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Medium 9781902375205

1.  Introduction

Martin Wood Chartridge Books Oxford ePub

Chapter 2

Are you covered by the Act?

1.     Introduction

2.     Is the agreement a Construction Contract?

(a)     What types of agreements can be Construction Contracts?

(i)          Need for an agreement

(ii)         Nature of the agreement

(iii)        Value or size

(iv)        Mixed activities

(v)         Project location

(vi)        Commencement date

(vii)       Crown application

(b)     What are Construction Operations?

(i)          Construction Operations - In

(ii)         Construction Operations - Out

(iii)        Construction Operations - Practical problems

3.     Is the Construction Contract excluded from the Act?

(a)     Residential Occupiers

(b)     Contracts in writing

(c)     The Exclusion Order

(i)          Agreements under Statute

(ii)         Private Finance Initiative

(iii)        Finance Agreements

(iv)        Development Agreements

4.     Key Points Summary

1.   Introduction

The Act provides a set of rules defining those activities that are Or are not covered by the Act. It is unusual for a piece of legislation to be targeted at one sector of commerce. Concern was expressed that the Act would extend into other commercial sectors such as property. Those concerns led to a regime defining relevant construction contracts which are set out in the first four clauses of the Act. In addition, the Secretary of State has exercised the power to exclude various agreements from the Act by an Exclusion Order which came into force on 1 May 199819. In considering any particular contract therefore, there are two questions:

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Medium 9781902375205

(c)  Contractor Issues

Martin Wood Chartridge Books Oxford ePub

Chapter 6

What do you need to do to comply with the Act?

1.     Introduction

2.     Is your agreement covered by the Act?

3.     Payment and Notice Systems

(a)     Payment Systems

(b)     Notice Systems

4.     Adjudication Rules and Procedures

(a)     Construction Act Complaint Adjudication Agreements

(b)     Adjudication - Practical Steps

5.     Specific Concerns for Consultants/Clients/Contractors

(a)     Consultant Issues

(b)     Client Issues

(c)     Contractor Issues

6.     How and when notices are served

7.     How time limits are calculated

8.     Key Points Summary

1.   Introduction

To decide what is needed to comply with the Act, the first question is inevitably whether or not any specific agreement is covered by the Act. This can, in certain circumstances, be a complicated issue and there will often be circumstances where some of the parts of the agreement are covered by the Act and some are not. In those circumstances it is usually prudent to ensure the entire agreement is Construction Act compliant.

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Medium 9789351382492

CH7-2

Saradindu Panda Laxmi Publications PDF

ARITHMETIC SUBSYSTEM

93

Read 1:

(i) After the write ‘1’ operation is completed, the write access transistor M1 is turned off.

(ii) With the storage capacitance C1 charged upto a logic high level, transistor M2 is now conducting.

(iii) ‘Read select’ signal RS must be pulled high during the active phase of φ2 following a precharge cycle.

(iv) Read access transistor M3 turns ON, M3 and M2 create a conducting path between the data read column capacitance C3 and ground.

(v) The capacitance C3 discharges through M2 and M3 and the falling column voltage is interpreted by the ‘data read’ circuitry as a stored logic ‘1’.

Fig. 7.10

7.5 READ ONLY MEMORY

It is a permanent or semi-permanent memory. In permanent ROM, the data is permanently stored and cannot be changed. It can only be read from the memory. There cannot be a write operation because the specified data is programmed into the device by the manufacturer or user. In semi-permanent ROM also there is no write operation, but the data can be altered by special method.

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Medium 9781902375335

3    Flow down of risks to subcontracts

David Hickman M-Y Books ePub

CHAPTER 3

Flow-down of risks to subcontracts

The authority and the banks will have a big say regarding the arrangements under which obligations are subcontracted by Project Co. to its subcontractors. They have a similar concern: to ensure that Project Co. (normally a special-purpose vehicle which is essentially ‘a man of straw’) is offloading obligations to parties which are competent to perform them and which it can control. Project Co. should not be left covering risks which it is not capable of managing. Exceptionally there are some risks which might be left with Project Co., including certain types of loss of income for which it might obtain business interruption insurance cover (see Chapter 9).

