996 Chapters
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Medium 9781780644325

18 Residual Feed Intake and Breeding Approaches for Enteric Methane Mitigation



Residual Feed Intake and

Breeding Approaches for Enteric

Methane Mitigation

D.P. Berry,1* J. Lassen2 and Y. de Haas3


and Grassland Research and Innovation Centre,

Teagasc, Fermoy, Co. Cork, Ireland; 2Aarhus University, Tjele,

Denmark; 3Wageningen UR Livestock Research, Lelystad, the



The expanding world human population will require greater food production within the constraints of increasing societal pressure to minimize the resulting impact on the environment. Breeding goals in the past have achieved substantial gains in environmental load per unit product produced, despite no explicit inclusion of environmental load (and in most instances, even feed efficiency) in these goals. Heritability of feed intake-related traits in cattle is moderate to high, implying that relatively high accuracy of selection can be achieved with relatively low information content per animal; however, the genetic variation in feed intake independent of animal performance is expectedly less than other performance traits. Nonetheless, exploitable genetic variation does exist and, if properly utilized, could augment further gains in feed efficiency. Genetic parameters for enteric methane (CH4) emissions in cattle are rare. No estimate of the genetic variation in enteric CH4 emissions independent of animal performance exists; it is the parameters for this trait that depict the scope for genetic improvement. The approach to the inclusion of feed intake or

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Medium 9781780645322

16 Measuring and Monitoring Soil Carbon

Banwart, S.A., Noellemeyer, E., Milne, E. CABI PDF


Measuring and Monitoring

Soil Carbon

Niels H. Batjes* and Bas van Wesemael


Soils are the largest terrestrial reservoir of organic carbon, yet great uncertainty remains in estimates of soil organic carbon (SOC) at global, continental, regional and local scales. Compared with biomass carbon, changes in SOC associated with changes in land use and management, or climate change, must be monitored over longer periods. The changes are small relative to the very large stocks present in the soil, as is their inherent variability. This requires sensitive measurement techniques and due consideration for the minimum detectable difference (MDD). Relationships between environmental and management factors and SOC dynamics can be established using experimental field trials, chronosequence studies and monitoring networks. Soil monitoring networks (SMNs), for example, can provide information on direct changes of SOC stocks through repeated measurements at a given site, as well as data to parameterize and test biophysical models at plot scale. Further, they can provide a set of point observations that represent the (mapped) variation in climate/soil/land use and management at national scale, allowing for upscaling. SMNs must be designed to detect changes in soil properties over relevant spatial and temporal scales, with adequate precision and statistical power. Most SMNs, however, are in the planning or early stages of implementation; few networks are located in developing countries, where most deforestation and land-use change is occurring. Within these monitoring networks, sites may be organized according to different sampling schemes, for example regular grid, stratified approach or randomized; different statistical methods should be associated with each of these sampling designs. Overall, there is a need for globally consistent protocols and tools to measure, monitor and model SOC and greenhouse gas emission changes to allow funding agencies and other organizations to assess uniformly the possible effects of the impacts of land-use interventions, and the associated uncertainties, across the range of world climate, soils and land uses.

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Medium 9781780648590

2 Quantification of UV Radiation

Jordan, B.R. CABI PDF


Quantification of UV Radiation

Pedro J. Aphalo*

Department of Biosciences, University of Helsinki, Finland


The accuracy needed in the quantification of exposure for research on the effects of

UV-B radiation is similar to that required for visible radiation, but it requires much more effort to achieve (Aphalo, 2016). When measuring the UV-B component of solar radiation at ground level, the main difficulty is that this component is only a very small fraction of the global irradiance. Based on a standardized 1.5-air-mass global radiation spectrum for middle latitudes (ASTM G173),

0.015% of photons are in the UV-B region.

Even if we use photosynthetically active radiation PAR (400–700 nm) instead of global radiation (280–4000 nm) as a reference, less than 0.1% of photons are in the UV-B region

(computed with the R for photobiology suite of packages, see Aphalo et al., 2016). If we consider the spread across the whole day or wintertime, the contribution of UV-B is even smaller. On the other hand, UV-B radiation is very effective in eliciting responses in organisms. Taking both things together, an error in the quantification of UV-B irradiance that is extremely small compared to global or PAR photon irradiance can be biologically highly relevant. Even under a clear

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Medium 9781845939212

3 Measurement of Canadian Agricultural Productivity Growth

Fuglie, K.O., Ball, V.E., Wang, S.L. CABI PDF


Measurement of Canadian

Agricultural Productivity Growth*

Sean A. Cahill and Tabitha Rich

Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Ottawa



In any area of economic research, long time series are valuable because they give a much more complete picture of a trend than shorter series. A difference between the growth rate of one short time series and that of another might indicate a fundamental change or it might simply be due to random deviations from trend. Statistical tests and econometrics can help in determining the significance of the difference, but analysis with a longer time series around these points will always provide more convincing evidence. For productivity growth, where differences in average rates of growth between periods are closely scrutinized and labelled as gaps, slowdowns and so on, there is clear value in a time series that will span these periods and help determine whether or not fundamental changes have taken place.

