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Medium 9781780644325

5 Nutritional Strategies for Minimizing Phosphorus Pollution from the Livestock Industry

Malik, P.K CABI PDF

5

Nutritional Strategies for

Minimizing Phosphorus Pollution from the Livestock Industry

P.P. Ray* and K.F. Knowlton

Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, USA

Abstract

5.1 Introduction

Livestock manure traditionally has been considered and used as a valuable resource by farmers to improve crop production.

Livestock manure is rich in nutrients

(nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P)) and thus has been land applied to enrich soils. But land application of manure nutrients in excess of crop requirements can lead to saturated soil and loss of nutrients to surface water via runoff. Environmental concerns with P from animal agriculture are significant because livestock manure has always been land applied to meet crops’ N requirement, resulting in P application in excess of crops’

P requirement. The problem is aggravated with the intensification of livestock production, and now animal agriculture has been identified as a primary source of water quality impairment in many regions. But intensification and continuous advancement of livestock production is required to meet the increasing demand of food supply to feed a growing global population. Therefore, management strategies are needed that will improve livestock production while supporting the environmental and social pillars of sustainability. Nutritional strategies are economically and environmentally efficient tools to reduce P excretion by livestock. This chapter discusses nutritional strategies including precision feeding, phase feeding and approaches to improve feed P availability.

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Medium 9788170088837

10_Chapter_II

Dr. B.C. Punmia ; Ashok Kr. Jain, Arun Kr. Jain Laxmi Publications PDF

10

TOPOGRAPHIC

SURVEYING

CHAPTER

10.1 INTRODUCTION

Topographic surveying is the process of determining the positions, both on plan and elevation, of the natural and artificial features of a locality for the purpose of delineating them by means of conventional signs upon a topographic map. By topography is meant the shape or configuration of the earth’s surface. The basic purpose of the topographic map is to indicate the three dimensional relationships for the terrain of any given area of land. Thus, on a topographic map, the relative positions of points are represented both horizontally as well as vertically. The representation of the difference in elevation is called the relief. On a plan, the relative altitudes of the points can be represented by shading hachures, form lines or contour lines. In addition to the relief, the topographic map depicts natural features such as streams, rivers, lakes, trees etc. as well as artificial features such as highways, railroads, canals, towns, houses, fences and property lines. The topographic maps are very essential for the planning and designing of the most engineering projects such as location of railways, highways, design of irrigation and drainage systems, the development of water power, layout of industrial plants and city planning. Topographic maps are also very useful in directing military operations during a war.

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Medium 9788131805817

ele-en11

Administrator Laxmi Publications PDF

11

SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES

11.1. INTRODUCTION

Synchronous machines come in a variety of different constructions and designs. The main application of Synchronous machines is electricity generation. They are used as generators in all the hydro, nuclear, coal-fired, gas-fired and oil-fired power plants. This means that a synchronous generator is a standard machine used for conversion of mechanical energy into electric energy in all the power plants. Rated powers of synchronous generators are typically from a few megawatts up to a few tens of megawatts, or even a several hundreds of megawatts. The generation through synchronous generator is of three phase AC supply generally; therefore it is also named as alternator commonly.

One might easily argue that the synchronous generator is the most important component in the power system, since

1. The synchronous generators are the source of 99% of the MW in most power systems;

2. The synchronous generators provide frequency regulation and load following;

3. The synchronous generators are the main source of voltage control;

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Medium 9781855206786

Chapter 3: Keeping Your E30 Alive!

Andrew Everett Brooklands Books ePub

Weekend fettling makes an old 3 feel much newer, adding years to its life. So a couple of days a year spent inside and underneath an E30 will pay you back when the time comes to sell.

The E30 is not really a rust bucket but the newest car is now 10 years old and the oldest is now 22 by the time rust erupts it is all too late, so stop it now before it eats into the structure of the car. I have used Waxoyl in the past and it’s good stuff but only on rust which is developing. Having said that, it will hold back quite bad corrosion but not forever. Job one is to jack the car up, remove the front wheels and then the under wing splash shields. E30 wings rust all around the edge of the wheel-arch due to wet mud getting trapped behind the shield edge and also particularly on later plastic bumper cars the back of the wing where it meets the sill. Mud flaps make the problem worse and with the shields removed (about 10 minutes) it is only another ten small 9mm bolts to unbolt the whole wing. Even if you do not particularly want to go this far, clean out the arch edge with a wire brush as well as the rear lower corner and rustproof it thoroughly. Plastic bumper cars also rot on the rear edges of the front valance so do the same here. Whilst the arch liners are out, clean up the front jacking points as these are a common casualty.