How risk is flowed down

The process of flow-down at this level has to take account of the following factors:

–    Should the contractor bear the risk (or a share of the risk) of servicing the debt repayments should a force majeure event occur during the construction phase? Project Co. has no source of income during this period but will still be required to service the interest running up on its debt. A reserve can be set up to offset this.

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Medium 9781780642789

Chickpea (Cicer arietinum Linn.)

Kumar, P. CAB International PDF

CHICKPEA (Cicer arietinum Linn.)

NITROGEN (N) DEFICIENCY

Symptoms

Plate 332. Nitrogen-deficient crop in foreground compared with nitrogen-fertilized crop behind.

(Photo by Dr Prakash Kumar.)

1. The formation and development of nodules are restricted under soil salinity and sodicity conditions.

2. Nitrogen fixation reaches the maximum level at flowering stage and then declines sharply during pod filling.

3. Nitrogen deficiency restricts plant growth and reduces branching. Plants have fewer flowers. Fewer pods are formed resulting in poor yields.

4. When nitrogen supply becomes restricted the older leaves display deficiency symptoms first.

5. The entire plant appears chlorotic, while older leaves turn more yellow than upper leaves (Plate 332).

6. Pink pigmentation develops on the lower part of the stem

(Plate 333).

7. In the later stage, the yellow older leaves turn white and drop prematurely.

Developmental stages

Stage I: Early deficiency symptoms are expressed as stunted growth and a uniform pale green appearance of the entire plant.

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Medium 9781780646282

15: Forage Legume Adaptation Strip Trials in Belize

Lazier, J.R. CABI PDF

15 Forage Legume Adaptation

Strip Trials in Belize

J.R. Lazier*1

*Formerly International Livestock Centre for Africa

Abstract

Twenty-one plantings of 24 accessions of 18 promising forage species belonging to 13 genera were established as strips under two fertilizer levels in 15 native and improved pastures and plots in contrasting environments

(vertisols, planosols and podzols) under wet tropical conditions in central Belize to obtain an initial assessment of their potential under regular cutting and grazing. Observational methods were used to obtain data. At the seven upper Belize River Valley sites, Leucaena leucocephala and Codariocalyx gyroides had the best performance, followed by Calopogonium caeruleum, Centrosema plumieri and C. pubescens. At the four Low Pine Ridge sites the plants most consistently successful across the sites and fertilizer levels were the S. guianensis accessions and C. gyroides. However, C. caeruleum, C. pubescens and D. intortum, under the high fertilizer rate generally persisted and performed very well. On the Mountain Pine Ridge soils, performance at the three sites was poor without the application of marl. The most productive legumes were C. gyroides, D. intortum, P. phaseoloides and S. guianensis cv. Endeavour.

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Medium 9781780642109

11: Pastoralism and Kalahari Rangeland Soils

Edited by F.Q, Brearley and Andrew D. Thomas CAB International PDF

11 

Pastoralism and Kalahari Rangeland Soils

Andrew D. Thomas,1* David R. Elliott,2 Tasmin N.L. Griffith2 and Helen Mairs2

1

Department of Geography and Earth Sciences, Aberystwyth University,

Aberystwyth, UK; 2School of Science and the Environment, Manchester

Metropolitan University, UK

11.1  Introduction

Grazing lands cover almost half the global land area and an estimated 70% of the world’s poorest billion people rely on income generated from pastoralism (FAO/IIASA/ISRIC/ISS-CAS/JRC, 2009).

In rural dry sub-humid environments such as the Kalahari, pastoral farming is the only viable livelihood for most people, and cattle are central to the Tswana way of life. Cattle not only provide a major source of household income, but confer prestige to families within their communities (Campbell, 1990). The vast majority of livestock are reared on communal land where fences are absent and grazing resources are shared. The absence of surface water in the

Kalahari means that animals are dependent on groundwater from boreholes (Perkins and

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Medium 9781780645742

1: Introduction to Risk in Agriculture

J.B. Hardaker CAB International PDF

1 

Introduction to Risk in

Agriculture

Examples of Risky Decisions in Agriculture, and their Implications

The development of agriculture in early times was partly a response to the riskiness of relying on hunting and gathering for food. Since then, farmers and others have tried to find ways to make farming itself less risky by achieving better control over the production processes. As in other areas of human concern, risk remains a seemingly inevitable feature of agriculture, as the examples below illustrate.

