1351 Slices
  Title Author Publisher Format Buy Remix
Medium 9781902375205

Appendix 2  The Scheme for Construction Contracts Regulations 1998

Martin Wood Chartridge Books Oxford ePub

Appendix 2

Scheme for Construction Contracts

The Scheme for Construction Contracts (England and Wales) Regulations 1998

Citation, commencement and extent

1.-      (1)     These Regulations may be cited as The Scheme for Construction Contract (England and Wales) Regulations 1998 and shall come into force at the end of the period of 8 weeks beginning with the day on which they are made (the “commencement date”).

(2)     These Regulations shall extend only to England and Wales.

(3)     In these Regulations, “the Act” means the Housing Grants, Construction and Regeneration Act 1996.

The Scheme for Construction Contracts

2.     Where a construction contract does not comply with the requirements of section 108(1) to (4) of the Act, the adjudication provisions in Part I of the Schedule to these Regulations shall apply.

3.     Where-

(a)     the parties to a construction contract are unable to reach agreement for the purposes mentioned respectively in sections 109, 111 and 113 of the Act, or

(b)     a construction contract does not make provision as required by section 110 of the Act,

See All Chapters
Medium 9789380386355


Satinder Bal Gupta and C.P. Gandhi Laxmi Publications PDF




In the previous chapter, we have discussed various operations on sets to generate more sets from given sets. We now discuss one more property of sets which is known as cartesian products of sets which will help us in understanding the concept of relations.


Let A and B be any two sets. Then by an ordered pair of elements, we mean a pair (x, y) where x ∈ A, y ∈ B.

For example, the ordered pairs (1, 1), (2, 3), (3, 5) represent different points in a plane.


Let A and B be any two non-empty sets. Then the cartesian product of the sets A and B is the set of all ordered pairs (x, y) such that x ∈ A and y ∈ B and it is denoted by A × B. Thus

A × B = {(x, y) : x ∈ A and y ∈ B}.

For example, consider A = (1, 2), B = (3, 4, 5). We find A × B, B × A, A × A, B × B.


A × B = {(1, 3), (1, 4), (1, 5), (2, 3), (2, 4), (2, 5)}

B × A = {(3, 1), (3, 2), (4, 1), (4, 2), (5, 1), (5, 2)}

A × A = {(1, 1), (1, 2), (2, 1), (2, 2)}

B × B = {(3, 3), (3, 4), (3, 5), (4, 3), (4, 4), (4, 5), (5, 3), (5, 4), (5, 5)}.

See All Chapters
Medium 9781601323286

The Position of Component Certification in CBSE Activities

Hamid R. Arabnia, Leonidas Deligiannidis, George Jandieri, Ashu M. G. Solo, Fernando G. Tinetti CSREA Press PDF


Int'l Conf. Software Eng. Research and Practice | SERP'14 |

The Position of Component Certification in CBSE Activities

Lina khalid Ahmed

Department of Software Engineering, Zarqa University, Amman, Jordan

Abstract - CBSE (Component Based Software

Engineering) is the most important approach to software development because it is based on reuse technology. The successful reuse of component requires a development process tailored to CBSE, so it includes activities that find and compose reusable components. Reuse components can be the reason for building high quality products because they are chosen according to some issues that lead to the concept of component certification. This certification has its position in CBSE main activities. This paper defines the component certification and describes the positioning of it in CBSE activities and how this certification affects the success of this approach.

Keywords: Component, CBSE, CBSE approach

Component certification.



Development with reuse has become a strategy for new systems. It has been used in response to the demand for lowering software cost, increasing time to market and producing a high quality product.

See All Chapters
Medium 9789381159194


Anil Kumar Shukla Laxmi Publications PDF




Learning Objectives

Upon completion of this chapter, you should be able to do the following:

Describe a fiber optic splice, connector, and coupler and the types of connections they form in systems.

List the types of extrinsic and intrinsic coupling losses.

Understand the degree to which fiber alignment and fiber mismatch problems increase system loss.

Identify the types of fiber optic mechanical and fusion splices. Outline the basic splicing techniques for each type of fiber optic splice.

List the types of fiber optic connectors. Detail the procedure for installing a fiber optic connector on an optical fiber.

Discuss the types of fiber optic passive couplers.










Chapter 1 states that a fiber optic data link performs three basic functions.

