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3: Agri-entrepreneurship Enabling Program Design in Conflict Regions for Youth Development: Best Practices and Lessons Learned



Agri-entrepreneurship Enabling Program

Design in Conflict Regions for Youth

Development: Best Practices and

Lessons Learned

Kathleen Liang1* and Tina S. Lee2

North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University, Greensboro, North

Carolina, USA; 2University of Hawai‘i at Maˉnoa, Honolulu, Hawaii


3.1  Introduction

Recent happenings have revealed significantly growing concerns of economic and social instabilities around the world. Refugees, many children among them, take risks to travel across land and sea to seek new economic opportunities. Most of the information shared by press releases or social media only tells a fraction of stories about issues in conflict regions. The World Development Report 2011 discussed several issues with respect to unstable state-of-conflict regions (World Bank,

2011). For example, approximately 1.5 billion people live in conflict regions where countries experience repeated cycles of political and criminal violence. Civilians who live in the conflict regions often experience famine and brutal attacks of political crossfire. Youth are particularly vulnerable due to lack of support from a steady system and safe environment to obtain education and training to achieve economic mobility.

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5 Precision Orchard Systems

Zhang, Q. CABI PDF


Precision Orchard Systems

Matthew Whiting*

Washington State University, Prosser, Washington, USA

5.1 Introduction

Without intervention, most orchard trees will grow to great height and girth, forming a globular or triangular structure. Iteratively, throughout the domestication of tree fruit crops for large-scale production, orchardists and pomologists, in both empirical and theoretical ways, have learned and studied horticultural management strategies to improve both the quantity and quality of fruit produced. In designing and planting a new orchard, growers face increasing pressures to reduce the environmental footprint of production, meet local and global market demands for produce safety, and efficiently and consistently provide a healthy and safe product in a changing climate. Tree fruit orchard systems (i.e. the strategic manipulation of fruiting habit and vegetative growth) are varied, depending on crop, cultivar, rootstock, and location. The decision to plant a new orchard is challenging, because it is difficult to change any key element, cultivar, rootstock, tree spacing, and training system, once the trees are planted

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Medium 9781780645322

2 Soil Carbon: a Critical Natural Resource – Wide-scale Goals, Urgent Actions

Banwart, S.A., Noellemeyer, E., Milne, E. CABI PDF


Soil Carbon: a Critical Natural

Resource – Wide-scale Goals,

Urgent Actions

Generose Nziguheba*, Rodrigo Vargas, Andre Bationo,

Helaina Black, Daniel Buschiazzo, Delphine de Brogniez,

Hans Joosten, Jerry Melillo, Dan Richter and Mette Termansen


Across the world, soil organic carbon (SOC) is decreasing due to changes in land use such as the conversion of natural systems to food or bioenergy production systems. The losses of SOC have impacted crop productivity and other ecosystem services adversely. One of the grand challenges for society is to manage soil carbon stocks to optimize the mix of five essential services – provisioning of food, water and energy; maintaining biodiversity; and regulating climate. Scientific research has helped develop an understanding of the general SOC dynamics and characteristics; the influence of soil management on SOC; and management practices that can restore SOC and reduce or stop carbon losses from terrestrial ecosystems.

As the uptake of these practices has been very limited, it is necessary to identify and overcome barriers to the adoption of practices that enhance SOC. Actions should focus on multiple ecosystem services to optimize efforts and the benefits of SOC. Given that depleting SOC degrades most soil services, we suggest that in the coming decades increases in SOC will concurrently benefit all five of the essential services.

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the soil profile; (ii) further implement controlled traffic systems; and (iii) seek to reduce moisture in the profile at picking. In the case of irrigated systems, it will be necessary to have appropriate scheduling of the last irrigation to reduce the risk of moist profiles at the end of the season.

V Role of Research in Modern Cotton Systems Adapting to Climate


The cotton industry covers a large geographical region and thus is already experiencing a wide range of climatic extremes. Subsequently, technologies and systems have been developed to mitigate high temperature and water stress. Photosynthetic acclimation occurs in cotton

(Downton and Slatyer, 1972) and plants occupying thermally contrasting environments generally exhibit photosynthetic responses that reflect adaptation to the temperature regimes of their respective habitats (Berry and Bjorkman, 1980). For example, cotton is successfully grown at temperatures in excess of 40°C in India and Pakistan (e.g. Table 5) indicating some adaptation and successful breeding selection.

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Medium 9789380856667


Dr. R. K. Bansal Laxmi Publications PDF


Friction and Elements of

Rigid Body Dynamics


When a solid body slides over a stationary solid body, a force is exerted at the surface of contact by the stationary body on the moving body. This force is called the force of friction or frictional force and is always acting in the direction opposite to the direction of motion. The property of the bodies by virtue of which a force is exerted by a stationary body on the moving body to resist the motion of the moving body is called friction. Friction acts parallel to the surface of contact and depends upon the nature of surface of contact.


For defining the terms like coefficient of friction (μ) and angle of friction (φ), consider a solid body placed on a horizontal plane surface as shown in Fig. 5.1.