Example of institutional risk

A dairy farmer finds that the profitability of his herd is constrained by his milk quota. He now has the opportunity to buy additional quota, using a bank loan to finance the purchase. The farmer, however, has serious doubts about the profitability of this investment because he believes that milk quotas will be removed at some time in the future. Cancellation of quota would make the purchased quota valueless from that point in time. He also thinks it is likely that milk prices will drop significantly when the quotas go.

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Medium 9781902375205

4.  Key Points Summary

Martin Wood Chartridge Books Oxford ePub

Chapter 2

Are you covered by the Act?

1.     Introduction

2.     Is the agreement a Construction Contract?

(a)     What types of agreements can be Construction Contracts?

(i)          Need for an agreement

(ii)         Nature of the agreement

(iii)        Value or size

(iv)        Mixed activities

(v)         Project location

(vi)        Commencement date

(vii)       Crown application

(b)     What are Construction Operations?

(i)          Construction Operations - In

(ii)         Construction Operations - Out

(iii)        Construction Operations - Practical problems

3.     Is the Construction Contract excluded from the Act?

(a)     Residential Occupiers

(b)     Contracts in writing

(c)     The Exclusion Order

(i)          Agreements under Statute

(ii)         Private Finance Initiative

(iii)        Finance Agreements

(iv)        Development Agreements

4.     Key Points Summary

1.   Introduction

The Act provides a set of rules defining those activities that are Or are not covered by the Act. It is unusual for a piece of legislation to be targeted at one sector of commerce. Concern was expressed that the Act would extend into other commercial sectors such as property. Those concerns led to a regime defining relevant construction contracts which are set out in the first four clauses of the Act. In addition, the Secretary of State has exercised the power to exclude various agreements from the Act by an Exclusion Order which came into force on 1 May 199819. In considering any particular contract therefore, there are two questions:

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Medium 9781780644233

7: Economic Potential of Conservation Agriculture Production Systems (CAPS) for Tribal Farmers in the Hill Region of Nepal

Chan, C. CABI PDF

7

Economic Potential of

Conservation Agriculture

Production Systems (CAPS) for Tribal Farmers in the Hill

Region of Nepal

Bikash Paudel,* Catherine Chan, Aliza Pradhan and

Brinton Foy Reed

University of Hawaiʽi at Maˉnoa, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA

7.1  Introduction

7.1.1  Background

Hill farming systems, characterized by crop cultivation on sloping agricultural lands, provide food for millions of people worldwide. However, in recent years, conventional farming practices in Nepal’s hilly areas, which provide food for about 43% of Nepal’s population, have been forced to weather challenges such as population growth, deforestation, and climate change (Craswell et al., 1997;

Templeton and Scherr, 1999). At the same time, the region is facing increasing food demands and declining crop productivity. Unfortunately, expansion of agricultural lands is not generally feasible in Nepal’s hill farming systems, where arable land is extremely scarce. Therefore, farmers have intensified production per unit area rather than expanding it (Hall et al., 2001). In fact, although

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Medium 9788170088837

13_Chapter_II

Dr. B.C. Punmia ; Ashok Kr. Jain, Arun Kr. Jain Laxmi Publications PDF

13

FIELD

ASTRONOMY

CHAPTER

13.1

DEFINITIONS OF ASTRONOMICAL TERMS

1. The Celestial Sphere: The millions of stars that we see in the sky on a clear cloudless night are all at varying distances from us. Since we are concerned with their relative distances rather than their actual distance from the observer, it is exceedingly convenient to picture the stars as distributed over the surface of an imaginary spherical sky having its centre at the position of the observer. This imaginary sphere on which the stars appear to lie or to be studded is known as the Celestial Sphere. The radius of the celestial sphere may be of any value – from a few thousand metres to a few thousand kilometres. Since the stars are very distant from us, the centre of the earth may be taken as the centre of the celestial sphere.

2. The Zenith and Nadir: The Zenith (Z) is the point on the upper portion of the celestial sphere marked by plumb line above the observer. It is thus the point on the celestial sphere immediately above the observer’s station. The Nadir (Z′) is the point on the lower portion of the celestial sphere marked by the plumb line below the observer. It is thus the point on the celestial sphere vertically below the observers’s station.