Over the past 50 years, there have been three studies that together now offer more than 80 years of data on productivity growth

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Medium 9781786395177

8 Reorienting Agricultural Research for Development for Sustainable Agriculture

Paroda, R.S. CABI PDF


Reorienting Agricultural Research for

Development for Sustainable Agriculture

The sharp increases in food prices that have

­occurred in global and national markets in recent years, and the resulting increase in the number of hungry and malnourished people, has sharpened the awareness of policy makers and of the general public to the fragility of the food system.

This awareness must be translated into political will and effective action to render the system

­better-prepared to respond to long-term demand for growth, to be more resilient against various risks that confront agriculture, and to ensure that the ever-growing population will be able to produce and/or have access to adequate food today and in the future. There is a need to address new challenges that transcend the traditional decision-making remit of producers, consumers and policy makers.

Agriculture has remained an integral part of the socioeconomic fabric of rural India since time immemorial,  and occupies centre-stage in the Indian economy as it sustains the livelihood of over 70% of rural households and provides employment for around 50% of the population.

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Medium 9781780648651

10: Field Maple and Hazel, the other Coppice Species

Peterken, G.; Mountford, E. CABI PDF


Field Maple and Hazel, the other

Coppice Species

In regularly cut coppices, field maple and hazel grow every bit as vigorously as the other trees – indeed, hazel and field maple are major contributors to the underwood – but as soon as coppices are neglected, their slower height growth and their ultimately smaller stature oblige them to grow in shade and become subordinate in high forest and most forms of natural woodland. Together with ash as coppice and pedunculate oak as standards, they form the characteristic lowland coppice type on neutral-alkaline clays and loams, and jointly dominate a few coppices in Essex and Dorset, but both become less frequent on light, acid soils, especially maple. In Lady Park, maple is never more than frequent, even on the most alkaline soils, whereas hazel is abundant and still dominates parts of the young-growth stands. Both could be characterised as either large shrubs or small trees.


Field Maple

Field maples were common components of the underwood in the ancient coppices of the lowlands, south-east lowlands and borderlands of England and Wales, especially on alkaline soils. They can grow into trees, but have rarely been allowed to do so, and they never attain the size of oaks and other canopy dominants. Widespread also in mixed hedges, where they have sometimes been pollarded, they can grow into sizeable boundary trees. They compete in the scrub that colonises open ground, but not vigorously. Their lives became more difficult in the 20th century with the spread of grey squirrels, which debark them almost as enthusiastically as they debark sycamore.

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Medium 9781780644837

9: Pathogenesis of Alternaria Species: Physiological, Biochemical and Molecular Characterization



Pathogenesis of Alternaria Species:

Physiological, Biochemical and Molecular


P.D. Meena,1* Gohar Taj2 and C. Chattopadhyay3

ICAR-Directorate of Rapeseed-Mustard Research, Bharatpur; 2Molecular Biology &

Genetic Engineering, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar;


ICAR-National Centre on Integrated Pest Management,

Pusa Campus, New Delhi, India



Alternaria blight or black leaf, and silique spot is an exceptionally serious disease of oilseed brassica crops worldwide. It is mainly induced by Alternaria brassicae (Berk) Sacc., A. brassicicola (Schwein) Wiltshire, and is a n

­ ecrotrophic pathogen that can infect every plant part in  every plant growth stage. The symptoms emerge on all aerial parts of the plant, generally resulting in serious damages to yield and quality of the seed. The disease starts as minute dark-brown to light black pustules on the older leaves that spread rapidly on to the above foliar parts of the plant by producing typical centred bands and a yellow circle of discoloration in and surrounding the lesions.

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Medium 9781780644370

14 Countering Pest Resistance with Genetically Modified Bt Toxins

Soberon, M.; Gao, Y.; Bravo, A. CABI PDF


Countering Pest Resistance with

Genetically Modified Bt Toxins

Mario Soberón,1* Blanca Ines García-Gómez,1

Sabino Pacheco,1 Jorge Sánchez,1 Bruce E.

