996 Chapters
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Medium 9781786391445

8 Factors Affecting the Fate, Transport, Bioavailability and Toxicity of Nanoparticles in the Agroecosystem

Singh, H.B.; Mishra, S.; Fraceto, L.F. CABI PDF

8

Factors Affecting the Fate,

Transport, Bioavailability and Toxicity of Nanoparticles in the Agroecosystem

Sudheer K. Yadav,1 Jai Singh Patel,1 Gagan Kumar,2

Arpan Mukherjee,1 Anupam Maharshi,2 Birinchi K.

Sarma,2* Surendra Singh1 and Harikesh B. Singh2

Department of Botany, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India;

Department of Mycology & Plant Pathology, Banaras Hindu University,

Varanasi, India

1

2

8.1 Introduction

The basic need for the current scenario is to face the global problem of production, food security and sustainability in constantly changing climatic conditions. The exhaustive use of agrochemicals to increase production has polluted the ground­ water and topsoil. A significant increase in food production is compulsory, but we have to ensure minimal damage to the environment by using new approaches.

One of the new approaches, the use of nanotechnology in the agricultural sector, is very important. The synthesis of nanomaterials through nanotechnology helps slow the release of pesticides and fertilizers, to reduce dosage and waste

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Medium 9781780647326

16 The Appropriation of Space through ‘Communist Swarms’: A Socio-spatial Examination of Urban Apiculture in Washington, DC

WinklerPrins, A.M.G.A. CABI PDF

16 

The Appropriation of Space through

‘Communist Swarms’: A Socio-spatial

Examination of Urban Apiculture in

Washington, DC

Lauren Dryburgh*

American University, Washington, DC, USA

When I started researching . . . urban

­beekeeping, to be honest, I was a bit intimidated.

Urban apiaries remain the domain of the hardcore – the tattooed hipsters in Bushwick or other outer-borough neighborhoods

[in New York City] and their communist swarms.

(Levin, 2010, p. 1)

16.1  Introduction

About a month after Eliza De La Portilla and her family moved into their urban South Florida home, their neighbours came over to thank them. De La Portilla and her family had brought something into the community that was then unusual – h

­ oneybees. The long-time residents in the house next door were overjoyed to find that there were again bees in a space where buzzing had not been heard for quite some time

(De La Portilla, 2013). The family of urban apiculturists was not surprised to hear that their bees were fi

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Medium 9781780647753

2: Comparing Agri-entrepreneurs in Non-conflict Regions versus Conflict and Transitional Economies

Chan, C.; Sipes, B.; Lee, T.S. CABI PDF

2 

Comparing Agri-entrepreneurs in Non-conflict Regions versus Conflict and Transitional Economies

Pauline Sullivan*

Tennessee State University, Nashville, Tennessee

2.1  Introduction

the ethnic minority population is growing and young, with comparatively large families (EuroThis chapter discusses agri-entrepreneurship monitor International, 2015). This group of in non-conflict zones, conflict zones, and tran- consumers are an attractive market for agri-­ sitional economies. The introduction provides entrepreneurs with niche products that are culan overview of global agriculture and entrepre- turally relevant to these customers. Similarly, there neurship, followed by separate sections for non-­ is an increasing number of Muslims around the conflict zones, conflict zones, and transitional world, some of whom observe dietary traditions. economies. Each section describes the region The demand for value-added Halal foods will grow. in general, then examines the agricultural secGlobal warming will affect agri-entrepreneurs tor in each group, and lastly discusses agri-­ in non-conflict zones, conflict zones, and tranentrepreneurship. The final section compares sitional economies (World Bank, 2011). Weasimilarities and dissimilarities among agri-­ ther patterns are increasingly volatile and affect entrepreneurs in the three groups. growing seasons. There is a need for agri-­

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Medium 9781780648156

3: Soil Nutrient Mapping for On-farm Fertility Management

Raju, K.V.; Wani, S.P.; Raju, K.V.; Wani, S.P. CABI PDF

Soil Nutrient Mapping for On-farm

Fertility Management

3

K.L. Sahrawat,† Suhas P. Wani, Girish Chander,*

G. Pardhasaradhi and K. Krishnappa

International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid

Tropics (ICRISAT), Patancheru, India

3.1  Introduction

Feeding the projected population of 9.1 billion globally and 1.6 billion in India by 2050 is one of the greatest challenges of the century, and in this endeavour to ensure future food security, efficient soil nutrient management is crucial (Wani et al., 2003; Sahrawat et al.,

