1786 Chapters
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Medium 9781601323286

Clustering Analysis for Object Formation in Software Modeling

Hamid R. Arabnia, Leonidas Deligiannidis, George Jandieri, Ashu M. G. Solo, Fernando G. Tinetti CSREA Press PDF

Int'l Conf. Software Eng. Research and Practice | SERP'14 |

17

Clustering Analysis for Object Formation in Software

Modeling

Dusan Sormaz1, Danyu You1, and Arkopaul Sarkar2

Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Ohio University, Athens, OH, USA

2

Institute for Corrosion and Multiphase Technologies, Ohio University, Athens, OH, USA

1

Abstract - Object-oriented software modeling (OOM) is a widely used approach to provide structured way of designing software architecture. The object in OOM is a group of

‘functions’ and ‘attributes’ which perform related functionalities. The identification of objects is challenging in some application domains where functionalities are difficult to be partitioned/grouped, for instance, chemical calculations.

This paper conducts the clustering analysis to partition those

‘functions’ and ‘attributes’ and form preliminary objects for

OOM. The objective of clustering algorithm is to minimize the number of functions and attributes shared by more than one object. In this study, a function attribute matrix is first developed to represent the requirement of attributes for each function. And then a clustering algorithm is proposed to continuously restructure the function attribute matrix until the termination conditions are met or no more improvement can be found. The experimentation is carried based on the corrosion prediction software which contains up to 200 nested functions and attributes. And the results show that the promising approach can capture the homogeneous functions and attributes and form preliminary objects.

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Medium 9781786395177

29 Revitalizing the Indian Agricultural Education System

Paroda, R.S. CABI PDF

29

Revitalizing the Indian Agricultural

Education System

Agriculture is an integral part of the socio-­ economic fabric of India, sustaining the livelihoods of over 60% of rural households and providing employment to nearly the same percentage of the population. The sharp rise in India’s post-­ independence population has been matched by a commendable rise in foodgrain production, starting with the Green Revolution of the early 1970s.

This production touched a record high of 277.49 million t during 2017–18, with a remarkable

­increase of 23% (around 4 million t) in pulse production. The agricultural research system comprising researchers, teachers and extension workers spread all over the country had been the backbone of this growth. However, continuing to achieve such production gains to ensure future food security for an ever-increasing population is likely to be a challenging task. By 2030, we would need to produce 70% more foodgrains than we are producing today; that in the face of  multiple challenges like climate uncertainties, depleting natural resources, shrinking farm sizes and indiscriminate and imbalanced use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. The need to strengthen the agricultural research system, including education, is, therefore, critical to build capable human resources that are vital for future growth.

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Medium 9788131807385

Ch_5

Saradindu Panda Laxmi Publications PDF

5

MOS Field-EffectTransistors

5.1

INTRODUCTION

The n-type Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect-Transistor (nMOSFET) consists of a source and a drain, two highly conducting n-type semiconductor regions, which are isolated from the p-type substrate by reversed-biased p-n diodes. A metal or polycrystalline gate covers the region between source and drain. The gate is separated from the semiconductor by the gate oxide. The basic structure of an n-type MOSFET and the corresponding circuit symbol are shown in Fig. 5.1.

VDS

DRAIN

VGS

GATE n-SOURCE

VBS

n-DRAIN

DEPLETION LAYER

GATE OXIDE

INVERSION LAYER

GATE

SUBSTRATE

p-SUBSTRATE

BACK CONTACT

SOURCE

Fig. 5.1

Cross-section and circuit symbol of an n-type Metal-Oxide-SemiconductorField-Effect-Transistor (MOSFET)

As can be seen on the Figure, the source and drain regions are identical. It is the applied voltages, which determine which n-type region provides the electrons and becomes the source, while the other n-type region receives the electrons and becomes the drain. The voltages applied to the drain and gate electrode as well as to the substrate, by means of a back contact, are referred to the source potential, as also indicated in

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Medium 9781845938178

13: Rodent Control in Practice: Tropical Field Crops

Buckle, A.P.; Smith, R.H. CABI PDF

13 

Rodent Control in Practice:

Tropical Field Crops

M.W. Fall and L.A. Fiedler

Formerly of National Wildlife Research Center, USDA Animal and Plant

Health Inspection Service, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA

Introduction

This chapter is a revision and update of material presented in the first edition

­

Fiedler and Fall, 1994). In 1994, we believed that examples of long-term successes in reducing rodent damage to tropical crops were very limited. At the time, the situation was blamed on insufficient information that had, over previous decades, precluded specific recommendations. Beginning in the late 1960s, several research projects, primarily focused in Asia, investigated important crop loss situations and demonstrated several e­ffective rodent-control methods.

