996 Chapters
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Medium 9781845939212

12 Constraints to Raising Agricultural Productivity in Sub-Saharan Africa

Fuglie, K.O., Ball, V.E., Wang, S.L. CABI PDF


Constraints to Raising Agricultural

Productivity in Sub-Saharan Africa

Keith O. Fuglie and Nicholas E. Rada

Economic Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture,

Washington, DC



Poverty and food insecurity are pervasive in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA).1 In 2005, 51% of

SSA’s population earned less than PPP $1.25 per day (World Bank, 2010; PPP, international purchasing power parity) with a similar share of the population being food insecure (Shapouri et al., 2010). A key, if not the principal, factor behind this disappointing record has been a lack of robust agricultural growth. It is this sector from which the majority of the region’s population draws its livelihood, and their welfare is tied directly to the productivity of the resources at their disposal. The non-farm population also depends heavily on agriculture because a majority of their income is spent on food. Boosting agricultural productivity stimulates economic growth and poverty reduction through a number of avenues: it raises the income of farm households, increases availability and lowers the cost of food, frees resources – such as labour – for general economic development, saves foreign exchange, stimulates rural demand for non-farm goods and services, and creates a surplus for public and private investment

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Medium 9781780642109

13: Patterns and Drivers of Soil Carbon Stocks and Isotopic Composition in Secondary Tropical Dry Forests of Costa Rica

Brearley, F.Q., Editor CAB International PDF


Patterns and Drivers of Soil Carbon

Stocks and Isotopic Composition in Secondary

Tropical Dry Forests of Costa Rica

Jennifer S. Powers,1,2* David W.P. Manning3 and Justin M. Becknell1

Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Behavior, University of Minnesota, St. Paul,

USA; 2Department of Plant Biology, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, USA; 3Odum

School of Ecology, University of Georgia, Athens, USA


13.1  Introduction

Soils contain a large pool of organic carbon (C) that may increase or decrease in response to changes in land use and management (Blair and McLean, 1917; Greenland and Nye, 1959;

Schlesinger, 1977; Powers et al., 2011). Natural reforestation or forest regeneration on lands that were previously used for agriculture or grazing is occurring to different degrees across the tropics (Chazdon, 2008) and understanding how this affects C stored in vegetation and soils is an important question with relevance for the global C cycle. Simple conceptual models typically assume that ecosystem C stocks including biomass and soil C (throughout the text we refer to soil organic carbon as soil C) are depleted during forest-to-pasture conversion, but gradually increase as agricultural lands are abandoned and secondary forests regenerate (Fig. 13.1) (Detwiler and Hall,

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Medium 9781780647005

8 Presentation and Publication of Your Data

Bedford, M.R.; Choct, M.; O'Neill, H.M. CABI PDF


Presentation and Publication of

Your Data


University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia

8.1 Publication Is Not the End of Your Research

This chapter on presentation and publication of your data may be the last in this book, but presentation and publication should be among the first things you consider when designing experiments. Too often, researchers begin to think about publication only after they have completed their experiment. As a result, they find themselves in unnecessary difficulty in presenting their results convincingly or explaining them clearly. In fact, it can be argued that the only reason for doing experiments is to write them up so that other people, scientists or non-scientists, can read them and be influenced by them.

That is because the written word is the only possible medium by which researchers can reach all but a tiny portion of the people who may potentially be interested in their findings and reasoning.

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Medium 9781780644837

8: Albugo candida



Albugo candida

P.R. Verma,1 G.S. Saharan2 and P.D. Meena3*

Agriculture & Agri-Food Canada, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada;


Department of Plant Pathology, CCS Haryana Agricultural University,

Hisar, India; 3ICAR-Directorate of Rapeseed-Mustard Research,

Bharatpur, India



Albugo candida (Pers. ex. Lev.) Kuntze. (A. cruciferarum

S.F. Gray) is an oomycete belonging to the family Albuginaceae (Albugonales, Peronosporomycetes). It is an obligate parasite responsible for the white rust disease of many cruciferous crops. It causes both local and general infection (Saharan and Verma, 1992). Local infection produces white to cream pustules on the lower (abaxial) surface of leaves and stems or pods, while general, or flower bud infection (Verma and Petrie, 1980) causes extensive distortion, hypertrophy, hyperplasia and sterility of inflorescences generally called

‘staghead’. The staghead phase accounts for most of the yield losses attributed to this disease. The combined infection of leaf and inflorescence caused extensive yield losses up to 30–60% in severely affected fields in turnip rape (Brassica rapa L.) (Petrie, 1973; Harper and Pittman, 1974; Petrie and Vanterpool,