Tabashnik2 and Alejandra Bravo1


de Biotecnología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de

México, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico; 2Department of

Entomology, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, USA


Insecticidal crystalline (Cry) toxins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) used in sprays and transgenic crop plants have provided major benefits for pest control, including decreased reliance on broadspectrum chemical insecticides. However, extensive use of Bt toxins has selected for resistance, thus reducing or eliminating these benefits against some populations of at least seven species of major crop pests.

This chapter reviews efforts to counter pest resistance to native Bt toxins with genetically engineered toxins called Cry1AbMod and

Cry1AcMod. We generated these modified toxins by trimming the genes encoding the native toxins Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac so they lack the nucleotides that code for a portion of the amino-terminal end of the protein, including helix -1 and part of helix -2.

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Medium 9781780643755

2: Significance of Biocontrol Agents of Phytonematodes

Askary, T.H., Editor CAB International PDF


Significance of Biocontrol Agents of Phytonematodes

Christian Joseph R. Cumagun1* and Mohammad Reza Moosavi2


Crop Protection Cluster, College of Agriculture, University of the

Philippines Los Banos, Philippines; 2Department of Plant Pathology,

Marvdasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht, Iran

2.1  Introduction

Plant parasitic nematodes (PPNs) pose a major constraint on world agriculture resulting in significant yield losses especially in the developing countries where suitable and effective control measures are unavailable (Webster, 1987;

Nicol et al., 2011). It is estimated that PPNs impose 8.8% and 14.6% annual losses to developed and developing countries, respectively

(Nicol et al., 2011), which are more or less equal to US$157 billion (Abad et al., 2008; Escudero and Lopez-Llorca, 2012), however the exact loss estimation of PPNs is too difficult (Schomaker and Been, 2006). Their microscopic size, underground existence and non-specific symptoms make their presence often undetec­ted; therefore, the diagnosis of nematode problems are frequently confused with nutritional deficiencies or other soil factors (Perry and Moens, 2011).

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Medium 9781780647326

20 Global Urban Agriculture into the Future: Urban Cultivation as Accepted Practice

WinklerPrins, A.M.G.A. CABI PDF


Global Urban Agriculture into the

Future: Urban Cultivation as Accepted


Antoinette M.G.A. WinklerPrins*

Johns Hopkins University, Washington, District of Columbia, USA

20.1  Introduction

In May of 2016, the journal Science produced a special section entitled ‘Urban Planet’, acknowledging the rise of this way of life around the world as the dominant one on the globe

(Science, 2016).1 The timing could not have been more prescient as I was finalizing this edited volume focusing on urban agriculture.

The objective of this volume has been to bring together the often quite disparate literatures on urban agriculture in the Global South and the

Global North. What it has illustrated are the many similar ways in which UA is expressed in theory and practice in both the Global North and the Global South, and that cultivation in the city is increasingly seen as a normal activity of urban life. In Chapter 1 of this volume, I invoked Bassett’s suggestion that cultivating the city makes urban life a ‘palatable experience’ (1981) for all, improving the quality of life through its greening of the city, ­provisioning of ecosystem services, providing meaningful work and activities for residents, and fostering community building. Here, in the concluding chapter, I wish to highlight the numerous takeaways implicitly or explicitly discussed by the authors in this volume by distilling them into three main points, while also offering some future directions. But first a note about terminology.

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Medium 9781845938291

17. The Citrus Orthezia Praelongorthezia praelonga (Douglas) (Hemiptera: Ortheziidae), a Potential Invasive Species

Pena, J.E., Editor CAB International PDF


The citrus orthezia,

Praelongorthezia praelonga (Douglas)

(Hemiptera: Ortheziidae), a potential invasive species

Takumasa Kondo,1 Ana Lucia Peronti,2 Ferenc Kozár3 and Éva Szita3

Corporación Colombiana de Investigación Agropecuaria, Corpoica, Colombia;


Departamento de Ecologia e Biologia Evolutiva, Universidade Federal de São

Carlos (UFSCar), São Carlos/SP, Brazil; 3Plant Protection Institute, Hungarian

Academy of Sciences, Budapest, Hungary


The citrus orthezia, Praelongorthezia praelonga

(Douglas) (Hemiptera: Ortheziidae), is a highly polyphagous scale insect that causes plant damage both directly by its feeding and indirectly due to its associated sooty molds. This Neotropical species currently is largely confined to Central and

South America and the Caribbean Region, but has the potential to be invasive if accidentally introduced into other climatically suitable parts of the world. The citrus orthezia was recently introduced into the Afro-tropical region where it has become a pest. This chapter provides a brief summary of the vast literature on the citrus orthezia, which is often difficult to access, including its taxonomy, biology, host records, economic importance, world distribution, integrated pest management (including chemical, mechanical, cultural, physical and biological control strategies) and quarantine methods. The scale insect can have multiple generations per year and has a lengthy life cycle lasting between 40 and 200 days.

