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Medium 9781780648651

4: Recording Trees and Expressing Change

Peterken, G.; Mountford, E. CABI PDF


Recording Trees and Expressing


Since 1944, recording has developed as a relay. Foresters from Oxford University initiated recording and kept it going until 1960. The baton was passed to the Nature Conservancy between 1971 and 1987, by which time others had been involved intermittently. Since 1992, recording has been maintained by ecologists working independently, but with the cooperation of the successor bodies of the Nature

Conservancy and the Coleford office of the Forestry

Commission (FC), now Forest Enterprise (FE).


Oxford University

The project was started by Dr Eustace Jones

(Fig. 4.1: see p. 36), a lecturer in the forestry department of Oxford University. A keen bryologist, he had searched out mosses and liverworts in the Wye

Valley and had organised forestry field courses in

Highmeadow Woods during the 1930s. There, and in the New Forest, Hampshire, he had taught survey techniques to forestry students based on long transects through representative stands. Several crossed

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Medium 9781780644851

2: Agroforestry in Canada and its Role in Farming Systems

Gordon, A.M.; Newman, S.M.; Coleman, B.R.W. CABI PDF


Agroforestry in Canada and its Role in Farming Systems1

N.V. Thevathasan,2* B. Coleman,2 L. Zabek,3 T. Ward4 and

A.M. Gordon2


School of Environmental Sciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario,

Canada; 3Ministry of Agriculture, Kamloops, British Columbia, Canada;


Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Indian Head, Saskatchewan, Canada


History and background

With an area of more than nine million square

­kilometres, Canada stretches west to east from the

Pacific to the Atlantic Ocean, and is bordered to the south by the USA and north by the Arctic Ocean.

Although substantial agricultural production and tree growth occur in all regions south of Canada’s northern territories, a large proportion of Canada’s southern land area is home to temperate climates and fertile soils, which contributes to significantly higher rates of plant productivity. Following European settlement in the late 1700s, large tracts of native forest were removed to make way for intensive agricultural production, which continues to dominate a large portion of southern Canada to this day.

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Medium 9781780647784

1 Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis Virus

Woo, P.T.K.; Cipriano, R.C. CABI PDF


Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis Virus

Arun K. Dhar,1,2* Scott LaPatra,3 Andrew Orry4­ and F.C. Thomas Allnutt1


BrioBiotech LLC, Glenelg, Maryland, USA; 2Aquaculture Pathology Laboratory,

School of Animal and Comparative Biomedical Sciences, The University of

Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, USA; 3Clear Springs Foods, Buhl, Idaho, USA;


Molsoft, San Diego, California, USA

1.1  Introduction

Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV), the aetiological agent of infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN), is a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) virus in the family Birnaviridae (Leong et  al., 2000; ICTV, 2014).

The four genera in this family include Aquabirnavirus,

Avibirnavirus, Blosnavirus and Entomobirnavirus

(Delmas et al., 2005), and they infect vertebrates and invertebrates. Aquabirnavirus infects aquatic species

(fish, molluscs and crustaceans) and has three species: IPNV, Yellowtail ascites virus and Tellina virus.

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Medium 9781601323286

DIRCE - Design of Interaction and elicitation of Requirements focusing on the Communication and Exploration of ideas - Experiences of use in content creation systems for digital television

Hamid R. Arabnia, Leonidas Deligiannidis, George Jandieri, Ashu M. G. Solo, Fernando G. Tinetti CSREA Press PDF


Int'l Conf. Software Eng. Research and Practice | SERP'14 |

DIRCE - Design of Interaction and elicitation of

Requirements focusing on the Communication and

Exploration of ideas - Experiences of use in content creation systems for digital television

Marilia S. Mendes1


Estácio University of Ceará (FIC)

Fortaleza, CE – Brazil mariliamendes@gmail.com

Abstract—This paper aims to present an approach to help professionals focus on interaction aspects since the early stages of the process of development of an innovative system.

This approach guides the application of techniques addressing the integration between the processes of requirements elicitation and interaction design by considering both the experiences of users and other factors which influence the context of use of a system under development. Such approach was applied to a system which creates content for DTV, resulting as major contributions the description of prepatterns for the context of content creation for DTV, as well as an analysis of the implications of the use of techniques of user experience for the activities of software engineering and interaction design.

