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Medium 9781601323286

Automation of Energy Performance Evaluation of Software Applications on Servers

Hamid R. Arabnia, Leonidas Deligiannidis, George Jandieri, Ashu M. G. Solo, Fernando G. Tinetti CSREA Press PDF

Int'l Conf. Software Eng. Research and Practice | SERP'14 |


Automation of Energy Performance Evaluation of Software

Applications on Servers

Jasmeet Singh, Veluppillai Mahinthan, and Kshirasagar Naik

Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada

Abstract— Although the hardware subsystems, namely, processors, memory, disk, and network interfaces of a server actually consume power, it is the software activities that drive the operations of the hardware subsystems leading to varying dynamic power cost. There are a number of ways to optimize application programs at their design stages but it is difficult for the developers to analyse their applications in terms of power cost on the real servers. In this paper, we present the design of an automated test bench to measure the power cost of an application running on a server.

We show how our test bench can be used by software developers to measure and improve the energy cost of two

Java file access methods. Another benefit of our test bench has been demonstrated by comparing the energy costs of compression and decompression features provided by two popular Linux packages: 7z and rar. Overall, this paper makes a contribution to reduce the perception gap between high level programs and the concept of energy efficiency.

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Medium 9781902375205

(b)  Adjudication - Practical Steps

Martin Wood Chartridge Books Oxford ePub

Chapter 6

What do you need to do to comply with the Act?

1.     Introduction

2.     Is your agreement covered by the Act?

3.     Payment and Notice Systems

(a)     Payment Systems

(b)     Notice Systems

4.     Adjudication Rules and Procedures

(a)     Construction Act Complaint Adjudication Agreements

(b)     Adjudication - Practical Steps

5.     Specific Concerns for Consultants/Clients/Contractors

(a)     Consultant Issues

(b)     Client Issues

(c)     Contractor Issues

6.     How and when notices are served

7.     How time limits are calculated

8.     Key Points Summary

1.   Introduction

To decide what is needed to comply with the Act, the first question is inevitably whether or not any specific agreement is covered by the Act. This can, in certain circumstances, be a complicated issue and there will often be circumstances where some of the parts of the agreement are covered by the Act and some are not. In those circumstances it is usually prudent to ensure the entire agreement is Construction Act compliant.

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Medium 9781845939946

20: The Family Tetranychidae Donnadieu

Vacante, V. CABI PDF

20   The Family Tetranychidae Donnadieu

The opisthosoma bears up to 14 pairs of dorsal setae, which are named according to the standard notation proposed by Grandjean (1939c). Commonly, only the setae of segments

C (c1–3), D (d1–3), E (e1–3), F (f1–2) and H (h1–3) are evident as

The bodies of the Tetranychidae are soft and more or less ovoid dorsal setae. Except for the setae h2–3, the opisthosomal setae or round. The body is from 350 to 1000 μm long, variously col- are generally similar to one another and also to the prodorsals; oured (red, orange, green or yellow), and consists of a gnatho- they can be finely barbulate, pointed, setiform, clavate, spatusoma and idiosoma. The dorsal disjugal and the ventral sejugal late or lanceolate, and all or partially set on tubercles. The sutures divide the idiosoma into an anterior propodosoma and ­integument is commonly similar to that of the prodorsum. The a posterior hysterosoma. The dorsal surface of the body con- opisthosomal ventral region of the female has one pair of sists of the prodorsum, corresponding to the anterodorsal part aggenital setae (ag), the genital opening, two pairs of lateral genital of the propodosoma, and the opisthosoma, i.e. the hysterosoma setae (g1–2), and the anal opening, with 1–3 pairs of pseudanal setae without legs III and IV (Fig. 2.9D).

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Medium 9781902375205

(b)  Notice of Intention to Withhold Payment

Martin Wood Chartridge Books Oxford ePub

Chapter 3

How the Act affects your payment terms

1.     Introduction

2.     Payment Terms - the New Rules

(a)      Stage Payments - entitlement

(b)      How much is to be paid?

(i)          The Scheme for Construction Contracts - Interim payments

(ii)         The Scheme for Construction Contracts - Final payments

(c)     When are payments due?