2010; Chander et al., 2013). Since the era of the Green Revolution in

India in the late 1960s, the focus has been on only three macronutrients, namely nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K), and this has brought nutrient imbalances and widespread deficiencies of micro and secondary nutrients such as sulfur (S), boron (B) and zinc

(Zn) in addition to macronutrients (Wani et al., 2009; Sahrawat and

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Medium 9781780644325

10 Carbon Sequestration and Animal-Agriculture: Relevance and Strategies to Cope with Climate Change

Malik, P.K CABI PDF

10

Carbon Sequestration and

Animal-Agriculture: Relevance and Strategies to Cope with

Climate Change

C. Devendra*

Consulting Tropical Animal Production Systems Specialist,

Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Abstract

Carbon sequestration is an important pathway to stabilize the environment with minimum effects of climate change. Farming systems provide a non-compensated service to society by removing atmospheric carbon generated from fossil fuel combustion, feed production, land restoration, deforestation, biomass burning and drainage of wetlands.

The resultant increase in the global emissions of carbon is calculated at 270 Gt, and increasing at the rate of 4 billion tonnes year–1. Strategies to maximize carbon sequestration through enhanced farming practices, particularly in crop–animal systems, are thus an important priority to reduce global warming. These pathways also respond to agricultural productivity in the multifaceted, less favoured rainfed environments. Sustainable animal-agriculture requires an understanding of crop–animal interactions and integrated natural resource management (NRM), demonstrated in the development of underestimated silvopastoral systems (tree crops and ruminants).

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Medium 9781780641836

11 The Functional Role of Soil Seed Banks in Natural Communities

Gallagher, R.S., Editor CAB International PDF

11

The Functional Role of Soil

Seed Banks in Natural Communities

1

Arne Saatkamp,1* Peter Poschlod2 and D. Lawrence Venable3

Institut Méditerranéen de Biodiversité et d’Ecologie (IMBE UMR CNRS 7263),

Université d’Aix-Marseille, Marseille, France; 2LS Biologie VIII,

Universität Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany; 3Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, USA

Introduction

When I was a child, playing in the meadows and woods, I (A.S.) was fascinated by all the seedlings coming out of seemingly lifeless soil where the ponds dried out, a new river bank was exposed or a mole built its hill.

Beggarticks (Bidens tripartita) quickly covered the former pond; the river bank turned blue with forget-me-nots (Myosotis pratensis); and molehills were crowned with stitchwort (Stellaria media). It was a difficult experience when my parents had me weed out our overgrown vegetable garden where lambsquarters (Chenopodium album) from the seed bank grew faster than the radishes we had sown. I learned, however, to distinguish the few Calendula seedlings and to keep some flowers for my mother.

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Medium 9781786391216

10: Cell Cycle and Cell Size Regulation during Maize Seed Development: Current Understanding and Challenging Questions

Larkins, B.A. CABI PDF

10 

Cell Cycle and Cell Size Regulation during Maize Seed Development: Current

Understanding and Challenging Questions

Paolo A. Sabelli*

School of Plant Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, USA

10.1 Introduction

Formation of the maize seed and that of related cereals occurs through coordination of different biological processes, including cell proliferation, cell fate specification, endoreduplication, cell differentiation, accumulation of storage metabolites, and programmed cell death (PCD). Development of the three genetically distinct seed compartments, the sporophyte (i.e. the embryo), the triploid endosperm, and the maternal pericarp, involves extensive crosstalk and tight regulation between and within maternal and filial structures, with genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors playing important roles. The objective of this chapter is to provide a perspective on the roles of cell cycle and cell size regulation during maize seed development, with an emphasis on what is not yet understood about these processes.

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Medium 9781780643755

15: Plant Growth-promoting Rhizobacteria as Biocontrol Agents of Phytonematodes

Askary, T.H., Editor CAB International PDF

15 

Plant Growth-promoting

Rhizobacteria as Biocontrol

Agents of Phytonematodes

Abdul Hamid Wani*

Department of Botany, University of Kashmir,

Jammu and Kashmir, India

15.1  Introduction

Plant-parasitic nematodes (PPN) or phytonematodes are invertebrate obligate parasite of a large number of plants. There are about 197 genera containing 4300 species of phytonematodes. The important genera of PPN include: Meloidogyne, root-knot nematodes; Pratylenchus, lesion nematode; Heterodera and Globodera, cyst nematodes;

