1706 Chapters
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Medium 9781780648200

16: Detection, Symptomatology and Management of Aster Yellows Disease in Canola

Reddy, G.V.P. CABI PDF


Detection, Symptomatology and

Management of Aster Yellows

Disease in Canola

Chrystel Olivier1*, Tim Dumonceaux2, Edel Pérez-López3,

Tyler J. Wist2, Bob Elliott2 and Sally Vail2


Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, London, Ontario, Canada; 2Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada; 3Instituto de

Biotecnologia y Ecologia Aplicada (INBIOTECA), Universidad Veracruzana,

Xalapa, Veracruz, México

16.1  Introduction

Phytoplasmas are obligate parasites that belong to the class Mollicutes and genus ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma’

(McCoy et al., 1989; IRPCM Phytoplasma/Spiroplasma

Working Team – Phytoplasma Taxonomy Group,

2004). Phytoplasmas have been associated with diseases affecting over 700 plant species worldwide

(Foissac and Wilson, 2010; Bertaccini et al., 2014).

Phytoplasmas are wall-less bacteria that are transmitted by phloem-feeding insects, mostly leafhoppers but also planthoppers and psyllids (Weintraub and Beanland, 2006). Phytoplasmas live and reproduce in the phloem of their plant hosts and in most of the organs of their insect vectors. The effect of phytoplasmas on their hosts varies depending on several parameters, such as the phytoplasma strain, host species, vector infectivity and environmental conditions. Most plant species infected with phytoplasmas develop symptoms that are unique to these diseases, such as virescence (greening of flower organs), phyllody (floral organs turning into leaf-like structures), witches’ broom (excessive stem and branch production) or dwarfism (McCoy et  al.,

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Medium 9781780644998

15: Pest Management in Organic Vegetable Greenhouses

Vacante, V.; Kreiter, S. CABI PDF


Pest Management in Organic Vegetable


Carmelo Peter Bonsignore* and Vincenzo Vacante

Mediterranean University, Salita Melissari, Italy


The ecological factors acting inside the greenhouse exert a variable influence on the bio-ecology of crops and on the animals

­associated with them. Usually, the development and the productivity of cultivated plants are positively stimulated, while the animal populations (pests and natural enemies) are influenced in various ways depending on the taxa and their evolutionary adaptations.

So, different pests find the inside of the green­ house a suitable environment in which to live and their populations can develop at high levels creating serious problems such that they need to be controlled, while that of their natural enemies, whether indigenous and/or released, may adopt different models, to the point that sometimes the

­development of populations of important beneficials is inconsistent. The phenomenon depends on various ecological factors

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Medium 9781780644370

12 The Development and Prospect of Discovery of Bt Toxin Genes

Soberon, M.; Gao, Y.; Bravo, A. CABI PDF


The Development and Prospect of Discovery of Bt Toxin Genes

Jie Zhang,* Changlong Shu and Zeyu Wang

State Key Laboratory for Biology of Plant Diseases and Insect

Pests, Institute of Plant Protection, Chinese Academy of

Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, People’s Republic of China


Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry protein-based insect control has proven to be effective in reducing the use of chemical insecticides and in increasing crop yields. However, Bt crops increase selection pressure for resistant insects and accelerate their succession. The discovery and application of different Bt toxins that have no crossresistance with known toxins has been proposed as a strategy for the management of resistant insects. Additionally, the discovery of novel Bt toxins with a new insecticidal spectrum will control insect succession. In fact, the discovery of new Bt toxins is one of the most important areas in

Bt research, and the most advanced molecular biology methods available have been applied to this task. In this chapter, we summarize the published methods for Bt toxin discovery.

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Medium 9781855206786

Chapter 16: E30 Standard Specs

Andrew Everett Brooklands Books ePub

BMW 316 1983 to 1988 (two- & four-door saloons + Baur Cabriolet)

ENGINE: BMW M10 four cylinder, iron block, alloy head with chain driven camshaft, 71mm stroke and 89mm bore, 1766cc, 9.5:1 compression ratio. Power output is 90bhp at 5500rpm, 103 lb/ft torque at 4000rpm. Solex Pierburg 2B carburettor until September 1983, electronic control Solex Pierburg 2BE September 1983 onwards. 8-blade fan.


Four speed Getrag 242 gearbox as standard, ratios:

1st  = 3.764:1

2nd = 2.04:1

3rd = 1.320:1

4th = 1:1

Five speed Getrag 240 or 242/5, ratios:

1st  = 3.72:1

2nd = 2.02:1

3rd = 1.32:1

4th = 1:1

5th = 0.81:1

AUTOMATIC GEARBOX: ZF 3HP22 (three-speed) or ZF 4HP 22 (four-speed).