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Medium 9781786391445

4 Nanonutrient from Fungal Protein: Future Prospects on Crop Production

Singh, H.B.; Mishra, S.; Fraceto, L.F. CABI PDF


Nanonutrient from Fungal

Protein: Future Prospects on Crop Production

J.C. Tarafdar* and Indira Rathore

ICAR-Central Arid Zone Research Institute, Jodhpur, India

4.1 Introduction

There is enormous interest in the synthesis of nanomaterials due to their

­unusual optical (Krolikowska et al., 2003), chemical (Kumar et al., 2003), photoelectrochemical (Chandrasekharan and Kamat, 2000), and electronic (Peto et al.,

2002) properties. There are various physical, chemical and aerosol (physicochemical) methods employed for the synthesis of nanoparticles (Panacek et al.,

2006; Tarafdar and Adhikari, 2015). However, these methods have certain disadvantages due to the involvement of toxic chemicals and radiation. Therefore, research is shifting towards biological methods of synthesis of nanoparticles, as these are cost-effective and eco-friendly. Thus, microorganisms have been applied in nanoparticle production (Gade et al., 2010; Tarafdar, 2013a). The importance of biological synthesis is being emphasized globally at present because chemical methods are capital intensive, toxic, non-eco-friendly and have low productivity.

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Medium 9781780645353

20: Agricultural Land Policy of Ukraine: State Legislation and Efficiency Analysis

Schmitz, A.; Meyers, W.H. CABI PDF


Agricultural Land Policy of Ukraine:

State Legislation and Efficiency Analysis

Olga Murova*

Texas Tech University, Lubbock,Texas, USA


This chapter focuses on the land market in Ukraine by providing a detailed description of land laws. The main

­objective is twofold: (i) to provide a descriptive analysis of land legislation and policies in Ukraine; and (ii) to investigate how land policies impact the technical efficiency of crop production in Ukraine. The two approaches used to investigate the impact of land policy on the technical efficiency of the Ukrainian crop sector are stochastic frontier analysis and data envelopment analysis. Regions with high technical efficiency are examined in terms of land policies.

Leasing is a common practice in Ukraine, and the extent to which agricultural enterprises and state enterprises rent farmland impacts efficiency significantly. The amount of land leased by all types of agricultural enterprises increases technical efficiency, while farming enterprises working rented land decrease technical efficiency.

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Medium 9781780647753

12: Understanding Conservation Agriculture Adopter’s Information Network to Promote Innovation and Agricultural Entrepreneurship: The Case of Tribal Farmers in the Hill Region of Nepal

Chan, C.; Sipes, B.; Lee, T.S. CABI PDF


Understanding Conservation Agriculture

Adopter’s Information Network to Promote

Innovation and Agricultural Entrepreneurship:

The Case of Tribal Farmers in the Hill

Region of Nepal

Bikash Paudel,1* Katherine A. Wilson,2 Catherine Chan2 and Bir Bahadur Tamang1


Local Initiatives for Biodiversity, Research and Development (LI-BIRD),

Pokhara, Nepal; 2University of Hawai‘i at Ma¯noa, Honolulu, Hawaii

12.1  Introduction

Small-scale rural entrepreneurships are crucial for improving livelihood and reducing poverty in the developing world (Barrett, 2008; Tieguhong et al., 2012). Agricultural or forest-based small enterprises help reduce poverty by building local wealth and creating local job opportunities while also promoting the utilization of local stewardship for local natural resources

(Kaaria et al., 2008; Koirala et al., 2013). Small and medium-sized enterprises are important for economic growth worldwide. About 92.1% of firms in European countries are small to medium-sized enterprises which collectively contribute to 29% of jobs in the industrial sector and share about 21.1% of value added business (Gagliardi et al., 2013). There are great differences in the types and scales of small enterprises in developing countries as different nations define them differently. For the majority of the developing world, small-scale rural enterprises include very simple changes in farming systems such as: growing fresh vegetables and linking them to markets; marketing

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Medium 9781780642109

10: Erosion and Sedimentation Effects on Soil Organic Carbon Redistribution in a Complex Landscape in Western Ecuador

Brearley, F.Q., Editor CAB International PDF


Erosion and Sedimentation Effects on Soil Organic Carbon Redistribution in a Complex Landscape in Western Ecuador

Marife D. Corre,1* Jeroen M. Schoorl,2 Free de Koning,3

Magdalena López-Ulloa4 and Edzo Veldkamp1


Büsgen Institute – Soil Science of Tropical and Subtropical Ecosystems,

Georg-August University Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany; 2Soil Geography and

Landscape, Wageningen University, Wageningen, the Netherlands;


Conservation International Ecuador, Quito, Ecuador; 4Environmental Engineering,

Universidad de las Americas, Quito, Ecuador

10.1  Introduction

Soil organic carbon (SOC) contains a large

­proportion of the nutrient-holding capacity of most soils and contributes to important structural properties such as aggregate stability, fertility, erodibility and water-holding capacity.