(d)     The final date for payment

(e)     Restrictions on pay when paid

(3)     Notices and Deductions

(a)     Payment Notices

(b)     Notice of Intention to Withhold Payment

4.       Key Points Summary

1.   Introduction

The new rules introduced by the Act in relation to payment are likely to have more day to day impact on the construction industry than any of the other provisions. Whilst the new adjudication rules are a radical change to previous dispute resolution procedures, those procedures are only likely to be used infrequently. The new payment rules will apply to each contract each month. The new rules have resulted in substantial amendments to most standard form contracts and professional appointments. The new rules can conveniently be broken down into:

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Medium 9789381159422

3.9 Staffing

G. Murugesan Laxmi Publications PDF





3.8.7. Decentralization of Authority

Centralization and decentralization refer to the location of decision-making authority in an organization. Centralization means that the authority for most decisions is concentrated at the top of the managerial hierarchy whereas decentralization requires such authority to be dispersed by extension and delegation through all levels of management. Actually these terms denote different degree of delegation of authority.

Louis A. Allen has defined both terms as “Centralization is the systematic and consistent reservation of authority at central points within an organization. Decentralization applies to the systematic delegation of authority in an organization–wide context.”

Centralization and decentralization are opposite but relative terms because every organization contains both the features. There cannot be absolute centralization and absolute decentralization in practice. In case of having absolute centralization, each and every decision is to be taken by top-level management. But practically it is not possible; some decentralization exists in all organizations. In case of having absolute decentralization, there is no control over the activities of the subordinates, which is also not practicable. Therefore, effective decentralization of authority requires a proper balance between dispersal of authority among lower levels and adequate control over them.

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Medium 9789381159323


Dr. Sangeeta Chaudhary Laxmi Publications PDF



Example 11.24. Convert the following binary numbers to octal numbers.

(a) 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1.0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1

(b) 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0.1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1


(a) 011 001 110 001 . 000 101 111 001

= 3



1 . 0




= (3161.0571)8.

(b) 001 011 011 110 . 110 010 100 100

= 1



6 . 6




= (1336.6246)8.

11.8.3 Octal Arithmetic

Octal arithmetic rules are similar to the decimal or binary arithmetic. Normally, we are not interested in performing octal arithmetic operations using octal representation of numbers. This number system is normally used to enter long strings of binary data into a digital system like a microcomputer. This makes the task of entering binary data in a microcomputer easier. Arithmetic operations can be performed by converting the octal numbers to binary numbers and then using the rules of binary arithmetic.

Example 11.25. Add (23)8 and (67)8.





(+) 67




= 1001010

Example 11.26. Subtract (a) (37)8 from (53)8

(b) (75)8 from (26)8.

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Medium 9781780644325

10 Carbon Sequestration and Animal-Agriculture: Relevance and Strategies to Cope with Climate Change



Carbon Sequestration and

Animal-Agriculture: Relevance and Strategies to Cope with

Climate Change

C. Devendra*

Consulting Tropical Animal Production Systems Specialist,

Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia


Carbon sequestration is an important pathway to stabilize the environment with minimum effects of climate change. Farming systems provide a non-compensated service to society by removing atmospheric carbon generated from fossil fuel combustion, feed production, land restoration, deforestation, biomass burning and drainage of wetlands.

The resultant increase in the global emissions of carbon is calculated at 270 Gt, and increasing at the rate of 4 billion tonnes year–1. Strategies to maximize carbon sequestration through enhanced farming practices, particularly in crop–animal systems, are thus an important priority to reduce global warming. These pathways also respond to agricultural productivity in the multifaceted, less favoured rainfed environments. Sustainable animal-agriculture requires an understanding of crop–animal interactions and integrated natural resource management (NRM), demonstrated in the development of underestimated silvopastoral systems (tree crops and ruminants).

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Medium 9789381159422

3.10. Recruitment

G. Murugesan Laxmi Publications PDF



(v) Customers: Any organization depends upon customers for their survival and growth.

