996 Chapters
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Medium 9781845939946

17: The Family Phytoptidae Murray

Vacante, V. CABI PDF

17   The Family Phytoptidae Murray

Morphological Characteristics,

Systematics and Bio-ecology

The general morphological characteristics of the Phytoptidae are the same as those of other eriophyoid mites (see Chapter 16,

Eriophyidae), and details of their external morphology and setal notation given here are fundamentally based on

Lindquist (1996) and Amrine et al. (2003). The family is dis­ tinctive in having on the prodorsal shield from one to five setae, with anterior setae present (paired or unpaired vi and/ or paired ve). The gnathosoma can be variously sized and is often large, and the chelicerae are straight or slightly and evenly curved; the palp is commonly short and truncate and enclosing the oral stylet. The legs have the usual setae and frequently the solenidion j on tibia I. All empodia are undiv­ ided. The opisthosoma bears the usual setae, and the setae h1 are sometimes long. The female genital coverflap lacks ridges; the anterior female apodeme always extends forward for a moderate distance, and the spermathecal tubes are commonly long, sometimes extending diagonally forward and then re­ curving caudally (see Fig. 17.1).

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Medium 9781780648651

5: The Changing Woodland

Peterken, G.; Mountford, E. CABI PDF

5

The Changing Woodland

Woods are constantly changing. However fixed and statuesque they may seem to a casual, shortterm observer, both the balance between individual species and the character of the stand as a whole change constantly. Thus, for example, as trees grow larger, so their numbers must decrease, for there is a fixed amount of space for them to occupy. Here, we deal with trees as a collective, the ‘stand’, leaving the behaviour of individual species to later chapters.

5.1

How Stands Grow

Several schemes have been devised to describe how stands grow (Table 5.1). At their simplest, stands start with ‘bare ground’ (which is how foresters see land devoid of trees) and a pioneer phase of saplings with plenty of space between them. As saplings grow, branches interlock and a thicket develops. Further growth results in stratification as fast-growing trees overtop slow growers and weaker trees die, i.e. they are ‘excluded’. Eventually, trees grow to full height, at which point the stand is mature, with a canopy of individuals whose crowns are open to full sunlight, above a subcanopy of trees whose crowns spread below the canopy and an underwood of shrubs, saplings and slow- or poorly-grown trees which, necessarily, suffer the shade cast by canopy and subcanopy trees. If the trees have been grown for timber, they would be felled at this stage and a new stand would be established; or some of them would be felled, leaving space for subcanopy trees, underwood trees and even saplings to grow into the canopy. If, however, the stand is allowed to grow on, it develops a distinctive condition with aged canopy trees and a complex vertical and horizontal structure known as

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Medium 9781780645353

8: Agricultural Cooperative Development in Kazakhstan and Ukraine

Schmitz, A.; Meyers, W.H. CABI PDF

8 

Agricultural Cooperative Development in Kazakhstan and Ukraine

David Sedik1* and Zvi Lerman2

Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), Budapest, Hungary;

2

Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot, Israel

1

Abstract

The agricultural service cooperative is a means for incorporating small farmers into value chains that include larger downstream middlemen, processors, markets and grocery chains. This chapter describes the development of agricultural service cooperatives in the large wheat producing countries of Kazakhstan and Ukraine, and analyses the reasons for the lagging development there, with a review of policy alternatives for development of the cooperative movement. While there appears to be widespread recognition by both governments of the usefulness of agricultural service cooperatives, support policies focus on subsidies for input purchases and subsidized loans, thus breeding a class of false cooperatives that are established only for the purpose of gaining access to cheap money with no regard for cooperative principles. Neither government has succeeded in creating a supportive business environment for service cooperatives, with tax disincentives as an important barrier to their development. Neither of the governments of Kazakhstan or Ukraine has informed the rural population adequately on the cooperative idea and its benefits.

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Medium 9781780648507

11 Opportunity of Robotics in Precision Horticulture

Zhang, Q. CABI PDF

11

Opportunity of Robotics in Precision Horticulture

Thomas Burks1*, Duke Bulanon2 and Siddhartha Mehta1

University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA; 2Northwest Nazarene

University, Nampa, Idaho, USA

1

11.1 Introduction

The motivation towards adoption of mechanization and automation technologies for fruit production has been associated primarily with labor productivity, labor cost and availability, as well as other factors such as cultivar/varietal improvements, fruit quality and safety, disease and pest pressures, environmental concerns and regulations, and global market pressures. Although the vast majority of progress has been realized during the past 50 years, there seems to be an accelerated effort in developed countries in the past decade as two major factors come to bear. The first is rapidly escalating labor cost along with a shrinking labor force, while the second is a significant acceleration in agricultural automation technological development enabled by aerospace, defense and industrial efforts. The concept of appropriate automation becomes crucial, since global market pressures limit the cost of automation to competitive levels.