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Medium 9781845939625

12. Other Hormonal Signals during Ripening

Pravendra Nath, Mondher Bouzaven, Autar K. Matoo and Jean Claude Pech CABI PDF

12

Other Hormonal Signals during

Ripening

Christopher Davies* and Christine Böttcher

CSIRO Plant Industry, Glen Osmond, SA, Australia

12.1 Introduction

Ask any plant biologist which hormone is involved in fruit ripening and the answer will almost inevitably be ‘ethylene’. The role of ethylene during fruit development has been much discussed, and the case for it being pivotal in climacteric ripening is well established (see Grierson, Chapter 10, and Kumar and Sharma, Chapter 11, this volume). This simple molecule has dominated the research effort into the control of fruit ripening. This is partly because of its rather obvious effects on the ripening of some fruit and partly because it coordinates the ripening of many commercially important fruits that can also serve as model species for study, such as tomato. However, ethylene is far from being the only hormonal influence on fruit ripening. There is increasing interest in other hormones that deserve our attention with regard to the control of ripening in both climacteric and non-climacteric fruits.

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Medium 9781780648200

14: Integrated Control of Insect Pests on Canola and Other Brassica Oilseed Crops in Pakistan

Reddy, G.V.P. CABI PDF

14

Integrated Control of Insect Pests on Canola and Other Brassica

Oilseed Crops in Pakistan

Muhammad Sarwar*

Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission, National Institute for Biotechnology &

Genetic Engineering (NIBGE), Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan

14.1  Introduction

Family Brassicaceae, formerly known as Cruciferae, in the order Brassicales, is a mustard family of flowering plants in angiosperm floras distributed throughout the world. The plant’s inflorescence is an elongated corymbose raceme, borne terminally on main stem and branches and carrying bright yellow flowers.

Brassicaceae species are categorized by the presence of four-petalled cross-shaped flowers which bear two long and two short stamens and yield pod-like fruits recognized as siliques. Though family Brassicaceae comprises nearly 338 genera and more than 3700 species, some of the foremost genera and relevant species are, in genus Brassica: cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis), turnip (Brassica rapa var. rapa), cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata), napa cabbage (Brassica rapa var. pekinensis), brown mustard (Brassica juncea), broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica), rape (Brassica napus var. napus), Brussels sprouts (Brassica oleracea var. gemmifera), bird rape

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Medium 9781780641409

8: Short-rotation Tree Plantations

Bruenig, E.F. CABI PDF

8

Short-rotation Tree Plantations

8.1  Motivation and Objectives

Short-rotation, high-yield plantations – in short, “Plantations” (SYP) – are usually monocultures, and differ fundamentally in structure, functions and objectives from planted forest with long rotations (for definition of plantation and planted forest, see

Glossary). In structure, SYP more closely resemble agricultural crops such as rubber, oil palm or Christmas tree plantations.

Medium- to long-rotation planted forest may be the reaction to a national supply emergency in construction timber and fuelwood supplies caused by over-exploitation. Examples are the vast single-species afforestations in Central Europe in the 18th and 19th centuries and in the 1950s–1960s. But planted forests may also serve the production goal of high-quality and speciality timbers if given enough time to become long-­ rotation planted forest. Examples are the famous oak forests in France, Belgium and in the German Spessart hills. In the Spessart, the oaks sprung up spontaneously from acorns left behind in the fenced pig enclosures outside refugee camps, hidden deep in the forest, after the devastating international religious war on German soil ended in 1648.

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Medium 9789351381204

Ch_9_F

V.V.Mahajani and S.M.Mokashi Laxmi Publications PDF

Interest

201

9.2 BASICS REVISITED

Interest is defined as the compensation, in the form of money that one has to pay on borrowed capital at an agreed time interval.

In other words, moneylender would try to get a compensation higher than that of prevailing inflation. The government while fixing the rate of interest takes into account the inflation. The relationship is complex in nature. For instance, one may fix higher interest rate on institutional borrowings to curb or contain inflation by forcing them borrow less and become more efficient.

In a pragmatic sense interest means interest rate, which is compensation per unit time. The interest rate is generally expressed as X% per annum rate meaning thereby on < 100 principal one has to pay < X per year as the interest. The borrower has to repay the principal back to the moneylender in previously agreed timeframe such as in monthly, quarterly, half-yearly or yearly instalments. It is a bad practice not to repay the borrowed capital from financial institutions or banks and then convert it into nonperforming assets. Such malpractices become a drag on the sustainable development of the nation.