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Medium 9781780645308

Part VIII: Horizon 2050



Horizon 2050

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Horizons and Prospects – a Role for


Colin Fisher*

EFG Software, Edinburgh, UK


Can the poultry industry of Europe sustain itself to 2050? Can the poultry industry of Europe be sustained until 2050? Is the European poultry industry sustainable up to 2050? Asking this question in different ways emphasizes the wide range of issues that are inescapably raised and also the contradictions and conflicts that any answer must lead to. The first viewpoint will reflect the development of consumer demand and the ability of a profitable industry to make the necessary investment at the right time to meet this demand. The second viewpoint concerns responsibility for ensuring a food supply into the future and this presumably rests mainly with government and other public bodies. The third way of posing the question raises questions of resources, competing demands and some global technical issues such as biosecurity.

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Medium 9781780642789

Black gram (Phaseolus mungo var. radiatus Linn.)

Kumar, P.; Sharma, M.K. CAB International PDF

BLACK GRAM (Phaseolus mungo var. radiatus Linn.)



Plate 268. Uniform paleness appearing on the entire plant. (Photo by Dr Prakash Kumar.)

1. Plants inoculated with H2-uptake positive Rhizobium strains produce higher nitrogen content and dry matter than plants inoculated with H2-uptake negative Rhizobium strains.

2. There is a rapid increase in nitrogen fixation between flowering and early pod fill. The nodules senesce progressively following the mid-pod filling stage.

3. Insufficient nitrogen supply restricts plant height. The leaf size and number of branches are reduced.

4. Nitrogen deficiency reduces flowering, decreases the number of pods and pod length and reduces the number of seeds and seed size, ultimately resulting in low yields.

5. In short supply conditions, nitrogen is readily transferred from older to younger tissues because it is fairly mobile within plants.

Therefore, the deficiency symptoms tend to occur first and become more severe on the lower leaves, then working up the plant to the younger leaves.

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Medium 9781786395146

4 Household Pests and Their Control – Mosquitoes

Dhang, P. CABI PDF


Household Pests and Their

Control – Mosquitoes

4.1  Mosquitoes in General

A number of diseases are linked to mosquitoes and mosquito bites (Table 4.1). There are over 3000 species of mosquitoes, of which only a few feed on human blood. Control measures against mosquitoes are generally directed against these few species.

●● Mosquitoes remain distinct from other insects owing to their sucking mouth parts, blood sucking habit and females laying eggs in water.

Only female mosquitoes need a blood meal.

Mosquito species show a clear preference for certain animals, which could be reptiles, birds or mammals.

Humans have become a preferred host for a few species simply as an adaption and the ease of finding a blood meal. They are known to use body smell, carbon dioxide emitted from breath and emitted heat from the skin of the animal or human to locate the source. Some species prefer biting at certain hours, for example, at dusk and dawn or in the middle of the night; others may bite throughout the day.

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Medium 9788170088837


Dr. B.C. Punmia ; Ashok Kr. Jain, Arun Kr. Jain Laxmi Publications PDF






We have, so far, studied the construction and working of usual instruments (such as compass, levels, theodolites, plane table etc.) commonly employed for surveying and setting out operations.

However, we shall now study the special instruments employed for specific purposes. Some of such instruments were introduced in volume 1. Here, we will consider the following special instruments:

1. Jig telescope and Jig transit

2. Collimator

3. Telemeter

4. Altimeter

5. Electronic theodolite.



Jig telescopes and jig transits are used for optical tooling—an essential part of industrial surveying. Originally, conventional transit and level were used for industrial surveying for many years. However, during World War II, rapid development of the aircraft and ship-building industries and other industries involved in the construction and installation of large and heavy machinery, including aligning journals in generators and turbines, needed high precision measurements. Modern industrial layouts and shop practices permit dimensional tolerances of only a few thousandth of a centimetre. This led the development of jig alignment telescope and jig tranist.