Let W = Weight of body acting through C.G. downward,

R = Normal reaction of body acting through C.G. upward,

P = Force acting on the body through C.G. and parallel to the horizontal surface.

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13. Signature Chemicals for Detection of Citrus Infestation by Fruit Fly Larvae (Diptera: Tephritidae)

Pena, J.E., Editor CAB International PDF


Signature Chemicals for Detection of Citrus Infestation by Fruit Fly Larvae

(Diptera: Tephritidae)

Paul E. Kendra,1* Amy L. Roda,2 Wayne S. Montgomery,1 Elena Q. Schnell,1

Jerome Niogret,1 Nancy D. Epsky1 and Robert R. Heath1


USDA-ARS, Subtropical Horticulture Research Station, Miami, Florida 33158,

USA; 2USDA-APHIS-PPQ, Center for Plant Health Science and Technology,

Miami, Florida 33158, USA

13.1  Introduction

Tropical tephritid fruit flies are invasive pests that impact fruit production and global export.

Current US appropriations for exotic fruit fly risk  management programs exceed US$57

­million  per annum (USDA-APHIS, 2006).

Primary  threats to US agriculture include the

Anastrepha species, which occur throughout the

American tropics and subtropics (Aluja, 1994), and the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata

(Wiedemann), considered one of the most destructive agricultural pests worldwide, with several hundred recognized hosts (Liquido et al.,

1991). Outbreaks of C. capitata have occurred in

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Medium 9789381159422

5.3. Nature/Characteristics of Control

G. Murugesan Laxmi Publications PDF






1. Control process is universal. Control is essential function in any organization whether it is an industrial unit, university, government office, hospital etc.

2. Control is a continuous process. Control is a never-ending activity on the part of managers. It is a non-stop process. The manager watches the operation of the management and to see whether they are going towards the desired end and if not actions are not taken to correct them.

3. Control is action based. Action is essential element of the control. It is the action, which ensures performance according to the decided standards.

4. Control is forward looking. Control is linked with future not past. A proper control system prevents losses, minimizes wastages. It acts as a preventive measure.

5. Control is closely linked with planning. Plan gives the direction to various business activities while control verifies and measures the performance of these activities and suggests proper measures to remove the deviations.

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Medium 9781780647784

8 Channel Catfish Viral Disease



Channel Catfish Viral Disease

Larry A. Hanson1* and Lester H. Khoo2


Department of Basic Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Mississippi

State University, Mississippi,USA; 2Thad Cochran Warmwater Aquaculture

Center, Stoneville, Mississippi, USA

8.1  Introduction

Channel catfish viral disease (CCVD) is an acute viraemia that occurs primarily among young (0–4 month old) channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) in aquaculture. CCVD outbreaks occur almost exclusively in the summer when water temperatures exceed 25°C and may exceed 90% mortality in less than 2 weeks. Older fish may experience a more chronic outbreak, often with secondary Flavo­ bacterium columnare or Aeromonas infections that can mask the underlying CCVD (Plumb, 1978).

Pond-to-pond spread is often reported within fingerling production facilities. The disease was first described by Fijan et al. (1970) and the most notable clinical signs were exophthalmia, abdominal distension, disoriented swimming and rapidly increasing mortality.

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5: Diets for Organic Pig Production

Blair, R. CABI PDF


Diets for Organic Pig Production

In general, the following is suggested as the minimum range of diets necessary for feeding a herd of organic pigs, assuming a farrow-to-finish operation involving all ages of stock:


Starter diet

Grower diet

Finisher diet

Sow gestation diet

Sow lactation diet

Boar diet

A key aim of organic farming is environmental sustainability. Consequently organic producers wish to provide most or all of their required inputs, including feed. However this is not possible on small farms, and even larger farms which may produce some of the feedstuffs required may not have the necessary mixing equipment to allow adequate diets to be prepared on-site. Farms with a land base sufficient for the growing of a variety of crops may be able to mix diets on-site or in a cooperative mill.

Creep-feed is generally a complex type of feed, containing several ingredients not likely to be available on farms. Consequently it is recommended that organic creep-feed be purchased from a reliable source.

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S. Swapna Kumar Laxmi Publications PDF

MAC Protocol in WSN 71







Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) constitute a special class of wireless data communication networks with large number of nodes equipped with embedded processor, sensor, drivers and radios.

It is a group of specialized transducers with a communications infrastructure intended to monitor and record conditions at diverse locations.

Environmental monitoring

Sensor nets



Sensor Node

Seceor Patch

Battefield surveillance

Networked transportation

Gate ray

Transt Network

Client Data prosseing and Persons


Base its rote time

Ubiquitous appliances



Smart Factories

Data Service

Fig. 4.1

Wireless sensor network areas

A WSN consists of multiple detection stations called sensor nodes, each of which is small, lightweight and portable as shown in Fig. 4.1. Every sensor node is equipped with a transducer, microcomputer, transceiver and power source. The transducer generates electrical signals based on sensed physical effects and phenomena. The microcomputer processes and stores the sensor out-put.

