainability of natural resources. It must also address effectively the concerns of malnutrition among children and empowerment of women; being important SDGs. To ensure these, needs and aspirations of resource-poor smallholder farmers must be addressed through innovationled, accelerated and sustainable agricultural growth. Historically, adoption of high-yielding dwarf varieties of wheat and rice during the

Green Revolution era addressed both hunger and poverty. Of late, however, the yield gaps in agriculture, and income divide, in the farm and non-farm sectors have widened, primarily due to gaps in knowledge and skills and lack of timely access to improved technologies. Outscaling of appropriate technologies to reach farmers has emerged as a complex issue. Why farmers are not able to access or adopt new technologies are the major issues that create problems for the development officials and scientists alike. Further, growing challenges of natural resource degradation, escalating input costs, market volatility and, above all, the effects of global climate change contribute to declines in yield as well as farm ­income, thus making agriculture both non-profitable and unattractive. Thus, it is crucial to ensure inclusive growth in agriculture through innovative and synergistic approaches for achieving sustainable food and nutritional security. Therefore, ‘agriculture research for development (AR4D)’ requires a paradigm shift to

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Medium 9781780647753

5: Measuring Youth Entrepreneurship Attributes: The Case of an Out-of-school Youth Training Program in Mindanao, Philippines

Chan, C.; Sipes, B.; Lee, T.S. CABI PDF


Measuring Youth Entrepreneurship

Attributes: The Case of an Out-of-school Youth

Training Program in Mindanao, Philippines

Cynthia Lai,1* Catherine Chan,2 Domenico Dentoni3 and Elma Neyra4

University of Hawai‘i at Maˉnoa, Honolulu, HI, USA; 2University of Hawai‘i at

Maˉnoa, Honolulu, HI, USA; 3Wageningen University, Wageningen, Netherlands;


Southern Christian College, Midsayap, North Cotabato, Philippines


5.1  Introduction

The implementation of youth entrepreneurship training programs is motivated by the realization that fostering entrepreneurship, defined in this chapter as starting a new business (­Kelley et al., 2012), can help in addressing youth unemployment when no other alternatives exist

(Rosa, 2006; Geldhof et al., 2014; UNCDF, 2014).

The Millennium Development Goals, established in the Millennium Summit of the United Nations in 2000, promoted entrepreneurship as one of the major platforms to support sustainable social and economic development for youth (UNDP,

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Medium 9781786395177

31 Future Challenges and Opportunities in Agriculture

Paroda, R.S. CABI PDF


Future Challenges and Opportunities in Agriculture

Since the Green Revolution, a paradigm shift has been noticed from food scarcity to self-sufficiency, monocropping to crop diversification, flood irrigation to drip irrigation, conventional varieties to hybrid seeds, saplings to tissue-culture plants and traditional to secondary and speciality agriculture. The pressure on land and water is continuously increasing, and it is a daunting challenge to feed the growing population, which is currently 1.34 billion. Along with these, an unprecedented increase has been observed in consumer demand for more diversified and nutritious foods – fruits, vegetables, meat, fish etc.

Above 6% growth over the last decade in the fishery and horticultural sectors is indeed remarkable. Through R&D initiatives, farmers harvested a record 277.49 million t in 2017–18. The average agricultural sector growth over the last three years has remained at around 4.7%.

India will need 70% more foodgrains by

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