Moreover, these findings and some control recommendations were published and incorporated into extension programmes in a number of areas. Most of the publications concerned were in widely available ‘grey literature’ or in conference proceedings

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Medium 9789381159460

Ch_1_F.pdf

S. Swapna Kumar Laxmi Publications PDF

4 A Guide to Wireless Sensor Networks

1

INTRODUCTION

1.1

TO

WSN

INTRODUCTION

The advancement of science and technology deeply intertwined the growth of communication era.

In the recent year the revolution of personal computers, mobile telephony and the Internet, changed the face of wireless communication world. Such field of wireless networking integrates into the areas of personal computing, cellular technology, and the Internet. This is due to the increasing demand and interactions between communication and computing. Moreover, the computing is to a level of a high quality and speed. This change the face of the information technology and its access with the logo �anytime anywhere� into �all the time, everywhere.�

Wireless sensor network is a small spatially distributed network devices that can communicate with each other over the wireless medium. Wireless sensor networks development and pervasiveness gave origin to a wide range of different applications with different features and needs. On the other hand, research today mainly focuses on development, optimization and improvement of physical, MAC and routing layer issues, parameters adjustment, in order to minimize the energy consumption and maximize the lifetime, scalability and security of the systems rather than on implementing or designing an application support

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Medium 9781780644325

6 Metagenomic Approaches in Harnessing Gut Microbial Diversity

Malik, P.K CABI PDF

6

Metagenomic Approaches in

Harnessing Gut Microbial Diversity

A. Thulasi,* Lyju Jose, M. Chandrasekharaiah, D.

Rajendran and C.S. Prasad

National Institute of Animal Nutrition and Physiology, Bangalore,

India

Abstract

6.1 Introduction

The mechanisms involved in the digestive process of the rumen are complex, and are accomplished by a diverse and dynamic group of microbes. Microbial diversity in the rumen has been predicted to enhance the resistance of the network of metabolic pathways by increasing the number of genes encoding the pathway, enabling the ecosystem to stabilize more rapidly after change to a new equilibrium. The more resistant metabolic pathways, and the more diverse source of novel pathways, will make the microbial system more resilient. A variety of molecular methods based on direct isolation and analysis of nucleic acids, proteins and lipids from environmental samples have been discovered, and they reveal structural and functional information about microbial communities. Molecular approaches such as genetic fingerprinting, metagenomics, metaproteomics, metatranscriptomics and proteogenomics are vital for discovering and characterizing the vast diversity of microbes and understanding their interactions with biotic and abiotic environmental factors. In this chapter, efforts are made to discover the possible applications of metagenomic tools for exploring the complex microbial diversity of ruminal microbes. 

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Medium 9783835632141

Symbols

Klaus Homann, Rainer Reimert, Bernhard Klocke DIV Deutscher Industrieverlag PDF

[Latin Symbols]   Symbols

Symbols

Symbols for properties are generally explained at the place where they are introduced and used first. However, since some properties are used in different entries of this book, they are mentioned, defined and explained in the following table.

Latin Symbols

Symbol

Name

Definition

Unit

A

area

∫∫ dx dy

m2

a

thermal diffusivity

λ / (ρ cp)

m2/s

ci

concentration

ni / V

mol/m3

Comment

cp

mass specific heat capacity

(const. pressure)

(h / T)p

J/(kg K)

can also be related to amount of species or to the volume, resulting in J/

(mol K) and J/(m3 K) as the unit, respectively

cV

mass specific heat capacity

(const. volume)

(h / T)V

J/(kg K)

For other relations, see above

D

diameter

basic (length)

m

“basic” relates to one of the seven base quantities of the → International System of Units (SI)

di

relative density

ρi / ρair

density of gas i related to air at the same state (p, T), normally at standard state

