996 Chapters
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Medium 9780253014993

2. Madden Men: Masculinity, Race, and the Marketing of a Video Game Franchise

Thomas P Oates Indiana University Press ePub

Thomas P. Oates

IN AUGUST 2012, AS THE RELEASE OF EA SPORTSMADDEN NFL 13 video game approached, a months-long marketing blitz peaked with a series of advertisements featuring actor Paul Rudd and Baltimore Ravens linebacker Ray Lewis. In the campaign, the two are presented as close, lifelong friends, whose bond is cemented by periodic Madden NFL marathons. The ads are clearly presented with tongue firmly in cheek. The friendship between Rudd and Lewis is offered as a whimsical premise. Rudd is a recognizable film and television actor, best known for roles playing middle-class white professionals. While appearing to be reasonably fit, he would never be mistaken for an NFL player, and though his movies are frequently about masculine themes (see, for example, I Love You, Man; The 40-Year Old Virgin; and Forgetting Sarah Marshall), he has never played the role of an action hero. Lewis, meanwhile, is black, was raised in poverty by a single mother in Lakeland, Florida, and was a major NFL star at the time, and hence a visible representative of hegemonic masculinity. The joke turns on the premise that despite the seemingly unbridgeable gaps separating affluence from poverty, white from black, icons of masculinity from the average guy, Rudd and Lewis are improbably buddies. Their friendship goes back to the cradle, as Rudd explains in the first ad in the series: “Oh, man, Ray and I have known each other our whole lives. We grew up together. Best friends!” The rest of the campaign shows the two friends playing the video game, engaging in verbal dueling, boasting, and performing other acts that characterize a certain kind of friendly masculine competition.

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Medium 9781780643373

20: Barriers and Bridges for Sustainable Forest Management: The Role of Landscape History in Swedish Bergslagen

Kirby, K.J.; Watkins, C. CABI PDF

20 

Barriers and Bridges for Sustainable Forest Management:

The Role of Landscape History in Swedish Bergslagen

Per Angelstam,1* Kjell Andersson,1 Robert Axelsson,1

Erik Degerman,2 Marine Elbakidze,1 Per Sjölander3 and Johan Törnblom1

1

School for Forest Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences,

Skinnskatteberg, Sweden; 2Institute of Freshwater Research, Swedish

University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Örebro, Sweden; 3Academy

North Development Unit, Storuman, Sweden

20.1  Introduction

In the first part of the chapter we discuss the

Pan-European context for sustainable forest management (SFM) policy, and how this translates into regional and local contexts. Next, we introduce Bergslagen in southern Sweden and review its forest landscape history of over the past 2000 years. We then summarize the present barriers resulting from this long forest landscape history for different dimensions of the sustainability of landscapes as social–­ ecological systems.

We also examine how local and regional actors and stakeholders in Bergslagen support the implementation of Pan-European, European Union (EU) and Swedish policies directed towards the different dimensions of sustainable forest management. Finally, we discuss the development of integrated landscape approaches as a bridge for policy implementation in terms of place- and evidence-based collaborative learning within and among European

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Medium 9781780647784

1 Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis Virus

Woo, P.T.K.; Cipriano, R.C. CABI PDF

1

Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis Virus

Arun K. Dhar,1,2* Scott LaPatra,3 Andrew Orry4­ and F.C. Thomas Allnutt1

1

BrioBiotech LLC, Glenelg, Maryland, USA; 2Aquaculture Pathology Laboratory,

School of Animal and Comparative Biomedical Sciences, The University of

Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, USA; 3Clear Springs Foods, Buhl, Idaho, USA;

4

Molsoft, San Diego, California, USA

1.1  Introduction

Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV), the aetiological agent of infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN), is a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) virus in the family Birnaviridae (Leong et  al., 2000; ICTV, 2014).

The four genera in this family include Aquabirnavirus,

Avibirnavirus, Blosnavirus and Entomobirnavirus

(Delmas et al., 2005), and they infect vertebrates and invertebrates. Aquabirnavirus infects aquatic species

(fish, molluscs and crustaceans) and has three species: IPNV, Yellowtail ascites virus and Tellina virus.

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Medium 9781786394873

9 Health Issues

Matthews, G.A. CABI PDF

9

Health Issues

The discovery of DDT initiated a careful examination of its mammalian toxicity so that it could be used to protect troops during World War II, especially as many were dying of malaria or were so ill, as if wounded, and thus not able to fight. Samples were obtained from Geigy in Switzerland for experimental use organized in the UK by the Ministry of Supply, which was credited with being the first to use the name DDT in 1943.

