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16 Integrated Insect Pest Management in Tropical Forestry

Rapisarda, C. CABI PDF


Integrated Insect Pest Management in

Tropical Forestry

Nitin Kulkarni*

Tropical Forest Research Institute, Jabalpur, India

16.1  Tropical Forests

16.2  Major Tree Species

The forest areas between the Tropics of Cancer (23.5°N latitude) and Capricorn (23.5°S latitude), occupying 10% of the total land mass of the world above sea level, is known as Tropical Forest. It is characterized by

­distinct seasonality, 12 h day-length, average temperature range being 20–25°C, multi­ layered canopy for little light penetration, highly diverse flora and resulting rich fauna

(Sambaraju et al., 2016). Owing to the great diversity existing in the tropics, it is an enormous task to discuss forest insect pests and their management in the whole tropical forest, but efforts to cover some important available examples are made in this chapter.

There is about 1700 million ha of geographical area of tropical forest (FAO, 1993), under the political barriers of more than 90 countries of North America, central America,

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Medium 9781902375212

Case study

Tony Baxendale Chartridge Books Oxford ePub
Medium 9781601323286

The Position of Component Certification in CBSE Activities

Hamid R. Arabnia, Leonidas Deligiannidis, George Jandieri, Ashu M. G. Solo, Fernando G. Tinetti CSREA Press PDF


Int'l Conf. Software Eng. Research and Practice | SERP'14 |

The Position of Component Certification in CBSE Activities

Lina khalid Ahmed

Department of Software Engineering, Zarqa University, Amman, Jordan

Abstract - CBSE (Component Based Software

Engineering) is the most important approach to software development because it is based on reuse technology. The successful reuse of component requires a development process tailored to CBSE, so it includes activities that find and compose reusable components. Reuse components can be the reason for building high quality products because they are chosen according to some issues that lead to the concept of component certification. This certification has its position in CBSE main activities. This paper defines the component certification and describes the positioning of it in CBSE activities and how this certification affects the success of this approach.

Keywords: Component, CBSE, CBSE approach

Component certification.



Development with reuse has become a strategy for new systems. It has been used in response to the demand for lowering software cost, increasing time to market and producing a high quality product.

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Medium 9780596008680

SIP Methods and Responses

Theodore Wallingford O'Reilly Media PDF

Appendix A


SIP Methods and Responses

Table A-1 shows SIP methods.

Table A-1. Methods


A SIP device is being invited to participate in a call.


Confirms that the client has received a final response to an INVITE request.


Terminates a SIP call. Can be sent by any party involved.


Cancels any pending call but does not terminate a call that has already been connected.


Queries the capabilities of servers without requesting to establish a call.


Registers an IP with a SIP registrar.


Insures reliability of provisional 1xx responses if a UAS offers them.


Updates a previously made offer for a not-yet-established session.


Initiates a call transfer by telling the recipient (specified by URI) to contact a third party using the contact information provided in the request.


Subscribes to be notified of an event occurrence; for example a user presence update.


Used to notify that an event has occurred.


A method signifying the payload is an instant message.

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Medium 9781780648002

1 Introduction

Rapisarda, C. CABI PDF



Carmelo Rapisarda* and Giuseppe E. Massimino Cocuzza

Dipartimento di Agricoltura, Alimentazione e Ambiente,

Università degli Studi, Catania, Italy

1.1  Tropics and Subtropics

The Tropics, geographically limited in latitude by the Tropic of Cancer (to the north) and the Tropic of Capricorn (to the south), are characterized by limited seasonal differences, with a mean warm to high temperature and a high humidity level almost all year round, at most with difference between a dry and a rainy season (McGregor and

Nieuwolt, 1998). Plant diversity and biology are influenced by these peculiar ­climatic conditions and herbivores may develop almost continuously throughout the year in these regions, showing homodynamic cycles and high biodiversity, whatever their trophic habits.