Organization’s services are less qualitative in which customers may develop negative attitude towards the organization.

(B) Internal Factors

(i) Size of the organization: Staffing practices depends upon the size of the organization. A small organization cannot have the same staffing practices, which a large organization may have.

(ii) Organizational image: The image of an organization in human resource market depends on its staffing practices like facilities for training and development, compensation and incentives, and work culture. If all these factors are positive, an organization may be in a better position to attract the candidates and customers.

(iii) Technological factors: In technological changes technical personnel, skilled workers and machine operators are increasingly required while the demand for other employees has reduced. The procurement of skilled employees and their increase in numbers to match the changing job requirements has become a complicated task.

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Medium 9781845939212

16 Productivity Growth and Technology Capital in the Global Agricultural Economy

Fuglie, K.O., Ball, V.E., Wang, S.L. CABI PDF


Productivity Growth and Technology Capital in the

Global Agricultural Economy

Keith O. Fuglie

Economic Research Service, US Department of Agriculture,

Washington, DC



The chapters of this volume have presented some of the latest and most comprehensive assessments of productivity growth for agriculture in various countries and regions of the world. As reviewed in the introduction to this volume, the global story is a mixed one. Industrialized countries have generally sustained relatively strong rates of total factor productivity (TFP) during the past several decades, although Australia and South

Africa show signs of productivity stagnation. In transition countries there has been a fairly robust productivity recovery after more than a decade of economic reforms that forced a sharp contraction on the agricultural sectors of these countries. But just as the reform process has been uneven across these countries, so has the pace of their agricultural recovery. Among developing countries, several, most notably Brazil and China, have achieved remarkable productivity gains over the past several decades. Others, especially those in sub-Saharan

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Medium 9781855206786

Chapter 6: Brakes

Andrew Everett Brooklands Books ePub

The braking system on the E30 is pretty straightforward. 316, 316i, 318i and 320i cars without ABS use a disc front and drum rear set up, whilst all other cars use rear discs. 316, 316i and 318i cars used solid front discs with ventilated front discs for everything else. It is the usual split hydraulic system with the usual problems relating to old age but it is not hard to work on. Some cars will have ABS and that can be problematical in old age with many an owner driven to drink by the flashing orange ABS light on the dashboard.

First things first brake fluid should be changed every year. Brake fluid is hygroscopic which means it absorbs moisture. This can gather inside the fluid reservoir and once there is moisture in the fluid it will not show up until the brakes are used hard and get really hot. The water will boil and evaporate leaving air locks in the hydraulic circuit and not much of a reaction from the brake pedal. Synthetic brake fluids will go a long way to curing this, but so will renewing the fluid every year with conventional mineral based fluids.

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Medium 9783835632141

Safety devices

Klaus Homann, Rainer Reimert, Bernhard Klocke DIV Deutscher Industrieverlag PDF

[Basic requirements]   Safety devices

Safety devices

Purpose and background

The main functions of a → Pressure regulating station (PRS) are the reduction and control of the downstream pressure and to safeguard the downstream pipeline system against a pressure exceeding the design. While the first two tasks are realized by the → Gas pressure regulator

(page 357), the safeguarding of the downstream pipeline system is the responsibility of safety devices. In principle, safeguarding can be done by shutting-off the gas flow or by installing a redundant regulator.

Basic requirements

Various kinds of shut-off and pressure regulating safety devices are in use:

—— → Safety shut-off valves (SSV) are constructed to be open under normal operating conditions and to shut-off the gas flow when the monitored pressure exceeds or falls short of the pre-set values. This function has to be triggered automatically for a monitored over-pressure and/or under-pressure and the gas flow has to be stopped completely. The SSV has to remain closed until it is manually reset to the open position. In a PRS for the public gas supply the usage of a SSV as the main safety device is mandatory, but sometimes it is integrated into the pressure regulator. In any case a SSV needs to have its own individual instrumentation lines connecting the sensor, the controller, and the actuator. If the operating conditions of the PRS, e.g. level of the operating pressure require the application of two safety devices, then SSVs are often used as both the primary and secondary safety devices.