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Medium 9781780640884

9 Managing Agroecosystem Services

Boelee, E. CABI PDF

9

Managing Agroecosystem Services

Devra I. Jarvis,1* Elizabeth Khaka,2† Petina L. Pert,3

Lamourdia Thiombiano4 and Eline Boelee5

1Bioversity

International, Rome, Italy; 2United Nations Environment Programme

(UNEP), Nairobi, Kenya; 3Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research

Organisation (CSIRO), Cairns, Queensland, Australia; 4Central Africa Bureau, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Libreville, Gabon; 5

Water Health, Hollandsche Rading, the Netherlands

Abstract

Agriculture and ecosystem services are interrelated in various ways. Payments for ecological services (PES) and innovative methods of agricultural management, including ecological agriculture, conservation agriculture and the management of biological diversity are options for enhancing ecosystem services in agroecosystems while sustaining or increasing productivity.

Successful actions will depend on strong supporting policies and legal frameworks, as well as on developing the knowledge and leadership capacity in farming communities to evaluate the potential benefits. The maintenance of ecosystem services and the long-term productivity and stability of agriculture ecosystems requires a paradigm shift in agriculture that moves away from single solutions to production problems towards a portfolio approach that supports multiple ways to better use soil, water and biotic resources to enhance ecosystem services.

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Medium 9781780647753

3: Agri-entrepreneurship Enabling Program Design in Conflict Regions for Youth Development: Best Practices and Lessons Learned

Chan, C. CABI PDF

3 

Agri-entrepreneurship Enabling Program

Design in Conflict Regions for Youth

Development: Best Practices and

Lessons Learned

Kathleen Liang1* and Tina S. Lee2

North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University, Greensboro, North

Carolina, USA; 2University of Hawai‘i at Maˉnoa, Honolulu, Hawaii

1

3.1  Introduction

Recent happenings have revealed significantly growing concerns of economic and social instabilities around the world. Refugees, many children among them, take risks to travel across land and sea to seek new economic opportunities. Most of the information shared by press releases or social media only tells a fraction of stories about issues in conflict regions. The World Development Report 2011 discussed several issues with respect to unstable state-of-conflict regions (World Bank,

2011). For example, approximately 1.5 billion people live in conflict regions where countries experience repeated cycles of political and criminal violence. Civilians who live in the conflict regions often experience famine and brutal attacks of political crossfire. Youth are particularly vulnerable due to lack of support from a steady system and safe environment to obtain education and training to achieve economic mobility.

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Medium 9788131805381

Ch-12

Dr. Simmi Kharb Laxmi Publications PDF

254

Scientific Writing Techniques and Project Management in Biotechnology

Trademarks

It can be either symbols or words that identify a particular process or product of a company.

Patents

For biotechnology, patents form most important part of intellectual property. Patent is a legal document that provides exclusive rights to the patent holder for implementing the invention commercially.

PATENT

Features of Patent

1. On the basis of the extent of claims of patent, patent holder can develop other products derived from their original invention.

2. Also, they can sell right to use their invention to their competitors for developing a product based on it.

3. Patent is a public document containing a detailed description of invention.

4. It also informs about nature and limits of invention, allowing people to start to continue working in a particular direction.

Patent decisions and law vary from country to country:

(i) In US, the duration of exclusion rights of a patent was 17 years after it was officially awarded.

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Ch-3

Dr. Simmi Kharb Laxmi Publications PDF

Chapter

BIOINFORMATICS AND

COMPUTER APPLICATIONS

BIOINFORMATICS : INTRODUCTION

It is the science of using information to understand biology. It is conceptualizing biology in terms of molecules and applying informatics techniques (computer science, applied mathematics and statistics) to organize the information associated with these molecules. Bioinformatics and data mining are two latest areas of research involving computer-assisted management of data generated for biotechnology applications. The information generated in genomics is enormous and its interpretation requires the use of powerful computers and specific softwares.

Computer Network

The internet is a global network of computer networks that link government, academic and business institutions. Computer within the network are referred to as nodes and these communicate with each other by transferring data packets. Each computer or network mode has a unique address (IP address) by which it can be identified and can communicate with other nodes.

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