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Medium 9780870816314

CHAPTER TWO BLEICHERT’S DOUBLE-ROPE SYSTEM

Robert A. Trennert University Press of Colorado ePub

BLEICHERT’S DOUBLE-ROPE SYSTEM

During the 1903 American Mining Congress meeting at Deadwood, South Dakota, Stephen de Zomdoria addressed his fellow mining engineers on the subject of aerial tramways. Praising all types of tramways, he noted that “every mining man of the West can probably cite examples of mines whose profitable operation without the aid of tramways would not be possible.” Looking back over two dramatic decades of change in tramway technology following the introduction of the double-rope system, he still found some value in the single-rope tramways of Hallidie and Huson, which continued to be used at western mine sites. They were simple machines, easy to maintain, and relatively cheap to erect and operate. Compared to other forms of transportation, such as roads and railroads, they proved highly adaptable, uncomplicated in construction, and could be taken down and erected at new locations with minimal cost and loss of operating time.1

Yet these words offered faint praise. As Zomdoria and others well knew, the single-rope tramway suffered from serious limitations in an era when mine owners demanded more efficiency. One of the most notorious drawbacks involved capacity. Bucket loads had to be limited to less than 200 pounds because anything greater put too much strain on the rope. Indeed, on a device where the moving rope also carried the load, wear on moving parts and constant repairs were inevitable. By necessity, single-rope tramways also ran at a relatively slow speed in order to prevent the rope from jumping out of the sheaves, a problem that continually plagued the Hallidie design. Another inefficiency concerned the fact that buckets were permanently attached to the cable. This “gives rise to the . . . greater objection that the buckets must be both loaded and unloaded while moving, since they cannot be stopped without stopping the whole line.” Finally, the single-rope tramways were limited in the distance they could cover, operating with a practical length of about two miles and a maximum of around four miles.2

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Medium 9781845939946

18: The Family Diptilomiopidae Keifer

Vacante, V. CABI PDF

18  The Family Diptilomiopidae Keifer

Morphological Characteristics,

Systematics and Bio-ecology

The morphological characteristics of the family Dipti­ lomiopidae are similar to those of the Eriophyidae. The pro­ dorsal shield has two or no setae, the scapular setae (sc) are present or absent, and the unpaired setae vi and ve are largely absent. The gnathosoma is sharply bent towards the base, with cheliceral stylets folded in the same way and long oral stylets. The opisthosoma frequently lacks the setae c1; the re­ maining setae are present, or sometimes any one of the setae c2 or d or setae h1 are absent. The chaetotaxy of the coxal plate is complete, plate I is sometimes without the setae 1b and rarely with the setae 1a. The leg chetotaxy is complete but may be missing the basiventral femoral setae I and II, the antaxial genual seta of genu II, the paraxial tibial seta of tibia

I and both the paraxial and fastigial tarsal setae (ft ¢) or the paraxial and unguinal tarsal setae (u¢) of legs I and II; the tibia I lacks a solenidion; the tarsal empodium may be thick and is commonly divided. The genital coverflap sometimes has one or two rows of ridges and spots or semilunar granules.

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Medium 9781780648200

1: Flea Beetles (Phyllotreta spp.) and Their Management

Reddy, G.V.P. CABI PDF

1

Flea Beetles (Phyllotreta spp.) and

Their Management

Janet J. Knodel*

North Dakota State University, Fargo, North Dakota, USA

1.1  Introduction

1.2  Biology

Flea beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), in the genus

Phyllotreta, are important economic pests of canola production worldwide. The crucifer flea beetle,

Phyllotreta cruciferae (Goeze), and the striped flea beetle, Phyllotreta striolata (Fabricius), are the two most common pest species in canola production in

North America (Lamb, 1984; Weiss et  al., 1991;

Palaniswamy and Lamb, 1992). Although there are five species of flea beetle that infest Brassica spp. crops, these other species are generally not a major threat to oilseed crop production (Burgess, 1977a;

Wylie, 1979). P. cruciferae is widespread in Europe,

Asia and Africa (Brown, 1967; Wylie, 1979). It was introduced into North America in the early 1920s in

British Columbia and is now found across southern

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Medium 9781845939625

14. Natural Diversity and Genetic Control of Fruit Sensory Quality

Pravendra Nath, Mondher Bouzaven, Autar K. Matoo and Jean Claude Pech CABI PDF

14

Natural Diversity and Genetic Control of

Fruit Sensory Quality

Bénédicte Quilot-Turion and Mathilde Causse*

INRA, Unité de Génétique et Amélioration des Fruits et Légumes,

Domaine Saint-Maurice, Montfavet Cedex, France

14.1 Introduction

Fruit sensory quality has only recently become a target for breeders. Due to consumer dissatisfaction relating especially to fruit flavour, genetic improvement of this quality is now required (Ulrich and