In recent years, losses of SOC due to land-cover change and agricultural practices have contributed about 12 to 15% of the anthropogenic CO2 emissions to the atmosphere (~1.2 Pg C year–1), the bulk of  which is released from tropical regions (Le Quéré et al., 2009, Van der Werf et al.,

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Medium 9781780641409

6: Naturalistic Close-to-Nature Forestry Management in Tropical Rainforests

Bruenig, E.F. CABI PDF


Naturalistic Close-to-Nature Forestry

Management in Tropical Rainforests

6.1  Origin, Goals, Targets and

­Principles of Close-to-Nature Forestry

Two centuries ago, Professor Pfeil (1783–1859)

(the first Director of the Academy of Forestry in Eberswalde, University Berlin, 1836–1856), inspired by A. von Humboldt’s work in the

Amazonas–Orinoko basin, aptly expressed the essence of the “close-to-nature forestry”

(CNF) doctrine: “Fragt die Bäume wie sie erzogen sein wollen, sie werden Euch besser darüber belehren, als die Bücher es thun”

(“Ask the trees how they want to be tended and trained, they will teach you better than books do”, translated from an autographed handwritten note below an engraved picture of Professor Pfeil in my study). It means that foresters or forest owners should go out to the forest, look at the trees and the ground they stand on, observe and judge the trees in relation to their neighbours and their habitat (soil and terrain type, and including the ground vegetation) as indicators of vigour and health of the soil and vegetation biology. But you must ask the trees or forest concerned – go to the trees and into the forest. Books and tables are no substitutes, as Pfeil said, neither are the Weiserflächen (monitoring plots), fashionable in the 1930s, nor the Referenzflächen (reference plots) now fashionable and politically correct. The Weiserfläche was

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Medium 9781780642789

Castor (Ricinus communis Linn.)

Kumar, P.; Sharma, M.K. CAB International PDF

CASTOR (Ricinus communis Linn.)



Plate 412. Field view of a nitrogen-deficient castor crop. (Photo by Dr Prakash Kumar.)

1. Nitrogen deficiency decreases leaf area and photosynthesis of castor plants, leading to lower biomass accumulation.

2. High NH4+ concentration in the plant greatly restricts growth.

3. Under deficient conditions, plant growth is retarded remarkably. The leaf dry weight is reduced greatly. The root/shoot ratio is increased.

4. When nitrogen supply is reduced, the deficiency symptoms tend to occur first on lower leaves (Plate 413).

5. The old leaves become pale green to pale yellow while the younger leaves remain normal green (Plate 412).

Developmental stages

Stage I: In mild deficiency conditions, the entire plant may appear light green, having a more pronounced effect on older leaves.

Stage II: Under prolonged deficiency conditions, the lower leaves turn uniformly light yellow (Plate 413).

Stage III: As the symptoms advance, the lower leaves become dark yellow (Plate 411).

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Medium 9781780643755

17: Predatory Nematodes as Biocontrol Agents of Phytonematodes

Askary, T.H., Editor CAB International PDF


Predatory Nematodes as Biocontrol

Agents of Phytonematodes

Young Ho Kim*

Department of Agricultural Biotechnology and Research Institute of

Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Korea

17.1  Introduction

Nematodes are multicellular triploblastic

­invertebrates with a pseudocoel that belong to the phylum Nematoda of the kingdom

­Animalia. They are ubiquitous in nature, inhabiting a very broad range of environments largely as marine or terrestrial inhabitants.

Among their terrestrial forms, soil nematodes are very small (generally 0.3–0.5 mm long as adults) wormlike animals with a high diversity

(commonly >30 taxa) predominating over all other soil animals in species as well as in number (commonly millions per square metre;

Yeates, 1979; Bernard, 1992).

Soil nematodes feed on soil organisms

­belonging to a broad range of groups. Based on feeding behaviour, they can be classified into different trophic groups, such as bacterial feeders, fungal feeders, algal feeders, animal predators, omnivores and plant parasites (Freckman and Caswell, 1985; Yeates and Bongers, 1999).