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Medium 9781780644851

8: Agroforestry Systems in Temperate Australia

Gordon, A.M.; Newman, S.M.; Coleman, B.R.W. CABI PDF


Agroforestry Systems in Temperate


R. Reid1,2* and R. Moore2


School of Forest and Ecosystem Science, The University of Melbourne,

Victoria, Australia; 2Australian Agroforestry Foundation, Victoria, Australia

Why Australian Farmers Plant Trees

Australia is a vast island continent covering a wide range of climate zones, from the wet and dry tropics in the north through the large arid interior to the cool temperate areas in the south. Across all these regions the landscape is typically characterized by erosion prone soils and high climatic (rainfall and temperature) variability (Nelson et  al.,

2004). Even in the temperate regions, continental and oceanic influences result in a highly variable climate where temperatures exceeding 35°C, severe frosts, occasional heavy snow falls and torrential rainfall events are not uncommon. For the purpose of this chapter the classification of Australia’s agroecological regions by Williams et al. (2002), which delineates three temperate zones (dry, coastal and highland), provides a useful basis for differentiating the temperate region of Australia (Fig. 8.1). The particular focus of this chapter is on the dry and coastal zones where the predominant land use (covering more than 70 per cent by area) is agriculture, and farmers, largely operating as private individuals or families, are the predominant landowner group.

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Medium 9781845939946

1: Introduction to the Acari

Vacante, V. CABI PDF

1  Introduction to the Acari

Systematic Position and Ecological Role

The Acari, or mites, are small animals; the adults range from

300 to 500  μm in body length, except for some eriophyoids which are approximately 100 μm long and certain ticks whose females measure about 30,000  μm long. They belong to the phylum Arthropoda, a monophyletic taxon of terrestrial and marine invertebrates (Weygoldt, 1998) which are characterized by jointed legs and a chitinous exoskeleton. Two groups of

Arthropoda, the Pantopoda and the Chelicerata, lack antennae and mandibles, and molecular analyses have shown that the

Chelicerata is a sister taxon of a clade including the Crustacea and the Insecta (Telford and Thomas, 1998). From a systematic point of view, the Chelicerata is a subphylum that includes the class Arachnida, a primarily terrestrial group that includes the subclass Acari along with several orders (Amblypygi,

Araneae, Opiliones, Palpigradi, Pseudoscorpionida, Ricinulei,

Schizomida, Scorpiones, Solifugae and Uropygi) (Weygoldt and Paulus, 1979a,b). Members of the subclass Acari lack opisthosomatic spinnerets and conspicuous primary segmentations (or tergites arranged segmentally). The Acari includes the superorders Acariformes and Parasitiformes, and is morphologically differentiated from other relatively simple arachnids (Krantz, 2009a). Adults of the Acari usually have four pairs of legs, with the exception of eriophyoids, which have two pairs. Their biological cycle progresses through the stages of egg, larva and nymph. The larva is six legged and the nymph eight legged. Another characteristic that sets the Acari apart from the other Arachnida is that the phase which hatches from the egg has fewer legs than subsequent phases, while the eggs of spiders, scorpions, pseudoscorpions and opilionids all hatch into eight-legged organisms.

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Medium 9781780644851

11: Silvopastoral systems in Patagonia, Argentina

Gordon, A.M.; Newman, S.M.; Coleman, B.R.W. CABI PDF


Silvopastoral systems in Patagonia,


P.L. Peri,1,2,3* G. Caballé,4 N.E. Hansen,5

H.A. Bahamonde,1,2 M.V. Lencinas,3 A.R. von Müller,5

S. Ormaechea,1 V. Gargaglione,1,2 R. Soler,3

M. Sarasola,4 V. Rusch,4 L. Borrelli,4

M.E. Fernández,3 J. Gyenge,3 L.E. Tejera,5 C.E. Lloyd5 and G. Martínez Pastur3


Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria, INTA EEA Santa Cruz, Río

­ allegos, Argentina; 2Universidad Nacional de la Patagonia Austral (UNPA),


Argentina; 3Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas

­(CONICET), Argentina; 4INTA EEA Bariloche, Río Negro, Argentina; 5INTA EEA

Esquel, Chubut, Argentina


Patagonia region includes five provinces (Neuquén,

Río Negro, Chubut, Santa Cruz and Tierra del Fuego) with an area of 197 million hectares and extends from latitudes 37 to 52º 30ʹ S (Fig. 11.1). There are four main ecosystems within the region: the steppe (representing ~93% of total area), where extensive sheep