E

energy

various

J

F

force

various

N

g

gravitational acceleration

Fgravity / m

m / s2

H

enthalpy

U + p V

J

h

mass specific enthalpy

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Medium 9781780641836

6 The Chemical Environment in the Soil Seed Bank

Gallagher, R.S., Editor CAB International PDF

6

The Chemical Environment in the Soil Seed Bank

Henk W.M. Hilhorst*

Wageningen Seed Lab, Laboratory of Plant Physiology,

Wageningen University, Wageningen, the Netherlands

Introduction

Soil is the natural physical and chemical environment of most seeds. Essentially, soil is a three-phase system consisting of solids, liquids and gases in varying proportions. In most soils the solids are predominantly mineral, derived from rock materials. Minerals are defined as solid, inorganic, naturally occurring substances with a definite chemical formula and general structure. It is evident that minerals may only affect seed behaviour when they are solubilized by water that penetrates the soil. In this respect the soil pH is an important factor. The soil matrix may also contain more readily dissolvable solutes, for example salts in saline environments. Direct chemical effects of rock-derived minerals on germination of seeds in the soil seed bank are unknown.

Solubilized minerals may inhibit germination non-specifically when they occur in high concentrations in soils. Also the effects of high salinity can be either osmotic or toxic. Soil may also contain organic matter.

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Medium 9781855209718

Chapter 2 - Clutch

PR Pub PR Pub Brooklands Books ePub
Medium 9789381159101

Chp-1

Anand V. Kulkarni and Venkatesh K. Havanur Laxmi Publications PDF

Chapt er

Chapter

1

INTRODUCTION TO FINITE

ELEMENT ANALYSIS

1.1

METHODS OF SOLVING ENGINEERING PROBLEM

There are three methods to solve any engineering problem:

1. Analytical method,

2. Numerical method,

3. Experimental method.

1.1.1 Analytical Method

This is classical approach. The method gives closed form solutions. Results obtained with this method are accurate within the assumptions made. This method is applicable only for solving problems of simple geometry and loading, like cantilever and simply supported beams etc.

1.1.2

Numerical Method

This approximate method is resorted to when analytical method fails. This method is applicable to real life problems of complex nature. Results obtained by this method cannot be believed blindly and must be carefully assessed against experience and judgment of the analyst. Examples of this method are Finite Element Method, Finite Difference Method etc.

1.1.3

Experimental Method

This method involves actual measurement of the system response. This method is time consuming and needs expensive set up. This method is applicable only if physical prototype is available. Results obtained by this method cannot be believed blindly and minimum three to five prototypes must be tested. Examples of this method are strain gauge, photo elasticity etc.

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Medium 9781845938291

11. Fruit flies Anastrepha ludens (Loew), A. obliqua (Macquart) and A. grandis (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae): Three Pestiferous Tropical Fruit Flies That Could Potentially Expand Their Range to Temperate Areas

Pena, J.E., Editor CAB International PDF

11  Fruit Flies Anastrepha ludens (Loew),

A. obliqua (Macquart) and A. grandis

(Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae): Three

Pestiferous Tropical Fruit Flies That

Could Potentially Expand Their Range to Temperate Areas

Andrea Birke,1 Larissa Guillén,1 David Midgarden2 and Martin Aluja1

1

Red de Manejo Biorracional de Plagas y Vectores, Instituto de

Ecología A.C., Xalapa, Veracruz, México; 2USDA APHIS Medfly

Program, Guatemala City, Guatemala

11.1  Introduction

The family Tephritidae (Diptera) comprises over

4000 species of which c. 250 belong to the genus

Anastrepha. Of these, fewer than ten species are considered to be economically important pests.

In  this review, we have concentrated on three

­pestiferous Anastrepha species considered highly polyphagous and identified as potential exotic invaders: Anastrepha ludens (Loew), Anastrepha obli­ qua (Macquart) and Anastrepha grandis (Macquart).

Anastrepha ludens, known as the Mexican fruit fly, is an important pest of citrus that poses a considerable threat to production areas in the southern

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Medium 9789381159422

1.1. Introduction to Management

G. Murugesan Laxmi Publications PDF

Chapter

1.1.

1

BASICS

OF

MAN

AGEMENT

ANA

INTRODUCTION TO MANAGEMENT

The managers achieve organizational objectives by getting work from others and not performing in the tasks themselves.

Management is an art and science of getting work done through people. It is the process of giving direction and controlling the various activities of the people to achieve the objectives of an organization.

1.2.

DEFINITION OF MANAGEMENT

There are numerous definitions of management. Different experts have defined different points of view.

According to Mary Parker Follett, “Management is the art of getting things done through people.”