Slightly similar features are shown by the Subtropics, which extend from the

Tropics to the temperate regions (to about

40° latitude) and are characterized by warm to hot summers and cool to mild winters, thus with a well-defined seasonality but with almost rare frost (Rohli and Vega,

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Medium 9781902375335

3    Flow down of risks to subcontracts

David Hickman M-Y Books ePub


Flow-down of risks to subcontracts

The authority and the banks will have a big say regarding the arrangements under which obligations are subcontracted by Project Co. to its subcontractors. They have a similar concern: to ensure that Project Co. (normally a special-purpose vehicle which is essentially ‘a man of straw’) is offloading obligations to parties which are competent to perform them and which it can control. Project Co. should not be left covering risks which it is not capable of managing. Exceptionally there are some risks which might be left with Project Co., including certain types of loss of income for which it might obtain business interruption insurance cover (see Chapter 9).

How risk is flowed down

The process of flow-down at this level has to take account of the following factors:

–    Should the contractor bear the risk (or a share of the risk) of servicing the debt repayments should a force majeure event occur during the construction phase? Project Co. has no source of income during this period but will still be required to service the interest running up on its debt. A reserve can be set up to offset this.

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Medium 9780874214321

18 : The Standard is Set

Raye Ringholz Utah State University Press ePub

It was at a hearing of the Joint Senate-House Committee on Atomic Energy that he first heard about it. J.V. Reistrup, a reporter new to the beat of science, space and energy for the Washington Post, was intrigued when someone asked,”What about these uranium miners that are dying of lung cancer?”

Reistrup started to dig for more information, asking questions and delving into files. Finally he tracked down a copy of the 1967 revised edition of the Federal Radiation Council’s action paper, “Radiation Protection Policy: Guidance for the Control of Radiation Hazards in Uranium Mining.” He knew he had a story.1

The report, which had triggered the current subcommittee hearings, was incredible. The booklet explained the natural radioactive decay of uranium into a series of radon daughters. It told how Duncan Holaday and the Public Health Service, in cooperation with the AEC and state agencies, had been studying the problem for seventeen years. The report pointed out that, despite Holaday’s conclusions “that underground uranium miners are subject to lung cancer to a degree substantially greater than the general population,” and the fact that stepped-up ventilation systems would virtually eliminate the risk of radiation to the miners, no regulatory agency was doing anything about health and safety in the mines. The Public Health Service didn’t have the money or the power to enforce regulations. The Atomic Energy Commission had sidestepped jurisdiction over uranium “in its place in nature.” The states had exercised little authority over the industry until recently. Still the U.S. Public Health Service estimated that over half of the three thousand miners in their study had been overexposed to radiation.

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Medium 9789380386324


Dr. A.J. Nair Laxmi Publications PDF




iomolecules are those compounds synthesized by living organisms. These groups of compounds have different sizes, shapes, chemical and physical properties, and biological functions. These biomolecules include different classes of compounds, which are broadly divided into two categories, depending on size and nature. Those molecules, which are polymers and bigger in size, are known as macromolecules and other molecules, which are simple and small in size, are biomolecules. There are four types of macromolecules in biological systems; namely, carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. Out of these four types three are polymers composed of monomers, or building blocks. Lipids are not polymers.

This part is divided into three chapters. In the first chapter we study the small molecules including the building blocks of macromolecules. This includes monosaccharides or sugars, amino acids, nucleotides, vitamins, coenzymes, and fatty acids. Some of these molecules form the building blocks of macromolecules. For example, amino acids are the building blocks of proteins. In biological systems, all these molecules, both macro and micro, are in a state of flux or in a dynamic state. That is, they are always subjected to chemical transformations in order to maintain the state of life.

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Medium 9781780644325

10 Carbon Sequestration and Animal-Agriculture: Relevance and Strategies to Cope with Climate Change



Carbon Sequestration and

Animal-Agriculture: Relevance and Strategies to Cope with

Climate Change

C. Devendra*

Consulting Tropical Animal Production Systems Specialist,

Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia


Carbon sequestration is an important pathway to stabilize the environment with minimum effects of climate change. Farming systems provide a non-compensated service to society by removing atmospheric carbon generated from fossil fuel combustion, feed production, land restoration, deforestation, biomass burning and drainage of wetlands.