DIFFERENTIAL: 3.64 ratio until approx. 8/85. 3.9:1 ratio fitted from 8/85 and to four-speed automatics.

SUSPENSION: Independent front and rear suspension, front Macpherson struts with oil dampers and anti roll bar, rear semi-trailing arms swept back at 15 degrees, separate springs and dampers and no rear anti roll bar unless fitted with optional M Technic suspension.

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Medium 9781780647098

24: IPM Case Studies: Grain

van Emden, H.F.; Harrington, R. CABI PDF


IPM Case Studies: Grain

Hans-Michael Poehling,1* Thomas Thieme2 and Udo



Institute of Horticultural Production Systems, Section Phytomedicine, Leibniz

Universität Hannover, Hannover, Germany; 2BTL Bio-Test Labor GmbH, Groß

Lüsewitz, Germany; 3Julius Kühn-Institut, Braunschweig, Germany


Today, aphids are major insect pests in many cereal-growing regions of the world. Damage results from direct feeding and honeydew production, as well as virus transmission. Although first descriptions of outbreaks date back to 1970, cereal aphids are still a focus of agricultural research and extension services to estimate damage potential, to develop forecasting and control models, to select partially selective IPM-compatible pesticides, to improve pesticide application methods and to elucidate and re-establish natural control by predators and/or parasitoids, in particular in programmes aimed at improving ecosystem services. In central

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Medium 9781902375335

8    Finance and funding issues

David Hickman M-Y Books ePub


Finance and funding issues

Most PFI projects can only get off the ground if external funding is obtained at an affordable price. It is not the purpose of this book to go into detail on this subject which can be explored in greater depth through other reading.1 However, set out below is a brief summary of the main types of funding which are used on PFI projects.

It is important for a consortium to find the right financial solution for each project for which it bids, given the influence that the cost of funds will have on the affordability and competitiveness of the bid. Chapter 6 has already set out some basic details on how direct agreements work, in particular step-in rights, and this should be borne in mind in the context of this chapter.

Debt finance

This is the most commonly used form of funding whereby, in simple terms, the banks advance the bulk of the funds required to finance the project. Usually this will be in conjunction with equity funding (see below).

Senior debt

As the term implies, senior debt has the top ranking in terms of the entitlement of the funder to be repaid.

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Medium 9788131807446


Dr. Priyanka Siwach ; Dr. Namita Singh Laxmi Publications PDF






• Basic Lay-out

• Personal Protective Equipment

• Research Equipments


A standard molecular biology laboratory should be developed keeping in view the following points:

1. Lockable doors should be there for facilities that house restricted agents.

2. If developing a new laboratory, consider locating away from public areas.

3. Each laboratory should contain a sink for hand washing, Foot, knee, or automatically operated sinks are recommended.

4. Laboratory furniture must be capable of supporting anticipated loading and uses.

5. Spaces between benches, cabinets, and equipment should be accessible to easy cleaning.

6. Chairs and other furniture used in laboratory work should be covered with a nonfabric material that can be easily decontaminated.

7. Install biological safety cabinets in such a manner that fluctuations of the room supply and exhaust air do not cause the biological safety cabinets to operate outside their parameters for containment. Locate biological safety cabinets away from doors,

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Medium 9789351382492


Saradindu Panda Laxmi Publications PDF






If we neglect the propagation delay time, the output of the combinational logic circuit, at any given time point are directly determined as Boolean function of the input variables applied at that time. Thus, the combinational circuits lack of the capability of storing any previous events, or displaying an output behaviour which is dependent upon the previously applied inputs.

The sequential circuit gives the output, which is determined by the current inputs as well as the previously applied input variables.

Bistable circuits have, as their name implies, two stable stages or operation modes, each of which can be attained under certain input and output condition.

Monostable circuits, have only one stable operating point (state).

All basic Latch and flip-flop circuits, registers and memory elements used in digital systems fall into this category.


The basics of a bi-stable elements is that, it has two identical cross-coupled inverter circuits, as shown in figure given below:

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Medium 9780596008680

Replacing Call Signaling with VoIP

Theodore Wallingford O'Reilly Media PDF


7 7


Replacing Call Signaling with VoIP

In Chapter 6, the process of transmitting voice sounds in virtual media channels, via codecs, was presented. In order for those media channels to be set up, monitored, and destroyed when needed, a PBX calls on signaling. Different methods are used for different kinds of endpoints and trunks. On the PSTN, the SS7 network handles signaling. On a POTS voice channel, the signaling is accomplished using analog FXS signaling.