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Medium 9781786395177

1 The Indian Agricultural Scenario

Paroda, R.S. CABI PDF


The Indian Agricultural Scenario


The agriculture sector is and will remain central to India’s economic development for the foreseeable future. Being the largest private enterprise

(sustaining around 138 million farm families), it contributes around 17.4% of gross domestic product (GDP) and engages around 55% of the workforce (MoA and FW, 2015). Hence, advancement in agriculture and the allied sectors is a necessary condition for inclusive economic growth at the national level. The role of the agricultural sector in alleviating poverty and ensuring household food and nutrition security is very well established.

Indian agricultural systems are predominantly mixed crop-livestock farming systems; the livestock segment supplements farm income

(30–40%) by providing employment, draught animals, milk, manure etc. Over the years, agriculture has become increasingly knowledgeintensive and market-driven. Accordingly, far more innovative research, enabling policies, and effective delivery of services, supplies and markets are prerequisites for accelerating agricultural growth.

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Medium 9781780648590

1 Towards an Understanding of the Implications of Changing Stratospheric Ozone, Climate and UV Radiation

Jordan, B.R. CABI PDF


Towards an Understanding of the

Implications of Changing Stratospheric

Ozone, Climate and UV Radiation

Janet F. Bornman*

Curtin University, Perth, Australia


Changing profiles of ultraviolet radiation

The stratospheric ozone layer, located c. 10 to 50 km above the Earth’s surface (Fig. 1.1), makes up approximately 90% of the world’s ozone. The remaining ozone is located in the troposphere closest to Earth. Although ozone is an effective filter against transmission of ultraviolet (UV) radiation to the Earth’s surface, even a small amount of the short wavelengths can have environmental effects. UV radiation is conventionally defined as UV-C

(< 280 nm), UV-B (280–315 nm) and UV-A

(315–400 nm). About 97–99% of UV radiation in the wavelength range of 200–300 nm is absorbed by ozone with little or no filtering effect on UV-A radiation (NASA, 2016). Thus, as the UV radiation passes through the atmosphere to Earth, all UV-C radiation and most of the UV-B radiation is absorbed. Other factors influencing the amounts of UV radiation reaching the Earth’s surface include altitude, latitude, sun angle, clouds, aerosols, ground reflectivity, depth and quality of water bodies, as well as climate-induced changes.

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Medium 9781780648507

10 Mechanical Harvest and In-field Handling of Tree Fruit Crops

Zhang, Q. CABI PDF


Mechanical Harvest and In-field

Handling of Tree Fruit Crops

Manoj Karkee1*, Abhisesh Silwal1 and Joseph

R. Davidson2

Washington State University, Prosser, Washington,USA; 2Washington

State University, Richland, Washington, USA


10.1 Introduction

Through intensive automation and mechanization, agricultural productivity has substantially increased in the past century. Farming technologies commercially adopted over the course of the 20th century include equipment for field operations, such as tractors, planters, sprayers and combine harvesters, as well as irrigation systems, all of which have profoundly altered the structure of agriculture (Silwal et al., 2016a). The production of row crops like corn and wheat has seen unparalleled reduction in labor use and improvement in crop yield and quality through the application of these technologies. However, commercial adoption of mechanization and automation technologies for fresh market tree fruit crops such as apples and pears is still limited.

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Medium 9781780644998

13: Pest Management in Organic Rice: Latin America and the Caribbean

Vacante, V.; Kreiter, S. CABI PDF


Pest Management in Organic Rice:

Latin America and the Caribbean

Alberto Pantoja,1* Edgar A. Torres,2 Anamaria Garcia,1 Eduardo J. Gaterol,3

Gustavo A. Prado2 and Maribel Cruz3


Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Regional Office for Latin America and the Caribbean, Santiago, Chile; 2Centro Internacional de

Agricultura Tropical (CIAT), Cali, Colombia; 3Fondo Latinoamericano para

Arroz de Riego (FLAR), Cali, Colombia


Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is the staple food for half of the world population and is considered the single largest food source for the poor in coastal areas of Latin America and the

Caribbean (LAC) countries (Zorrilla et  al.,

2013). Rice is also the fastest growing food source in sub-Saharan Africa (GRiSP, 2014).

Although, LAC only produces 4.5% of the world’s rice, the crop is a staple for many coastal communities in the region (Pantoja et  al., 1997; Zorrilla et  al., 2013). In 2013, about 5.3 million ha of rice was planted in

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