First, the data link transmitter converts an electrical input signal to an optical signal. Then, the optical fiber transmits this optical signal. Finally, the data link receiver converts the optical signal back to an electrical signal identical to the original input. However, Chapter 1 does not describe how optical power transfers from one optical component to another.

See All Chapters
Medium 9788131807446


Dr. Priyanka Siwach ; Dr. Namita Singh Laxmi Publications PDF





• Introduction

• Types of DNA Ligase

• Efficiency of Ligation


Ligation means joining DNA molecules together and this process is carried out by enzyme DNA ligase. Ligases catalyze the formation of phosphodiester bonds between the directly adjacent 3’hydroxyl and 5’ – phosphoryl termini of nucleic acid molecules. The substrates may be DNA or RNA, and the cofactors that generate high energy intermediates in the reaction may be ATP or NAD+, depending on the type of ligase (Fig. 1.1). Under in vivo Conditions, DNA ligase is required for enzymatic completion of lagging strand synthesis during replication of DNA, and also involved in genetic recombination and DNA repair. In vitro, DNA ligases are used chiefly to create novel combinations of nucleic acid molecules and to attach them to vectors in molecular cloning.


DNA ligases used in molecular cloning are either of bacterial origin or bacteriophage encoded.

All eubacteria, whether thermophilic or mesophilic, contain a single ligase gene that encodes an

See All Chapters
Medium 9781601323286

Session - Software Engineering and Applications and Related Issues + Education and Training

Hamid R. Arabnia, Leonidas Deligiannidis, George Jandieri, Ashu M. G. Solo, Fernando G. Tinetti CSREA Press PDF

Int'l Conf. Software Eng. Research and Practice | SERP'14 |


A Methodology for Development of Enterprise

Architecture of PPDR Organisations

W. Müller, F. Reinert

Fraunhofer Institute of Optronics, System Technologies and Image Exploitation IOSB

76131 Karlsruhe, Fraunhoferstraße 1


Abstract - The growing number of events affecting public safety and security (PS&S) on a regional scale with potential to grow up to large scale cross border disasters puts an increased pressure on agencies and organization responsible for PS&S. In order to respond timely and in an adequate manner to such events Public Protection and Disaster Relief

(PPDR) organisations need to cooperate, align their procedures and activities, share the needed information and be interoperable.

This paper provides an approach to tackle the above mentioned aspects by defining an Enterprise Architecture (EA) of the organisation and based on this EA define the respective

System Architectures. We propose a methodology for the development of EA for PPDR organisations. Our methodology refines architectural artefacts of the OSSAF approach and introduces a lightweight architecture development model relying on capability based planning as the organisational top level approach.

See All Chapters
Medium 9781780643373

11: The Importance of Veteran Trees for Saproxylic Insects

Kirby, K.J. CABI PDF


The Importance of Veteran Trees for Saproxylic Insects

Juha Siitonen1* and Thomas Ranius2

Natural Resources Institute Finland, Vantaa, Finland; 2Department of Ecology,

Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden


11.1 Introduction

Old trees – often referred to as ancient or

­veteran – have always attracted attention, but recently there has been a revival of interest in them from an ecological and conservation perspective. Ancient trees are old individuals that have clearly passed beyond maturity and often show features such as cavities or hollow trunks, bark loss over sections of the trunk and a large quantity of dead wood in the canopy. The term

‘veteran tree’ includes younger individuals that have developed similar characteristics as a result of adverse growing conditions or injury (Woodland Trust, 2008; Lonsdale, 2013).

Veteran trees are defined as being of interest biologically, culturally or aesthetically because of their age, size or condition (Read, 2000).

A large old tree has been described as an arboreal megalopolis for saproxylic species

See All Chapters
Medium 9781780644370

9 Roles of ABC Proteins in the Mechanism and Management of Bt Resistance

Soberon, M. CABI PDF


Roles of ABC Proteins in the

Mechanism and Management of

Bt Resistance

David G. Heckel*

Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology, Jena, Germany


9.1 Introduction

Genetic studies of strains of insects that have developed resistance to pore-forming

Cry toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have provided useful and unexpected insights into the mode of action of the toxin.

Independent approaches in five species of

Lepidoptera have converged on the same result: that mutations in a member of the superfamily of ABC transporters confer resistance to Cry toxins. These mutations range from a single amino acid insertion to truncations that delete most of the protein.