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Medium 9781789240542

4 Food Security and GMOs

Brankov, T.; Lovre, K. CABI PDF

4

Food Security and GMOs

Despite a growing area under genetically modified crops around the world, many nations have continued to fight the introduction of transgenic food. Resistance exists on all continents. After the abolition of the moratorium on the cultivation of GMO,

­Europe adopted strict labelling and traceability regulation for all food derived from

GMOs on the grounds of human and animal health, and environmental protection. The

EU has left its members a choice whether or not to grow GMOs, even if one GM maize

MON810, is already authorized to be grown within the Union. Scotland, Wales and

Northern Ireland in the UK, Austria, the

Wallonia region in Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia,

Cyprus, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece,

Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Poland, and

Slovenia, have taken the ‘opt-out’ clause of a

European Commission rule to abstain from growing GMO crops. ‘A controversy over GM food arose in 2000 when it was discovered that some food aid donations contained

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Medium 9781780647098

30: IPM Case Studies: Cotton

van Emden, H.F.; Harrington, R. CABI PDF

30

IPM Case Studies: Cotton1

Pierre J. Silvie,1,2* Thierry Brévault1,3 and Jean-Philippe

Deguine4

1

Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le

Développement, UPR Agro-écologie et Intensification Durable des ­cultures annuelles, Montpellier, France; 2IRD, Laboratoire Evolution, ­Génomes,

­Comportement et Ecologie, UMR IRD, CNRS, Université Paris Sud,

­Gif-sur-Yvette, France; 3BIOPASS (ISRA-IRD-UCAD), Dakar, Sénégal;

4

UMR PVBMT, CIRAD/Université de La Réunion, Saint-Pierre, France

Introduction

Cotton is an industrial crop of prime importance in numerous producer and consumer countries such as Australia, Brazil, China, India, Pakistan and the

USA (ICAC, 2013). The main cultivated species worldwide is Gossypium hirsutum. Crop profitability depends on both yield and fibre quality.

Cotton production includes a wide range of farming systems, from rainfed, low-input agriculture in developing countries to irrigated, high-input agriculture with high levels of mechanization in

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Medium 9781780645322

9 Climate Change Mitigation

Banwart, S.A., Noellemeyer, E., Milne, E. CABI PDF

9 

Climate Change Mitigation

Martial Bernoux* and Keith Paustian

Abstract

Terrestrial ecosystems play a major role in regulating the concentrations of three greenhouse gases

(CO2, CH4 and N2O), of which CO2 is the most important in terms of the impact on the global radiative balance. Soils play a major role in the global carbon (C) cycle and CO2 dynamics; thus, management of soil carbon appears essential and more and more inevitable.

The capacity of natural and managed agroecosystems to remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere in a manner that is not immediately re-emitted into the atmosphere is known as carbon sequestration: carbon dioxide is absorbed by vegetation through photosynthesis and stored as carbon in biomass and soils, and released through autotrophic and heterotrophic respiration. Forests, croplands and grasslands can store large amounts of carbon in soils for relatively long periods. Soils are the larger terrestrial pool of organic carbon. Moreover, soil carbon sequestration is beneficial for soil quality, both over the short term and long term, and can be achieved through land management practices adapted to the specific site characteristics. The ability of soils to sequester carbon depends on climate, soil type, vegetation cover and land management practices.

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Medium 9780253353597

Six Britain and the Defeat of the U-boat Guerre de Course

H. P. Willmott Indiana University Press ePub

CHAPTER SIX

BRITAIN AND THE DEFEAT OF THE U-BOAT GUERRE DE COURSE

STATES AND THEIR ARMED FORCES must fight wars as they must rather than as they would, but at a distance of some eight decades from events it is very difficult to discern what the inter-war British Navy intended, hoped, or anticipated would be the type of war it would be called upon to fight. What seems clear is that for most of the inter-war period the navy never expected to have to fight another U-boat guerre de course, and there are at least three obvious indications of this belief. First, for much of the inter-war period British destroyers were not equipped with depth-charges. The first destroyers built after the war with asdic (to Americans, sonar) were ordered in 1923–1924,1 and very few escorts were built in a period of difficult financial circumstances. Second, in the entire inter-war period something like one in fifty appointments to flag rank were officers versed in anti-submarine operations, and in 1935 just 11 of 1,029 lieutenants and 16 of 972 lieutenant-commanders in the British navy were anti-submarine specialists.2 Third, the one detailed study of convoy and the experience of the First World War, undertaken in 1917–1918 by Commander Rollo Appleyard, was classified, with the result that in the inter-war period his study was all but inaccessible to its intended readership, and in 1939 the Admiralty ordered that all copies of his report be destroyed.3