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Medium 9781786391445

2 Use of Nanomaterials in Agriculture: Potential Benefits and Challenges

Singh, H.B.; Mishra, S.; Fraceto, L.F. CABI PDF


Use of Nanomaterials in Agriculture: Potential

Benefits and Challenges

Daiana Silva Ávila,1* Solange Cristina Garcia,2*

Marcelo Dutra Arbo,2 Jessica Nardi2 and Maurício

Tavares Jacques1

Grupo de Pesquisa em Bioquímica e Toxicologia em Caenorhabditis elegans, Universidade Federal do Pampa, Uruguaiana, Brazil;


Laboratório de Toxicologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil


2.1 Introduction

Agrochemicals are essential to increase the quantity of food; additionally, they are an ­important way to decrease or eradicate pests. On the other hand, with the development and adoption of transgenic crop plants, more agrochemicals, especially pesticides, are being utilized. Because of increased pesticide residues, there is more contamination of food and water. Novel technologies are becoming available for example, nanotechnology, including agrochemicals, is currently an emerging technology, and may soon be in everyday use. In the last decade, the area of nanotechnology has grown enormously from patents to scientific publications, in a variety of areas, such as energy production, electronics, medicine and agriculture (Chen et al., 2013; Cozzens et al., 2013; Kah, 2015). In the area of agriculture, scientific production is evident, concentrating on nanoagrochemicals, from nanopesticides to nanofertilizers (Kah, 2015; Mishra et  al., 2016;

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Medium 9781780648309

2: Gaps in and Scope of the Value Chain in Millets

Rao, B.D.; Malleshi, N.G.; Annor, G.A. CABI PDF


Gaps in and Scope of the Value

Chain in Millets

As discussed in Chapter 1, the direct consumption of millet as food has significantly declined over the past three decades in India. The declining trend in production and consumption of millets has been perceived as critical for nutritional and food security of the country in the long term, especially to the economy of dryland farmers where millet cropping is more suitable than any other cereal crops. The causes of this downward trend are demand-led, as discussed previously.

An understanding of the gaps in millet production, utilization and marketing is essential for the development of the production-to-consumption system (PCS) value chain and to plan interventions to revive crop demand in the long term.

2.1  Gaps in Production, Utilization and Marketing of Millets

The gaps in millets production, utilization and marketing, core to addressing the revival of demand, were analysed as a prelude to developing an integrated value chain. They are as follows:

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Medium 9780874214321

9 : “The Future of America”

Raye Ringholz Utah State University Press ePub

JAY WALTERS, JR., wasn’t the type of man you’d expect to find in Jack Coombs’ address book. Coombs, a Sigma Chi at the University of Utah, had graduated in 1950 with a B.S. in Business, after which he began his career with J.A. Hogle and Company, Salt Lake City’s oldest and most prestigious brokerage house. One year later, Coombs left Hogle’s to join the ultra-conservative Harrison S. Brothers firm as a partner. The young man had an air of honesty and dependability. He moved in Utah’s better circles. With his dark wavy hair, blue eyes and athletic build, he was popular with the young-married country club set.

Walters, on the other hand, was sixtyish, had a swarthy complexion, a bay-window and thinning strands of straight, greying hair. An elk’s tooth dangling from his watch chain rivaled anything he had in his mouth. He favored seedy double-breasted suits with suspenders and cowboy boots. His conversation was laced with obscenities. His wallet was usually empty. Walters was a product of the old days when brokers formed mining companies on the floor of the stock exchange, raised the money and then went out and broke rock themselves.

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Medium 9783835632141


Klaus Homann, Rainer Reimert, Bernhard Klocke DIV Deutscher Industrieverlag PDF

[Work plan]   Grid-layout


Purpose and background

Grid-layout comprises the complete design of a system of pipelines to meet the grid operator’s given or expected supply duties. This can be a simple linear transmission pipe transporting a fixed amount of gas from point A to delivering point B, or a real distribution grid with several entry stations and thousands of delivery points. It includes all necessary technical attributes, as well as the routing of the pipes. The grid-layout always has to take into account all relevant national and international technical standards; above all national legislation for routing using streets and public or private properties.

This chapter

—— at first outlines the necessary actions to be performed as a work plan and then

—— explains the calculation of peak load as the main design criterion.

Referring to the chapter about fundamentals of → Pipe flow hydraulics

—— the design of meshed grids is described.

—— At last some advice for de-bottlenecking is given.

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