Tylenchulus, citrus nematode; Xiphinema, dagger nematode; Radopholus, burrowing nematode;

­Rotylenchulus, reniform nematode; Helicotylenchus, spiral nematode; and Belonolaimus, sting nematode. Root-knot nematodes, Meloidogyne spp. have been found all over the world and are known to cause huge losses to crops of economic importance (Taylor and Sasser, 1978). About

90 species of root-knot nematode have been reported, but four of them, Meloidogyne incognita,

Meloidogyne hapla, Meloidogyne arenaria and

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Medium 9781845938291

11. Fruit flies Anastrepha ludens (Loew), A. obliqua (Macquart) and A. grandis (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae): Three Pestiferous Tropical Fruit Flies That Could Potentially Expand Their Range to Temperate Areas

Pena, J.E., Editor CAB International PDF

11  Fruit Flies Anastrepha ludens (Loew),

A. obliqua (Macquart) and A. grandis

(Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae): Three

Pestiferous Tropical Fruit Flies That

Could Potentially Expand Their Range to Temperate Areas

Andrea Birke,1 Larissa Guillén,1 David Midgarden2 and Martin Aluja1

1

Red de Manejo Biorracional de Plagas y Vectores, Instituto de

Ecología A.C., Xalapa, Veracruz, México; 2USDA APHIS Medfly

Program, Guatemala City, Guatemala

11.1  Introduction

The family Tephritidae (Diptera) comprises over

4000 species of which c. 250 belong to the genus

Anastrepha. Of these, fewer than ten species are considered to be economically important pests.

In  this review, we have concentrated on three

­pestiferous Anastrepha species considered highly polyphagous and identified as potential exotic invaders: Anastrepha ludens (Loew), Anastrepha obli­ qua (Macquart) and Anastrepha grandis (Macquart).

Anastrepha ludens, known as the Mexican fruit fly, is an important pest of citrus that poses a considerable threat to production areas in the southern

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Medium 9781780640884

11 Management of Water and Agroecosystems in Landscapes for Sustainable Food Security

Boelee, E. CABI PDF

11

Management of Water and

Agroecosystems in Landscapes for Sustainable

Food Security

Eline Boelee,1* Sara J. Scherr,2 Petina L. Pert,3 Jennie Barron,4

Max Finlayson,5 Katrien Descheemaeker,6 Jeffrey C. Milder,2 Renate

Fleiner,7 Sophie Nguyen-Khoa,8 Stefano Barchiesi,9

Stuart W. Bunting,10 Rebecca E. Tharme,11 Elizabeth Khaka,12

David Coates,13 Elaine M. Solowey,14 Gareth J. Lloyd,15 David Molden7 and Simon Cook16

1Water

Health, Hollandsche Rading, the Netherlands; 2EcoAgriculture Partners,

Washington, DC, USA; 3Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research

Organisation (CSIRO), Cairns, Queensland, Australia; 4Stockholm Environment

Institute, University of York, UK and Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm

University, Stockholm, Sweden; 5Institute for Land, Water and Society (ILWS), Charles

Sturt University, Albury, New South Wales, Australia; 6Plant Production Systems,

Wageningen University, Wageningen, the Netherlands; 7International Centre for

Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD), Kathmandu, Nepal;

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Medium 9781780642826

5: Indian Economic Growth and Trade Agreements: What Matters for India and for Global Markets?

Brouwer, F.; Joshi, P.K. CABI PDF

5 

Indian Economic Growth and Trade

Agreements: What Matters for India and for Global Markets?

Geert Woltjer* and Martine Rutten

Public Issues Division, LEI Wageningen UR, The Hague, The Netherlands

Introduction

India is one of the fastest growing economies in the world. Despite global downturn, India has recorded an average growth rate of 7.6% per year over the past decade

(IMF, 2012), with growth expected to rise again to 6.3% in 2014. This growth rate is well above the 2.1% growth estimated for the advanced economies (including the

USA, the Euro area and Japan) and the 3.8% growth for the world average (IMF, 2013).