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3.9 Staffing

G. Murugesan Laxmi Publications PDF





3.8.7. Decentralization of Authority

Centralization and decentralization refer to the location of decision-making authority in an organization. Centralization means that the authority for most decisions is concentrated at the top of the managerial hierarchy whereas decentralization requires such authority to be dispersed by extension and delegation through all levels of management. Actually these terms denote different degree of delegation of authority.

Louis A. Allen has defined both terms as “Centralization is the systematic and consistent reservation of authority at central points within an organization. Decentralization applies to the systematic delegation of authority in an organization–wide context.”

Centralization and decentralization are opposite but relative terms because every organization contains both the features. There cannot be absolute centralization and absolute decentralization in practice. In case of having absolute centralization, each and every decision is to be taken by top-level management. But practically it is not possible; some decentralization exists in all organizations. In case of having absolute decentralization, there is no control over the activities of the subordinates, which is also not practicable. Therefore, effective decentralization of authority requires a proper balance between dispersal of authority among lower levels and adequate control over them.

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Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum Linn.)

Kumar, P. CAB International PDF

SUGARCANE (Saccharum officinarum Linn.)



Plate 612. Die-back of an old leaf.

(Photo by Dr Manoj Kumar Sharma.)

1. In the nitrogen-deficient crop, stalks become short and slender

(Plate 614).

2. Fewer tillers are produced and overall growth of the plant is reduced.

3. The entire plant may become light green in appearance.

4. Nitrogen is a mobile nutrient in plants and in poor supply conditions it is easily mobilized from older to younger leaves.

5. The deficiency symptoms are primarily observed on older leaves (Plate 611).

6. Later, the entire plant turns chlorotic.

7. Older leaves may become uniformly pale green to yellow

(Plate 611).

8. Nitrogen deficiency causes die-back of older leaves (Plates 612 and 613).

9. Necrosis occurs on the tips and margins of recently matured old leaves.

Developmental stages

Stage I: In the early plant stage or mild deficiency, the entire plant appears uniformly light green.

Stage II: In prolonged deficiency, the older leaves turn uniformly yellow to dark yellow (Plate 611).

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3.12. Performance Appraisal

G. Murugesan Laxmi Publications PDF



of the groups are allowed to communicate with each other freely so that each can gain an insight of his behavior as others see. The trainees are encouraged to probe their feelings and abilities and building inter personal relationships.


3.12.1. Meaning

Performance appraisal or merit rating is one of the oldest and most universal practices of managements. It refers to all the formal procedures used in working organizations to evaluate the personalities and contributions and potential of group members.

3.12.2. Criteria for Performance Appraisal

There are a number of performance criteria, which may be used to measure the proficiency of an employee. These criteria may be classified into two main categories: objective criteria and subjective criteria. Amount of quality of production, work sample tests, length of service, amount of training necessary, absenteeism, accidents etc., are all examples of objective criteria ratings of employees job proficiency by their superiors, peers and subordinates, extent of upward communication of ideas, degree of knowledge about corporate goals, contribution to socio cultural values etc., are examples of subjective criteria. Since all subjective criteria depend upon human judgment and opinion, they are subject to certain kinds of errors likely to be found in rating process.

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5.10. Management by Objectives (MBO)

G. Murugesan Laxmi Publications PDF





for regarding only where a previously established minimum level for the inventory is being approached. Requiring inventory information on a calendar basis–such as away week. When inventory levels for most items are well a bore their record point would usually not be worth the added cost, since action would not be implied by the information.

(c) Information Quantity and Relevance. A report that provides too little information cash be ineffective, because it may lead managers to make wrong at late decisions that worsen problems instead of solving them conversely a report that provides managers too much information can also provide ineffective because that may not isolate what they need from a flood of irrelevant facts and figures. A good report should fill as evaluate information so that only the most relevant information is supplied to the appropriate manager. In addition, a good report should condense information, so that what is relevant may be absorbed in a short period of time.

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Potato (Solanum tuberosum Linn.)

Kumar, P. CAB International PDF

POTATO (Solanum tuberosum Linn.)



1. The entire plant may become light green to pale yellow in appearance (Plate 640).

2. Nitrogen is mobile within plants and it is readily mobilized from older to younger tissues when nitrogen supply to the plant is restricted.

3. The deficiency symptoms appear primarily on older leaves and then move to the younger leaves.

4. Older leaves become uniformly yellow while young leaves may remain light green (Plate 641).

5. In prolonged deficiency, yellow older leaves turn dark yellow then brown.

6. Eventually, the leaves become necrotic then dry and fall off early.

Plate 640. Entire plant pale green and stunted.

(Photo by Dr Prakash Kumar.)

Developmental stages

Stage I: In the early stage or in mild deficiency, the entire plant appears uniformly pale green (Plate 640).

Stage II: When deficiency persists, the older leaves turn uniformly yellow and the upper leaves appear pale green (Plate 641).

Stage III: In severe deficiency, the old leaves turn dark yellow

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