The resultant increase in the global emissions of carbon is calculated at 270 Gt, and increasing at the rate of 4 billion tonnes year–1. Strategies to maximize carbon sequestration through enhanced farming practices, particularly in crop–animal systems, are thus an important priority to reduce global warming. These pathways also respond to agricultural productivity in the multifaceted, less favoured rainfed environments. Sustainable animal-agriculture requires an understanding of crop–animal interactions and integrated natural resource management (NRM), demonstrated in the development of underestimated silvopastoral systems (tree crops and ruminants).

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Medium 9781902375212

Integration of time and cost

Tony Baxendale Chartridge Books Oxford ePub


Operational Monitoring and Control

Project Progress Control

A project is dynamic and must respond to changing conditions if it is to be completed successfully. There is a continual need for reassessment and reappraisal of the project plan. Factors affecting an existing plan will include:

     Changes in the technical specification.

     Changes in the required dates.

     Changes in relative priorities.

     Revision of activity duration estimates.

     Reassessment of resource requirements for individual activities.

     Changes in resource availabilities.

     Inaccuracies in planned sequences.

     Technical difficulties.

     Failure of deliveries.

     Unexpected weather conditions.

It is therefore necessary to have a monitoring system which generates feedback that enables corrective action to be taken. There are usually some deviations that do not allow the project to proceed in accordance with the plan. It is therefore necessary to review operations periodically and to update or replan when a change is revealed. Close or detailed control of resources is not always considered. Close control is where resources are fully considered during the initial stages of the project and the timing of every activity is fixed, so as to obtain optimum use of resources. Flexible or overall control is often exercised during the initial scheduling of the project. Flexible control only considers resources to avoid peaks in key resources or those resources that are in limited supply. The frequency of review will depend on the overall duration of the project and the timescale on which the activities are measured. In general a weekly programme should be reviewed weekly and a daily programme daily.

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Medium 9788131807446


Dr. Priyanka Siwach ; Dr. Namita Singh Laxmi Publications PDF





• Introduction

• Different Methods


The term in vitro mutagenesis means a process of introducing mutations in DNA by artificial means. Mutations so induced can be expressive (i.e., phenotypic change is there) or silent (i.e., phenotype remains unaltered) depending upon which sequence has been mutated. Mutagenesis, particularly site directed mutagenesis, is very informative in genomics (studying DNA structure and function) as well as in proteomics (for producing desirable changes in proteins).


1. By the use of chemicals (known as chemical mutagenesis)

A variety of techniques are available for introducing mutations in vitro like:

A large number of chemicals are available which are capable of introducing mutations in single as well as double stranded DNA. Some of these are listed below:

(i) Hydroxylamine (converts G-C basepairs to A-T basepairs and vice versa).

(ii) Acridines (causes addition as well deletion of one to at least twenty bases).

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Dr. B.C. Punmia ; Ashok Kr. Jain, Arun Kr. Jain Laxmi Publications PDF







A hand level is a simple, compact instrument used for reconnaissance and preliminary survey, for locating contours on the ground and for taking short cross-sections. It consists of a rectangular or circular tube, 10 to 15 cm long, provided with a small bubble tube at the top. A line of sight, parallel to the axis of the bubble tube, is defined by a line joining a pin-hole at the eye end and a horizontal wire at the object end. In order to view the bubble tube at the instant the object is sighted, a small opening,

1 immediately below the bubble, is provided in the tube. The bubble is reflected through this opening

4 on to a mirror, which is inside the


2 tube inclined at 45° to the axis,

3 and immediately under the bubble

2 tube. The mirror occupies half the width of the tube and the objects

Fig. 14.1  Hand Level. are sighted through the other half.

The line of sight is horizontal when

1. Bubble tube

2. Reflecting mirror the centre of the bubble appears


Eye slit or hole

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Medium 9781780640921


Biddle, A.J. CABI PDF




There is a significant number of similarities in the genetic, physiological and adaptational characteristics of leguminous food crop species that allows them to be considered together as well as genus by genus. The most significant historical work on peas (Pisum sativum) was carried out by Mendel (1866).