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Medium 9781780647784

20 Piscirickettsia salmonis

Woo, P.T.K.; Cipriano, R.C. CABI PDF

20

Piscirickettsia salmonis

Jerri Bartholomew,1* Kristen D. Arkush2 and Esteban Soto3

1

Department of Microbiology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, USA; formerly of Bodega Marine Laboratory, University of California-Davis, Bodega

Bay, California, USA; 3Department of Medicine and Epidemiology, School of

Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, California, USA

2

20.1  Introduction

20.1.1  Description

Piscirickettsia salmonis (Fryer et al., 1992) is a

Gram-negative, non-motile, facultative intracellular bacterium. The type strain, LF-89 (ATCC VR

1361), was recovered from an epizootic among coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) in seawater net pens in Chile (Fryer et al., 1990). The bacterium has since been recovered from other marine and freshwater fishes (see Table 20.1). Although isolates recovered from non-salmonid fishes are morphologically similar, only some of their identities have been confirmed (Lannan et al., 1991; Alday-Sanz et al., 1994).

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Medium 9781780644851

8: Agroforestry Systems in Temperate Australia

Gordon, A.M.; Newman, S.M.; Coleman, B.R.W. CABI PDF

8

Agroforestry Systems in Temperate

Australia

R. Reid1,2* and R. Moore2

1

School of Forest and Ecosystem Science, The University of Melbourne,

Victoria, Australia; 2Australian Agroforestry Foundation, Victoria, Australia

Why Australian Farmers Plant Trees

Australia is a vast island continent covering a wide range of climate zones, from the wet and dry tropics in the north through the large arid interior to the cool temperate areas in the south. Across all these regions the landscape is typically characterized by erosion prone soils and high climatic (rainfall and temperature) variability (Nelson et  al.,

2004). Even in the temperate regions, continental and oceanic influences result in a highly variable climate where temperatures exceeding 35°C, severe frosts, occasional heavy snow falls and torrential rainfall events are not uncommon. For the purpose of this chapter the classification of Australia’s agroecological regions by Williams et al. (2002), which delineates three temperate zones (dry, coastal and highland), provides a useful basis for differentiating the temperate region of Australia (Fig. 8.1). The particular focus of this chapter is on the dry and coastal zones where the predominant land use (covering more than 70 per cent by area) is agriculture, and farmers, largely operating as private individuals or families, are the predominant landowner group.

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Medium 9781845939212

9 Structural Transformation and Agricultural Productivity in India

Fuglie, K.O., Ball, V.E., Wang, S.L. CABI PDF

9

Structural Transformation and

Agricultural Productivity in India*

1

Hans P. Binswanger-Mkhize1 and Alwin d’Souza2

China Agricultural University, Beijing 2Jawaharlal University, New Delhi

9.1 Agriculture and the Economic

Structural Transformation Process

Studies of the patterns of economic growth and transformation, carried out by Simon Kuznets,

Hollis Chenery and most recently by Peter

Timmer (2009), have shown important regularities in the structural composition of economic activity. Prior to economic transformation, agriculture generally accounts for the bulk of the economic output and the labour force.

Because productivity in the non-agricultural sector is higher than in the agricultural sector, the share of agriculture in total GDP falls far short of its share in the labour force. As industrial growth takes off, industry becomes even more productive, and the productivity differential with agriculture increases, while the share of agriculture in GDP starts to fall even more rapidly.

Thus, the structural gap widens during periods of rapid growth as long as the share of agricultural in GDP falls much faster than the share of agricultural labour. Farm incomes visibly fall behind incomes earned in the rest of the economy. ‘This lag in real earnings

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Medium 9781780648651

7: Beech and Oak, The Major Forest Trees

Peterken, G.; Mountford, E. CABI PDF

7

Beech and Oak, The Major

Forest Trees

For centuries, beech and oak have dominated in Lady Park Wood. Not only have they formed the largest individual trees they have also been the main concern of woodmen and foresters. Yet they are competitors: in both managed and natural woodland, the fortunes of one declined as the fortunes of the other improved. Oak long dominated in both wood pasture and coppice, but beech was favoured in the conversion to high forest and

‘natural’ woodland, only to be brought up short by grey squirrels and the 1976 drought. Today, both their futures are in the balance.