This result is surprising, because since the first detection of the specific binding of Cry toxins to sites in the lepidopteran midgut in

1988, no studies had documented any sort of interaction between Cry toxins and ABC proteins. It is hypothesized that ABC transporters mediate the critical step of Cry pore insertion into the membrane.

See All Chapters
Medium 9781780643755

14: Mites as Biocontrol Agents of Phytonematodes

Askary, T.H., Editor CAB International PDF


Mites as Biocontrol Agents of


Uri Gerson*

Department of Entomology, The Robert H. Smith Faculty of Agriculture,

Food and Environment, Rehovot, Israel

14.1  Introduction

Reductions in the extent of nematode damage to plants, which may occur without human intervention, are usually attributed to certain biota that decrease nematode numbers in what are termed suppressive soils. These have been reported from all over the world and include some of the best documented cases of natural, effective biological control of nematodes (Kerry,

1997; Sánchez-Moreno and Ferris, 2007). The biological control (BC) of plant nematodes

(phytonematodes) has been defined (Sayre and

Walter, 1991; Stirling, 1991) as reductions in nematode populations and/or their damage through the activities of organisms other than nematode-resistant host plants. Stirling (2011) later proposed a broader, more ecologicallyminded definition, that BC is the action of soil organisms in maintaining nematode population densities at lower average levels than would occur in their absence. Biological control is usually understood to be a scientific as well as a practical approach (and a management tool) in reducing pest numbers and/or their economic, medical and/or veterinary damage, through the activities of other organisms. When it is applied to arthropod pests, BC consists of three strategies, or modes, namely introductions

See All Chapters
Medium 9789381159620


Dr. Aminul Islam Laskar Laxmi Publications PDF



Hydraulic Cements

Concrete, made from cement, aggregates, chemical admixtures, mineral admixtures and water, is any product or mass made by the use of a cementing medium. The active constituent of concrete is cement paste and the performance of concrete is largely determined by the cement paste. Admixtures in concrete confer some beneficial effects such as acceleration, retardation, air entrainment, water reduction, plasticity, etc., and they are related to the cement-admixture interaction. Mineral admixtures such as blast furnace slag, fly ash, silica fume, and others, also improve the quality of concrete.

The performance of concrete depends on the quality of the ingredients, their proportions, placement, and exposure conditions. In the production of concrete, amount and the type of cement, fine and coarse aggregate, water, temperature of mixing, admixture, and the environment to which it is exposed will determine its physical, chemical, and durability behavior. Various analytical techniques are applied to study the effect of these parameters and for quality control purposes. In this chapter, physical, chemical, and mechanical characteristics of cement paste are presented because of their relevance to the application of various properties of concrete.

See All Chapters
Medium 9781780648903



I Introduction

Cotton is a natural fibre produced by four different species of Gossypium. Approximately 95% of the cotton is produced by the G. hirsutum L. species; therefore, this review will concentrate primarily on that species, with a few exceptions. Cotton is used every day in the form of clothing made from cotton fibre and products made from cotton-seed oil. Cotton is the most widely produced natural fibre in the world, but there is increasing competition from man-made fibres.

Cotton seed is a by-product of the more valuable cotton fibre and is a valued raw material for food oils for human consumption and high protein feed for livestock.

Cotton is a perennial shrub with an indeterminate growth habit and although it grows naturally to 3.5 m in the tropics, it is grown commercially as an annual crop. Wild ancestors of cotton are found in arid regions, often with high daytime temperatures and cool nights, and are naturally adapted to surviving long periods of hot dry weather. Modern cultivars have inherited these attributes, making the cotton crop well adapted to the intermittent water supply that occurs with rainfed (dryland) and irrigated production (Hearn, 1980). Compared with other field crops, however, its growth and development are complex consequences of the indeterminate habit. Vegetative and reproductive growth occurs simultaneously, sometimes making interpretation of the crop’s response to climate and management difficult.

See All Chapters
Medium 9781780644370

8 Mechanism of Cry1Ac Resistance in Cabbage Loopers – A Resistance Mechanism Selected in Insect Populations in an Agricultural Environment

Soberon, M. CABI PDF


Mechanism of Cry1Ac Resistance in Cabbage Loopers –

A Resistance Mechanism Selected in Insect Populations in an

Agricultural Environment

Ping Wang*

Department of Entomology, Cornell University, New York State

Agricultural Experiment Station, Geneva, New York, USA


The development of resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) in insect populations in agriculture not only depends on the level of resistance conferred by a selected resistance mechanism, but also on the fitness cost associated with the resistance mechanism under specific ecological and environmental conditions. Bt resistance in the cabbage looper (Trichoplusia ni), which was identified by Janmaat and Myers (2003), is a case of

Bt resistance evolved in an agricultural system, and is used in this chapter to review and discuss the mechanism of Cry1Ac resistance that is selected in an agricultural environment.