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Medium 9788131809051


R. K. Rajput Laxmi Publications PDF


Basic Concepts

1.1. Introduction to mechanics. 1.2. Basic definitions. 1.3. Rigid body. 1.4. Scalar and vector quantities. 1.5. Fundamental units and derived units. 1.6. Systems of units—Highlights—

Objective Type Questions—Exercises.


In any field the importance of a thorough knowledge of fundamentals cannot be over emphasised. Fundamentals have always been stressed in the learning of new skills. Similarly, the mechanics branch of science which deals with the forces and their effect on bodies on which they act is founded on basic concepts and forms the ground-work for further study in the design and analysis of machines and structures. Mechanics can be divided into two parts. (Fig. 1.1)

(i) ‘Statics’ which relates to the bodies at rest and (ii) ‘dynamics’ which deals with bodies in motion. (In mechanics the term strength of materials refers to the ability of the individual parts of a machine or structure to resist loads. It also permits the determination of dimensions to ensure sufficient strength of the various parts). Dynamics may be further into the following two groups :

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Medium 9788170088530


Dr. B.C. Punmia ; Ashok Kr. Jain, Arun Kr. Jain Laxmi Publications PDF






In the earlier chapters, we have studied some routine instruments which serve normal surveying operations. However, some special instruments are now available to conduct surveys for some special purpose or special operations. In this chapter, we shall study the following special instruments:

1. Site square

2. Automatic level

3. Convertible transit level

4. Special Compasses

5. Brunton universal pocket transit

6. Mountain compass-transit.



As indicated in chapter 4, a site square can be used to set two lines at right angles to each other.

Fig. 21.1 (a) shows the sketch of a site square while Fig. 21.1 (b) shows its photographic view.

Basically, it consists of a cylindrical metal case containing two telescopes the lines of sight of which are mutually set at right angles to each other by the manufacturer. The site square is










1. Telescopes

2. Clamp

3. Tripod

4. Cylindrical Metal Case

5. Fine Setting Screw

6. Knurled Ring

7. Datum Rod

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Medium 9781780647098

30: IPM Case Studies: Cotton

van Emden, H.F. CABI PDF


IPM Case Studies: Cotton1

Pierre J. Silvie,1,2* Thierry Brévault1,3 and Jean-Philippe



Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le

Développement, UPR Agro-écologie et Intensification Durable des ­cultures annuelles, Montpellier, France; 2IRD, Laboratoire Evolution, ­Génomes,

­Comportement et Ecologie, UMR IRD, CNRS, Université Paris Sud,

­Gif-sur-Yvette, France; 3BIOPASS (ISRA-IRD-UCAD), Dakar, Sénégal;


UMR PVBMT, CIRAD/Université de La Réunion, Saint-Pierre, France


Cotton is an industrial crop of prime importance in numerous producer and consumer countries such as Australia, Brazil, China, India, Pakistan and the

USA (ICAC, 2013). The main cultivated species worldwide is Gossypium hirsutum. Crop profitability depends on both yield and fibre quality.

Cotton production includes a wide range of farming systems, from rainfed, low-input agriculture in developing countries to irrigated, high-input agriculture with high levels of mechanization in

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Medium 9781780648507

9 Precise Crop Load Management

Zhang, Q. CABI PDF


Precise Crop Load Management

Caixi Zhang1* and Du Chen2

Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, China; 2China Agricultural

University, Beijing, China


9.1 Introduction

The development of fruit size and quality depends on many factors, such as the leaf–fruit ratio, genetic and climatic factors, position in the canopy, tree age, water and nutrient supply, source–sink relationship and crop load (Dennis, 2003). The management of crop load is one of the most important areas of orchard management that growers face each year, because most fruit species often set more fruit than necessary if growing conditions are optimal (Westwood, 1993). An excess of fruits with respect to vegetative growth may lead to low fruit size and to irregular or alternate bearing in many perennial crops, particularly in apple, pear, plum, olive, and citrus (Monselise and Goldschmidt, 1982). For most tree fruit species, the alternation of large and small crops is caused by competition between the current season’s crop and the coming season’s flower buds.

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