Harold Koontz defined as, “Management is the art of getting things done through and with people in formally organized groups. It is the art of creating an environment in which people can perform and individuals could cooperate towards attaining of group goals.”

In view of Joseph Massie, “Management is defined as the process by which a cooperative group directs actions towards common goals.”

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Medium 9781780648903

III CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS ON COTTON GROWTH AND PRODUCTION

ICAC Reviews CABI PDF

emission scenarios. However, emission scenarios of projected atmospheric [CO2] vary considerably with time. For example, atmospheric [CO2] in 2100 is projected to increase from 500 to 900

μmol mol−1 across greenhouse gas (GHG) scenarios (Nakicenovic and Swart, 2000). These scenarios involve assumptions about demographic, economic and technological factors likely to influence future economic development and GHG emissions. Scenarios depend on factors such as rates of population increase, global economic growth and humanity’s relative success or failure at slowing emissions from the burning of coal, oil and gas (Braganza and Church, 2011).

III Climate Change Impacts on Cotton Growth and Production

Elevated [CO2] ([eCO2])-induced climate change could affect cotton production practices and change the historic location of cotton production around the world. Table 1 summarizes some current research efforts, climate indicators and potential results in major cotton-producing

Table 1.  Summary of changes in climate and impact indicators for cotton producing regions throughout the world.

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Medium 9780596008680

Voice over Data: Many Conversations, One Network

Theodore Wallingford O'Reilly Media PDF

Chapter

2 2

CHAPTER

Voice over Data: Many

Conversations, One Network

Conversations are the basis of human communication. Conversations can be spoken, written, or gestured. Conversations can even be one directional, such as a coach bawling out his star quarterback after an uncharacteristic interception. Conversations may be “one-to-many” (such as a political candidate giving a stump speech) or

“many-to-one” (such as a constituency lobbying that candidate after she’s in office).

Conversations are more than just an analogy for networks—they literally are modern networking.

The underpinnings of enterprise networks are also conversations. IP data networks run on protocols that use a conversational approach to data exchange. The most common protocols for web browsing (HTTP) and email (SMTP) use a two-way

“data conversation” in order to communicate. The process is simple: a client host sends an inquiry to a server host or a peer host, and then the server or peer sends a response back to the client.

Conversations between hosts on an Internet Protocol (IP) network are similar to those between people, except that instead of using words, the messages are communicated across the networks using units called datagrams. A datagram is like a letter in an envelope. Once it has the proper markings, namely the recipient’s address and return address, and a stamp, the entire letter can be delivered by the postal service. A datagram’s markings are called headers, and they contain delivery information, like postal letters: instead of postal addresses, datagrams use something called host addresses. Different networking technologies have different names for datagrams, including cells, frames, and packets. Having a good understanding of IP networks is crucial to your success with Voice over IP. An excellent reference on the subject is

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Medium 9780253353597

Four Japan and Its “Special Undeclared War”

H. P. Willmott Indiana University Press ePub

CHAPTER FOUR

JAPAN AND ITS “SPECIAL UNDECLARED WAR”

THE PERIOD BETWEEN the two world wars saw a series of conflicts, and the importance of naval power in some of these wars is seldom acknowledged. The Allied intervention in the Russian civil wars and involvement in the Greek-Turkish conflict were based on naval power, but, arguably, in the inter-war period in only one conflict did a navy play a major, indeed significant, role and possess more than en passant importance. The Sino-Japanese conflict, which began in July 1937, saw the major involvement of the Imperial Japanese Navy in two areas of operations with immediate and long-term relevance: a series of coastal operations and landings in southern China, most obviously the occupation of Canton in 1938 and Hainan Island in 1939, and involvement in air operations, and specifically in the strategic bombing campaigns staged in 1939 and 1940.1

The inter-war period was one that saw Japanese forces, and specifically the Imperial Japanese Army, the Nippon Teikoku Rikugun, involved in a series of conflicts that began with intervention in the Russian civil wars in which Rikugun forces reached as far west as Novosibirsk.2 The main focus of Japanese military attention, however, was China, with its interminable civil wars, power struggles, and secessionist problems, and specifically was directed to Manchuria, Inner Mongolia, and northern China after September 1931. In the course of a three-month campaign the local Japanese garrison force, the Kwantung Army, overran three of Manchuria’s four provinces and paved the way for a double development.

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