Although his work was overlooked by most applied botanists until its rediscovery at about the same time by Correns (1900), de Vries and Tshermack in

Germany and William Bateson in Cambridge (Bateson, 1901; Druery and

Bateson, 1901), it remains fundamental to genetic understanding of all studied plant species and animals. Peas are a largely self-pollinated and hence inbreeding species, as is the common bean species Phaseolus vulgaris (but notably not Phaseolus multiflorus syn. P. coccineus). Wild landraces (now regarded as locally adapted ecotypes) of such largely inbreeding species comprise mixtures mainly of homozygous plants and of heterozygotes from crosses that have occurred naturally as a result of insect pollination, which is facilitated by the form of the flowers and availability of nectar. Dry beans were studied by W.L.

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8 Increasing Water Productivity in Agriculture

Boelee, E. CABI PDF


Increasing Water Productivity in Agriculture

Katrien Descheemaeker,1* Stuart W. Bunting,2 Prem Bindraban,3

Catherine Muthuri,4 David Molden,5 Malcolm Beveridge,6

Martin van Brakel,7 Mario Herrero,8 Floriane Clement,9 Eline Boelee,10

Devra I. Jarvis11


Production Systems, Wageningen University, Wageningen, the Netherlands;

Sustainability Institute, University of Essex, Colchester, UK; 3World Soil

Information (ISRIC) and Plant Research International, Wageningen, the Netherlands;

4World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF), Nairobi, Kenya; 5International Centre for

Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD), Kathmandu, Nepal; 6WorldFish, Lusaka,

Zambia; 7CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems, 2075, Colombo,

Sri Lanka; 8Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO),

St Lucia, Queensland, Australia; 9International Water Management Institute (IWMI),

Kathmandu, Nepal; 10Water Health, Hollandsche Rading, the Netherlands;

11Bioversity International, Rome, Italy



Increasing water productivity is an important element in improved water management for sustainable agriculture, food security and healthy ecosystem functioning. Water productivity is defined as the amount of agricultural output per unit of water depleted, and can be assessed for crops, trees, livestock and fish. This chapter reviews challenges in and opportunities for improving water productivity in socially equitable and sustainable ways by thinking beyond technologies, and fostering enabling institutions and policies. Both in irrigated and rainfed cropping systems, water productivity can be improved by choosing well-adapted crop types, reducing unproductive water losses and maintaining healthy, vigorously growing crops through optimized water, nutrient and agronomic management. Livestock water productivity can be increased through improved feed management and animal husbandry, reduced animal mortality, appropriate livestock watering and sustainable grazing management. In agroforestry systems, the key to success is choosing the right combination of trees and crops to exploit spatial and temporal complementarities in resource use. In aquaculture systems, most water is depleted indirectly for feed production, via seepage and evaporation from water bodies, and through polluted water discharge, and efforts to improve water productivity should be directed at minimizing those losses. Identifying the most promising options is complex and has to take into account environmental, financial, social and health-related considerations. In general, improving agricultural water productivity, thus freeing up water for ecosystem functions, can be achieved by creating synergies across scales and between various agricultural sectors and the environment, and by enabling multiple uses of water and equitable access to water resources for different groups in society.

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Medium 9789351382492


Saradindu Panda Laxmi Publications PDF





There are numerous circuit styles to implement a given logic function. As with the inverter, the common design metrics by which a gate is evaluated are area, speed, energy and power.

Depending on the application, the emphasis will be on different metrics, by which a gate is evaluated. For example, the switching speed of digital circuits is the primary metric in a high performance processor, while in a battery operated circuit, it is energy dissipation.

Recently, power dissipation also has become an important concern and considerable emphasis is placed on understanding the sources of power and approaches to dealing with power. In addition to there metrics, roburtness to noise and reliability are also very important considerations.

The complementary CMOS circuit style falls under a broad class of logic circuits called static circuits in which at every point in time, each gate output is connected to either VDD or VSS via a low resistance path.

There are different static design procedure exist in VLSI circuit design technology:

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