Other testing was being done at the same time in the USA.The problem of malaria was particularly acute in the Pacific region, where in 1942 about

24,000 of the 75,000 American and Filipino soldiers involved in the campaign to prevent the Japanese advance were suffering from malaria. The military soon learnt that effective malaria control was essential for the successful conclusion of the campaign in the Pacific. There was reliance on quinine to treat those with malaria, as chloroquine had not yet been considered safe to give to humans and the alternative anti-malaria drug was quinacrine, available as Atabrine, but this had serious after-effects – nausea, headaches and diarrhoea. In 1943, the army began using DDT as a 5% dust applied directly to soldiers and refugees in Italy to combat a typhus epidemic as this treatment was highly effective against the lice that carried the disease. The military soon realized that DDT could also be useful against malaria. Later, as the war ended, campaigns against mosquito vectors of malaria expanded in Italy and elsewhere.

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Medium 9781786394019

Annex 2: Report on a Chinese Consultancy for  The Bamboo Company in Vietnam

Zhaohua, Z.; Wei, J. CABI PDF

Annex 2

Report on a Chinese Consultancy for  The Bamboo Company in Vietnam

This is a report from a consultancy undertaken by a team of experts from China for The Bamboo

Company in Vietnam; it was first mentioned in

Chapter 3, Section 3.6.4, Case study 7.

A2.1 Introduction

As invited by one of the bamboo companies in

Vietnam, henceforward designated ‘The Bamboo

Company’, a team of experts from China conducted a consultancy visit to the company’s factories in a village. The expert team was composed of Prof. Zhu Zhaohua and a bamboo engineer, an economics expert and a bamboo processing expert. The expert team visited the primary processing factory of the company first, and the manager gave an introduction to the production process and stated the major technical problems.

Next, the expert team visited a composite board factory belonging to the company and had a detailed discussion with the local managing staff and technicians on each of the processing steps.

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Medium 9781780641836

4 Seed Predators and Plant Population Dynamics

Gallagher, R.S., Editor CAB International PDF

4

Seed Predators and Plant

Population Dynamics

Michael J. Crawley*

Department of Biology, Imperial College London,

Ascot, Berkshire, UK

Introduction

The enormous seed production of most plants, coupled with the general paucity of seedlings and saplings, is vivid testimony to the intensity of seed mortality. The degree to which this mortality results from seed predation (the consumption and killing of seeds by granivorous animals) is the subject of the present review (for earlier references, see Crawley, 2000). To people who are unfamiliar with Darwinist thinking, it appears obvious that seed mortality is so high, because ‘plants need only to leave one surviving offspring in a lifetime’. In fact, of course, every individual plant is struggling to ensure that its own offspring make up as big a fraction as possible of the plants in the next generation, and for each individual plant there is a huge evolutionary gain to be achieved by leaving more surviving seedlings, i.e. more copies of its genes, in the next generation. The mass mortality of seeds is part of natural selection in action, and the group selectionist argument that plants only need to replace themselves is simply wrong. Since the numbers of seeds produced are so large, it only takes a small percentage change in seed mortality to make

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Medium 9781780648200

16: Detection, Symptomatology and Management of Aster Yellows Disease in Canola

Reddy, G.V.P. CABI PDF

16

Detection, Symptomatology and

Management of Aster Yellows

Disease in Canola

Chrystel Olivier1*, Tim Dumonceaux2, Edel Pérez-López3,

Tyler J. Wist2, Bob Elliott2 and Sally Vail2

1

Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, London, Ontario, Canada; 2Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada; 3Instituto de

Biotecnologia y Ecologia Aplicada (INBIOTECA), Universidad Veracruzana,

Xalapa, Veracruz, México

16.1  Introduction

Phytoplasmas are obligate parasites that belong to the class Mollicutes and genus ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma’

(McCoy et al., 1989; IRPCM Phytoplasma/Spiroplasma

Working Team – Phytoplasma Taxonomy Group,

2004). Phytoplasmas have been associated with diseases affecting over 700 plant species worldwide

(Foissac and Wilson, 2010; Bertaccini et al., 2014).