7.1

Beech in Britain

Beech is the tree that makes the ecological weather. In theory, it has the characteristics of a natural winner: not only does it cast such deep shade that few trees can live in its shadow but also it bears shade when young, lives long, regenerates well and is mildly resistant to browsing. In undisturbed woodland, it ought to dominate, and, once dominant, it should have the capacity to stay dominant.

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Medium 9781780647098

4: Life Cycles and Polyphenism

van Emden, H.F.; Harrington, R. CABI PDF

4

Life Cycles and Polyphenism1

Jim Hardie*

Royal Entomological Society, St Albans, UK, and Imperial College London,

Department of Life Sciences, Ascot, UK

Introduction

Aphids display a diverse range of relatively complicated life cycles associated with seasonal changes and the ephemeral availability of suitable hostplant material. The life cycle is divided into stages characterized by one or more specialist phenotypes/ morphs. Each of these morphs has a specific function that is necessary for the completion of that stage of the life cycle. Typical aphid life cycles have morphs that specialize in sexual and/or parthenogenetic reproduction, population dispersal/migration and surviving less favourable climatic or nutritional conditions. Not all morphs of pest species infest crop plants. How these life cycles, and related morphs, influence the likelihood of aphids becoming crop pests, when at least one host plant has economic significance, and the importance of the different life cycles for applied entomology are reported here.

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Medium 9781780645322

11 Soil as a Support of Biodiversity and Functions

Banwart, S.A., Noellemeyer, E., Milne, E. CABI PDF

11 

Soil as a Support of Biodiversity and Functions

Pierre-Alain Maron* and Philippe Lemanceau

Abstract

The soil is a major reservoir of biological diversity on our planet. It also shelters numerous biological and ecological processes and therefore contributes to the production of a considerable number of ecosystem services. Among the ecological, social and economic services identified, the role of soil as a reservoir of diversity has now been well established, along with its role in nutrient cycling, supporting primary productivity, pollution removal and storing carbon.

Since the development of industrialization, urbanization and agriculture, soils have been subjected to numerous variations in environmental conditions, which have resulted in modifications of the diversity of the indigenous microbial communities. As a consequence, the functional significance of these modifications of biodiversity, in terms of the capacity of ecosystems to maintain the functions and services on which humanity depends, is now of pivotal importance. The concerns emanating from the scientific community have been reiterated in the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MEA, 2005) published by the policy makers. This strategic document underlines the need to consider biodiversity as an essential component of ecosystems, not only because of its involvement in providing services essential to the well-being of human societies but also because of its intrinsic value in terms of a natural patrimony that needs to be preserved. This objective cannot be raised without the improvement of our ability to predict the effects of environmental changes on soil biodiversity, ecosystem functioning and the associated services; this requires a better quantification of soil biodiversity at different temporal and spatial scales, and its translation into biological functioning. Major advances in molecular biology since the mid-1990s have allowed the development of techniques to investigate and resolve the diversity of soil microbial communities (Maron et al., 2007).

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Medium 9781626569737

7 We Are Becoming Data; Our Doctors, Software

Wadhwa, Vivek; Salkever, Alex Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

There is nothing like a near-death experience to make you acutely aware of how much we rely on medicine and the healthcare system. I suffered a massive heart attack in March 2012 and nearly died. The doctors saved me. Since that terrifying event, I have tracked developments in technology, medicine, and wellness carefully. All along, I wondered why so much health care aimed at saving us after we fell ill rather than at keeping us healthy and spotting the problems well in advance. People in the healthcare sector call such an approach wellness care, or preventive medicine.

In researching the advances in healthcare technology, I saw an amazing future emerging. Applications for iPhones began to appear that could monitor heart rates and perform other basic medical monitoring. Then came applications of greater complexity, ones that harnessed the power of the smartphone’s camera to scan images in search of anomalies such as moles or to gauge skin color as a proxy for other health issues. Next came attached devices such as the ECG cradle I discussed earlier in this book. I began talking with geneticists, who told me about powerful advances in our ability to decode the genome and even write entirely new DNA that have resulted from the acceleration of computing. (Recently those advances have made editing DNA nearly as easy as running a high school science laboratory).

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