Olbricht, 2011). Fruit sensory quality is a complex trait that contributes a combination of flavour and texture components, together with general fruit appearance attributes. Most sensory traits are difficult to measure by methods other than sensory analysis. However, some of the major components of flavour and texture such as sweetness, sourness or fruit

firmness can be assessed by physical or chemical measurements (Baldwin et al.,

1998). The complexity of fruit quality (due to the number of parameters to take into account, their polygenic inheritance and their multiple interactions) and generation length for fruit trees has limited genetic progress. Today, molecular markers enable dissection of the genetic basis of complex traits, and our increasing knowledge about the genomes offer new and efficient tools to breeders.

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Medium 9781780644325

6 Metagenomic Approaches in Harnessing Gut Microbial Diversity

Malik, P.K CABI PDF

6

Metagenomic Approaches in

Harnessing Gut Microbial Diversity

A. Thulasi,* Lyju Jose, M. Chandrasekharaiah, D.

Rajendran and C.S. Prasad

National Institute of Animal Nutrition and Physiology, Bangalore,

India

Abstract

6.1 Introduction

The mechanisms involved in the digestive process of the rumen are complex, and are accomplished by a diverse and dynamic group of microbes. Microbial diversity in the rumen has been predicted to enhance the resistance of the network of metabolic pathways by increasing the number of genes encoding the pathway, enabling the ecosystem to stabilize more rapidly after change to a new equilibrium. The more resistant metabolic pathways, and the more diverse source of novel pathways, will make the microbial system more resilient. A variety of molecular methods based on direct isolation and analysis of nucleic acids, proteins and lipids from environmental samples have been discovered, and they reveal structural and functional information about microbial communities. Molecular approaches such as genetic fingerprinting, metagenomics, metaproteomics, metatranscriptomics and proteogenomics are vital for discovering and characterizing the vast diversity of microbes and understanding their interactions with biotic and abiotic environmental factors. In this chapter, efforts are made to discover the possible applications of metagenomic tools for exploring the complex microbial diversity of ruminal microbes. 

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Medium 9789381159422

3.7. Departmentation

G. Murugesan Laxmi Publications PDF

56

3.7.

PRINCIPLES

OF

MANAGEMENT

DEPARTMENTATION

3.7.1. Meaning of Departmentation

Grouping of activities is an essential step in designing an organisation structure. Grouping of activities into departments, division or other homogeneous units is known as departmentation.

Departmentation or departmentalisation is the process of grouping tasks into jobs, the combining of jobs into effective work groups and the combining of groups into identifiable segments or departments. It involves horizontal differentiation of activities in an enterprise. A department is a division, branch, regiment or some other organisational unit over which a manager has authority for performance of task. Thus, departmentation is the process of dividing the work of organisation into departments or other manageable units.

3.7.2. Need and Importance of Departmentation

The basic purpose of departmentation is to make the size of each departmental unit manageable and to secure advantages of specialisation. Departmentation is necessary on account of the following reasons.

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Medium 9781780641409

5: The Tortuous Road Towards Forest Sustainability in the Tropical Rainforest: Cases From Which to Learn

Bruenig, E.F. CABI PDF

5

The Tortuous Road Towards Forest

Sustainability in the Tropical Rainforest:

Cases From Which to Learn

5.1  Example: The State of Sarawak

5.1.1  The history from forest usufruct to a concept of sustainable forestry

The understanding of the goals, targets,

­contents, relevance and crucial role of sustainability for livelihood and survival varies between ethnic groups and changes with circumstances. Sarawak is a textbook case which shows the development of the culture of forest sustainability from the earliest stages in the cultures of the forest-dependent hunter-­ gatherer groups, beginning at least 40,000 years ago and still vibrant (if threatened with extinction), to the multiracial, multi-­ethnic and multicultural, heterogeneous and conflict-­ rich but dynamic mixture of today. This sets the almost unsolvable problem of adjusting goals and targets for sustainable ­natural resource use, development and maintenance so that they are compatible with customs and aspirations of different ethnic groups, social classes and interest groups, and fit regional differences of conditions. Such contextual sustainability will have to be able to adapt to change without losing doctrinal power and meaning. Sustainability can only be approached and approximated, but never finally achieved and secured in a static condition. The old Greek saying, “the only constant is change”, applies. Generally,

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