Phytoplasmas are wall-less bacteria that are transmitted by phloem-feeding insects, mostly leafhoppers but also planthoppers and psyllids (Weintraub and Beanland, 2006). Phytoplasmas live and reproduce in the phloem of their plant hosts and in most of the organs of their insect vectors. The effect of phytoplasmas on their hosts varies depending on several parameters, such as the phytoplasma strain, host species, vector infectivity and environmental conditions. Most plant species infected with phytoplasmas develop symptoms that are unique to these diseases, such as virescence (greening of flower organs), phyllody (floral organs turning into leaf-like structures), witches’ broom (excessive stem and branch production) or dwarfism (McCoy et  al.,

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Medium 9781780642826

6: India: Economic Growth and Income Distribution in Rural and Urban Areas

Brouwer, F.; Joshi, P.K. CABI PDF

6 

India: Economic Growth and Income

Distribution in Rural and Urban Areas

G. Mythili*

Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Mumbai, India

Introduction

India has registered an impressive gross

­domestic product (GDP) growth of 7–8% after launching economic liberalization in 1991.

Reforms were initiated in the public sector, financial sector and investment and trade regimes and this helped in better integration with the global economy. However, its crucial sector, agriculture, which is the source of livelihood for nearly two-thirds of the population, has lost its momentum. The sector is lagging behind at less than 3% growth and its share in GDP is falling sharply over the years. Moreover, the economy has witnessed a significant structural transformation in both agricultural production and consumption in the past decade or so.

The performance of the economy over the years has been marked by higher rates of savings, investments, and improvements in many other macroeconomic indicators. The investment to GDP ratio went up to 34% in

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Medium 9781786393050

6: Consumer Behaviour in the Organic and Fair Trade Food Market in Europe

Parvathi, P.; Grote, U.; Waibel, H. CABI PDF

6 

Consumer Behaviour in the Organic and Fair Trade Food Market in Europe

Katrin Zander1*, Rosa Schleenbecker2 and Ulrich Hamm2

Thünen Institute of Market Analysis, Federal Research Institute for Rural Areas,

Forestry and Fisheries, Braunschweig, Germany; 2Department of Agricultural and

Food Marketing, University of Kassel, Germany

1

6.1 Introduction

The production of organic and Fair Trade products is usually aligned with higher production costs, which have to be covered somewhere in the supply chain. From earlier research it is well known that in Western markets consumer segments exist that are willing to ask for organic and Fair Trade products even if they are more expensive (Krystallis et al., 2006; Urena et al.,

2008; Corsi and Novelli, 2011; Liljenstolpe, 2011;

­Zander et al., 2013; Rödiger and Hamm, 2015).

Organic production and Fair Trade are process qualities that are not verifiable by consumers, either before or after purchase and consumption.

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Medium 9781786390325

14 Methods for Evaluating Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria Traits

Singh, H.B.; Sarma, B.K.; Keswani, C. CABI PDF

14 

Methods for Evaluating Plant

Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria Traits

Antonio Castellano-Hinojosa*1,2 and E.J. Bedmar2

Department of Soil Microbiology and Symbiotic Systems, Estación Experimental del Zaidín-CSIC. E-419, Granada, Spain; 2Department of Microbiology, Faculty of

Pharmacy, Campus of Cartuja, University of Granada, Granada, Spain

1

14.1 Introduction

14.1.1  Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria

The presence of microorganisms, bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, protozoa and algae is critical to the maintenance and health of soil function, in both natural and managed agricultural soils. This is due to their involvement in key processes such as soil structure formation, decomposition of organic matter, toxin removal, suppression of plant disease and, overall, the cycling of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulphur (Doran et al., 1996; van Elsas et  al., 1997; Mishra et  al., 2015;

Keswani et al., 2016). Bacteria are the most common of those microorganisms reaching

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Medium 9781780647050

12: The Indigenous Knowledge of Crop Diversity and Evolution

Sillitoe, P. CABI PDF

12 

The Indigenous Knowledge of Crop

Diversity and Evolution

Stephen B. Brush*

The numerous colours, shapes, sizes and tastes within crop species are a window into cultures and knowledge systems. This chapter relates indigenous knowledge to crop diversity and evolution by focusing on two regions of crop domestication: Mesoamerica and the Andes. While indigenous knowledge systems encompass many domains relevant to agriculture (e.g. hydrology, soils, climate, pests and pathogens), the knowledge of crop diversity is better studied than other domains.

One goal here is to show how studying indigenous knowledge of crop diversity is useful to understanding the broader topic of crop evolution.

­Ultimately, that understanding must depend on fuller understanding and integration of the many domains of indigenous knowledge employed in producing food.

Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) originated in the Andes and maize (Zea mays) in Mesoamerica. Greater diversity in these crops exists there than elsewhere; the crops have extraordinary cultural salience; and the relationship between crop diversity, evolution and indigenous knowledge is readily observable. Factors that affect this are the length of crop evolution, the presence of wild crop ancestors, and the relative cultural and nutritional importance of local domesticates.

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Medium 9781780648309

3: Nutritional and Health Benefits of Millets

Rao, B.D.; Malleshi, N.G.; Annor, G.A. CABI PDF

3

Nutritional and Health Benefits of Millets

Millets – the ‘noble grains’ – comprise sorghum, pearl millet, finger millet and five small millets.

Among the millets, sorghum used to be the most important in terms of its cropped area and food use, though its position has been overtaken in recent years by pearl millet. Pearl millet and finger millet are gaining regional importance as food staples, though their distribution across many Indian states is not as pronounced as that of ­sorghum. Direct consumption of millets has

­reduced over the past three decades because of inconvenient, cumbersome and time-consuming preparation, lack of processing technologies, and the lack of awareness of its nutritional merits. This trend in consumption can be manipulated by creating value addition to the

­millet crops through post-harvest processing, and can be enhanced through diversification of

­processing technologies as well as nutritional evaluation.

In view of this, here we examine the nutritional and health implications of millet, both in terms of the whole grain and in terms of processed products – specifically sorghum products – which have been studied in detail under the auspices of the Indian government’s

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Medium 9781780644851

2: Agroforestry in Canada and its Role in Farming Systems

Gordon, A.M.; Newman, S.M.; Coleman, B.R.W. CABI PDF

2

Agroforestry in Canada and its Role in Farming Systems1

N.V. Thevathasan,2* B. Coleman,2 L. Zabek,3 T. Ward4 and

A.M. Gordon2

2

School of Environmental Sciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario,

Canada; 3Ministry of Agriculture, Kamloops, British Columbia, Canada;

4

Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Indian Head, Saskatchewan, Canada

Introduction

History and background

With an area of more than nine million square

­kilometres, Canada stretches west to east from the

Pacific to the Atlantic Ocean, and is bordered to the south by the USA and north by the Arctic Ocean.

Although substantial agricultural production and tree growth occur in all regions south of Canada’s northern territories, a large proportion of Canada’s southern land area is home to temperate climates and fertile soils, which contributes to significantly higher rates of plant productivity. Following European settlement in the late 1700s, large tracts of native forest were removed to make way for intensive agricultural production, which continues to dominate a large portion of southern Canada to this day.

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Medium 9781780648002

7 Integrated Pest Management of Root and Tuber Crops in the Tropics

Rapisarda, C.; Cocuzza, G.E.M. CABI PDF

7 

Integrated Pest Management of Root and Tuber Crops in the Tropics

James Legg1,*, Joshua Okonya2 and Daniel Coyne3

1International

Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania;

Center, Kampala, Uganda; 3International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Nairobi, Kenya

2International Potato

7.1 Introduction

7.1.1  Root and tuber crop production in the tropics

All the major root and tuber crops (RTCs) have their origins in the tropical regions of the world. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) has the greatest current global production

(385 million tonnes), and was first cultivated in the Andean zone of present day

Peru and Bolivia, although it is now primarily a crop of temperate parts of the world.

Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz –

MT) (FAOSTAT, 2016) and sweet

270  potato (Ipomoea batatas L. – 104 MT), similarly, have their origins in Latin America, but these are now widely cultivated throughout the tropics. There are many species of yam, belonging to the genus

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Medium 9781780647326

2 A View from the South: Bringing Critical Planning Theory to Urban Agriculture

WinklerPrins, A.M.G.A. CABI PDF

2 

A View from the South: Bringing Critical

Planning Theory to Urban Agriculture

Stephanie A. White* and Michael W. Hamm

Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, USA

2.1  Introduction: Re-framing Urban

Agriculture

This chapter discusses the role that urban agriculture (UA) plays in urban food systems and how theoretical framings of UA that draw attention to it as an ‘urbanistic practice’, both constituting and constituted by urban assemblages, offer new directions for research. We argue that studies of urban agriculture can be ‘put to work’ to:

1. develop more accurate understandings of regional and city food provisioning and exchange, especially in relation to informality;

2. shed light on urban socio-ecological processes and relationships, including those that reproduce food insecurity, poverty and social marginalization;

3. provide case-study accounts of peripheral livelihoods that challenge ‘conventional understandings about how the city is put together’

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