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Medium 9781780646862

Summary of Key Points

Finley, S. CABI PDF

Summary of Key Points

 Dry spells during the growing season, and not total rainfall deficits or droughts, are the principal cause of water deficit on most rainfed farms.

 The impact of dry spells on crop yields can be mitigated by adopting soil and water conservation practices, harvesting rainfall, applying supplemental irrigation, and/or practicing conservation agriculture.

 In many dryland areas, over half of the rain that falls is not captured by the soil but is lost as runoff, evaporation, deep percolation, and evaporation.

 The capacity of field soils to hold water is closely related to organic matter content and soil type.

 Soil organic matter content can be enhanced by providing soil cover, recycling plant residues into the soil, and planting several varieties of crop.

 Cover crops and green manures cover the soil while acting as natural fertilizer.

 Rainwater runoff can be beneficially harvested to provide additional water inputs.

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Medium 9781780647326

15 Farm Fresh in the City: Urban Grassroots Food Distribution Networks in Finland

WinklerPrins, A.M.G.A. CABI PDF


Farm Fresh in the City:

Urban Grassroots Food Distribution

Networks in Finland

Sophia E. Hagolani-Albov1* and Sarah J. Halvorson2

University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; 2University of Montana,

Missoula, Montana, USA


It was March, there were a few inches of snow on the ground, and the air was bitingly cold.

I was invited by the founder of the REKO Circles

[food distribution networks] to accompany him to the weekly pick up scheduled to take place in the midafternoon, which at that latitude was right before nightfall. We arrived shortly after the start of the event at a parking lot that was in a forgotten corner of Pietarsaari, Finland. Cars were parked every few spaces and there was a group of people clustered around each car. The temperature hovered around freezing and products were exchanged quickly and efficiently through open trunks or out of backseats. As I watched the scene unfold in front of me, I was amazed to realize that 30 minutes ago this had been an empty parking lot and in another 30 minutes all the producers and consumers would be gone. The parking lot would be cold and silent again; the only hint of this ‘instant’ market would be the trampled snow.

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Medium 9781845939212

5 Is Agricultural Productivity Growth Slowing in Western Europe?

Fuglie, K.O., Ball, V.E., Wang, S.L. CABI PDF


Is Agricultural Productivity Growth

Slowing in Western Europe?

Sun Ling Wang, David Schimmelpfennig and Keith O. Fuglie

Economic Research Service, US Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC



Agricultural production in Western Europe1 has been nearly stagnant for the past 25 years. According to the Food and Agriculture

Organization (FAO), agricultural output in

Western Europe in 2009 was only about 4% higher than it was in 1984. World Bank data report agricultural gross domestic product

(GDP) of the region grew by 26% (in constant US dollars) over the same period, but this was almost certainly a terms-of-trade or exchange rate effect, rather than a change in real production. The stagnation in real output could be due to rising costs of production (falling productivity) and/or fewer resources being employed in production.

The slow growth of agriculture in Western

Europe has meant that its share of global agricultural output has been falling steadily, from about 20% in the 1960s to less than

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Medium 9781780647098

31: IPM Case Studies: Berry Crops

van Emden, H.F.; Harrington, R. CABI PDF


IPM Case Studies: Berry Crops1

Rufus Isaacs,1* A. Nicholas E. Birch2 and Robert R. Martin3


Berry Crops Entomology Program, Department of Entomology, Michigan State

University, East Lansing, USA; 2The James Hutton Institute, Invergowrie, Scotland,

UK; 3USDA-ARS Horticultural Crops Research Laboratory, Corvallis, USA


The perennial crops referred to as berries, soft fruit, or small fruit are grown throughout the world, with primary regions of production in Western and

Eastern Europe, the Americas and Australasia.

Economically significant berry crops include grape

(Vitis spp.), strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa),

­blueberry (Vaccinium spp.), American cranberry

(Vaccinium macrocarpon) and species and hybrids in the genus Rubus. These include European raspberry (Rubus idaeus subsp. idaeus), American red raspberry (Rubus idaeus subsp. strigosus), black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis), blackberry (Rubus fructicosus agg.), cut-leaved blackberry (Rubus

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