Given that India has a relatively large population of over 1.2 billion, which is estimated to grow to around 1.6 billion by 2050 (UN,

2012), it is very likely that the development path followed by India influences the world economy. India’s trade with the world is estimated at €815 billion in 2012, which represents a fairly small share of less than 2% in world trade (WTO, 2012; European Commission, 2013). Although India is currently little integrated with the world economy, merchandise trade is growing fast at a rate of 17% per year since 2005, which is more than twice the global growth rate (WTO,

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Medium 9781786391445

5 Multifarious Applications of Nanotechnology for Enhanced Productivity in Agriculture

Singh, H.B.; Mishra, S.; Fraceto, L.F. CABI PDF

5

Multifarious Applications of

Nanotechnology for Enhanced

Productivity in Agriculture

K.S. Subramanian,* K. Raja and S. Marimuthu

Department of Nano Science & Technology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural

University, Coimbatore, India

5.1 Introduction

Global agriculture underwent a series of metamorphoses that has led to the

­paradigm shift from traditional farming to precision agriculture. Such a shift is phenomenal in tropical agricultural production systems, particularly in India, where farming has faced a wide array of challenges. In the past decade, agriculture is being threatened by a burgeoning population, shrinking farmland, restricted water availability, imbalanced crop nutrition, multinutrient deficiencies in crops, yield stagnation and decline in organic matter. In order to overcome challenges ahead, people think of an alternate technology such as ‘nanotechnology’ to precisely detect and deliver the correct quantity of agri-inputs required by crops that promote productivity with environmental safety. Nanotechnology is highly exploited in energy, environment, electronics, medicine and health sciences while its application in agricultural sciences is yet to scratch the surface.

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Medium 9781780645087

4. Storing up trouble: Plants with storage organs: Cassava, Yams, Potatoes, Taro, Akees, Onions

Warren, J. CABI PDF

4

Storing up trouble

Why do so few crops provide us with most of our calories? It is remarkable that we eat very few species of the plants that are available.

However, it is even more astonishing that we gain most of the energy we need to survive from a tiny sub-set of these species. This chapter explores this conundrum and finds that energy rich plants tend to contain toxins, and perhaps surprisingly, therefore, some of our most important crops have a propensity towards being poisonous.

In our modern world it is easy to be blissfully unaware of the most important challenge that species face. Although the solution to this problem may now seem trivial, for most of our history we have shared this challenge with plants and animals alike. In solving this dilemma for themselves, plants have frequently also provided us with a solution, while simultaneously creating a whole new set of difficulties for us to deal with.

The conundrum is ensuring that you have enough food to survive through lean seasons. The evolutionary struggle to eat and avoid being eaten has been highly influential in determining which plants we have domesticated, with different groups of crops providing us with sustenance and others helping protect this food from other hungry species competing to consume the same stores.

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Medium 9781780647784

18 Mycobacterium spp.

Woo, P.T.K.; Cipriano, R.C. CABI PDF

18

Mycobacterium spp.

David T. Gauthier1* and Martha W. Rhodes2

1

Department of Biological Sciences, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia,

USA; 2Department of Aquatic Health Sciences, Virginia Institute of Marine

­Science, The College of William and Mary, Gloucester Point, Virginia, USA

18.1  Introduction

18.1.1  Mycobacterium spp.

Members of the genus Mycobacterium (Order

Actinomycetales, Family Mycobacteriaceae) are aerobic to microaerophilic, non-motile, rod-shaped bacteria that stain Gram positive and acid fast.

Excepting non-culturable species (e.g. M. leprae), mycobacteria are frequently grouped by the phenotypic characters of growth rate and pigmentation

(Runyon, 1959). Runyon Groups I–III are fastidious and take more than 5 days to produce colonies on solid media. Group I mycobacteria are photochromogenic, producing yellow–orange pigment (Fig. 18.1) on exposure to light, and include species such as

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Medium 9781780647098

27: IPM Case Studies: Brassicas

van Emden, H.F.; Harrington, R. CABI PDF

27

IPM Case Studies: Brassicas

Rosemary H. Collier* and Stan Finch

Warwick Crop Centre, School of Life Sciences, The University of Warwick,

Wellesbourne, UK

Introduction

All members of the family Brassicaceae (formerly

Cruciferae), which includes the genus Brassica, contain specific secondary plant compounds known as glucosinolates. Although plants containing these chemicals are toxic to most aphids, some species have overcome the toxins and feed exclusively on such plants (Finch, 1980). The aphid species that have adapted in this way can colonize many species in the

220 genera of Brassicaceae found throughout the world. Hence, many wild plants and garden flowers in this Family are sources of pest aphids of Brassica crops.

Until about 25 years ago, cultivars of Brassica oleracea (e.g. cabbage, cauliflower, Brussels sprout) and

Brassica napus var. napobrassica (swede) were the commonest crucifers grown on a field scale in the UK.

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