8.1 Introduction

Resistance of insects to pesticide sprays in agriculture has been observed for a century

(Melander, 1914). Under selection pressure by pesticide applications, thousands of cases of pesticide resistance in hundreds of arthropod species have been recorded (MotaSánchez et al., 2008). Since the first report of insect resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) in 1985 (McGaughey, 1985), the potential

See All Chapters
Medium 9781780646862

1: Key Concepts

Finley, S. CABI PDF


Key Concepts

The Water Cycle

Water exists in a variety of forms and on a number of levels in the ecosystem.

Surface water flows in rivers, lakes and swamps, while groundwater flows underground through aquifers found at various depths within the soil and rock layers of the subsurface. Water stored in the top layers of surface water bodies, soils, and the ocean evaporates when heated by the sun. Evaporated water

­becomes water vapor, which makes the air humid, and vapor trapped in clouds will condense to become rain under the right conditions. When rain falls, a portion is absorbed into the soil, where it will either infiltrate toward groundwater aquifers or remain in reserve as soil moisture. The remaining rainfall will run off the surface of the land, flowing downhill into lakes and rivers and eventually the ocean. Water that moves through plants from the soil will ultimately be transpired into the air, becoming vapor once again. Figure 1.1 outlines the water cycle.

See All Chapters
Medium 9789351382492


Saradindu Panda Laxmi Publications PDF



A Carry Lookahead Adder 162

Actel Routing Methodology 15

Active Area Definition 21

Active Load Inverter 43

Altera Routing Methodology 16

Annealing 24

Antifuse Technology 10


Basic n-well CMOS Process 25

Behaviour of Bi-stable Elements 74

Bipolar Rom 94

Bisection Min-Cut 127


Cache Memory 97

Carry Lookahead Adder 83

Carry Lookahead Method 163

Channel-stop Implant 21

Circuit Description 102

Circuit Partitioning 116

Clock Planning 114

Clocked S-R Latch 79

Clusters 125

CMOS D-Latch 80

CMOS Dynamic TG Logic 67

CMOS Fabrication Sequence 20

Cmos Inverter 47

CMOS Inverter Designs 35

Complementary Pass Transistor Logic

Style 60

Complete Graph 131

Complex Programmable Logic Device

(CPLD) 7

Contact Cuts 24

Coping with Hypergraph 122

Current Mirror 140

Current Sink and Current Source 138

Current Source 139


3T-DRAM 91

DCVSL Logic Gate 64

Depletion Load Logic Style 58

Design Constraints 103

Design Entry 13

Design Flow in ASIC 5

Design Planning 105

Design Synthesis 13

Detail Placement 128

Detail Routing 133

Differential Amplifier 142

Drawbacks of the Kernighan-Lin Heuristic

See All Chapters
Medium 9788131807811


Dr. R. Vaidyanathan, Dr. P. Perumal Laxmi Publications PDF






First introduced by Professor Hardy Cross in 1932, Moment Distribution method has remained the most popular method of tackling indeterminate beams and rigid frames. It uses an iterative technique. The method employs a few basic concepts and a few specialized terms such as

(a) Fixed end moments

(b) Relative stiffness

(c) Carry over

(d) Distribution factor.



(a) Fixed End Moments. All members of a given frame are initially assumed fixed at both ends. The loads acting on these fixed beams produce fixed end moments at the ends.

These are the moments exerted by the supports on the beam-ends. These (non-existent) moments keep the rotations at the ends of each member zero.

Table A1 gives the fixed end moments in prismatic fixed beams due to various load types. These moments are treated as positive if clockwise and negative if anti-clockwise.

(b) Relative Stiffness




l, E, I







l, E, I


Fig. 3.1

Stiffness is generally taken as the force required to produce a unit displacement (in a member or structure). It is also the moment required to produce unit rotation at a specified point in a beam/structure. It can be extended to denote the torque needed to produce unit twist.

See All Chapters

Load more