SS7, FXS, and the dozens of other signaling technologies in use on the PSTN, though all signaling protocols, are outside the realm of VoIP. They could all be considered legacy technology, since just about all of their signaling functions have been replicated using several new, modern, open TCP/IP-centric standards. Even though SS7 is a packet-based protocol and there are attempts underway to make it compatible with

VoIP softPBX systems (Asterisk included), its roots are in the PSTN, not the Internet.

This chapter describes the standards for call signaling in a softPBX-based VoIP network; it also describes the ways these standards compete with and complement one another.

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Medium 9789380386355


Satinder Bal Gupta and C.P. Gandhi Laxmi Publications PDF






In this chapter, we will discuss the formation of recurrence relations and their solutions.

The closed form expressions of recurrence relations and its solutions using generating functions is also discussed in this chapter.


(P.T.U. B.Tech. Dec. 2006)

Let S be a sequence of numbers. A recurrence relation on S is a formula that relates all, but a finite number of terms of S, to previous terms of S.

For e.g., the Fibonacci sequence is defined by the relation.

FK = FK�2 + FK�1, K ≥ 2, where F0 = 1, F1 = 1.

The relation defined above is a recurrence relation and the conditions F0 = 1, F1 = 1 are called initial conditions.

Note. The recurrence relations are also called difference equations.


The order of a recurrence relation is the difference between the highest and the lowest subscripts of S(K). For e.g., consider the recurrence relation.

FK = FK�2 + FK�1, K ≥ 2

Here the difference between highest and lowest subscripts of F = K � (K � 2) = 2

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Medium 9789381159460


S. Swapna Kumar Laxmi Publications PDF

178 A Guide to Wireless Sensor Networks







In recent years, Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are an exciting new area of research. Technological developments over the last decade have yielded several specialized embedded platforms capable of sensing, computing and communication. One of the very scarce resources for these types of networks is energy. These networks are expected to have a long lifetime (weeks to years) without human intervention for energy replenishment. Human intervention is undesirable since large number of nodes imply high operational cost.

Energy harvesting exploits the technologies to generate electricity from the environment, which can be used to power electronics and electrics. Different types of technologies can be employed depending on the energy source. In the wireless sensor networks (WSNs) research has predominantly use of a portable and limited energy source, viz. batteries, in the power sensors. There is a negative feature in this technology. Without energy, a sensor is essentially useless and cannot contribute to the effectiveness of the network as a whole. Consequently, substantial research efforts have been carried on designing energy-efficient networking protocols to maximize the lifetime of WSNs. However, the emerging WSN applications where sensors are required to operate for much longer durations should have a battery capacity to withstand.

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Medium 9789351382492


Saradindu Panda Laxmi Publications PDF





In the static CMOS logic with a fan-in of N requires 2N devices. A variety of approaches were presented to reduce the number of transistors required to implement a given logic function including pseudo-nMOS, pass-transistor logic. etc. For the pseudo, nMOS logic, there are (N + 1) no of transistor required to implement an N input logic gate, but it has static power dissipation.

To avoid this static power dissipation and obtaining the same result, the alternating approach is called the dynamic logic design. With the addition of a clock input, it uses a sequence of precharge and conditional evaluation phase.

There are different style to design a dynamic VLSI circuits:

(i) Precharge evaluation logic style.

(ii) Dynamic TG logic style.

(iii) Pass transistor logic style.

(iv) Domino logic style.

(v) NORA logic style.


The operation of this circuit is divided into two major phases — pre-charge and evaluation — with the mode of operation determined by the clk signal clk. The basic construction of this type of design style is given below.

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Medium 9781601323286

UAH OnTrack: Precision Navigation System for Research on The Software Safety Issues of Positive Train Control

Hamid R. Arabnia, Leonidas Deligiannidis, George Jandieri, Ashu M. G. Solo, Fernando G. Tinetti CSREA Press PDF

Int'l Conf. Software Eng. Research and Practice | SERP'14 |


UAH OnTrack: Precision Navigation System for Research on The Software Safety Issues of Positive Train Control

Scott Schiavone, Sjohn Chambers, Sunny Patel, Lee Ann Hanback,

David J. Coe, Jason Winningham, B. Earl Wells, George Petznick*, and Jeffrey H. Kulick

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, *Consulting Railway Expert

The University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, Alabama, USA

Abstract - The Department of Electrical and Computer

Engineering at The University of Alabama in Huntsville

(UAH) is developing UAH OnTrack, a system for creating location and velocity aware model trains for teaching about software system safety. UAH OnTrack mimics capabilities of the congressional mandated Positive Train Control system, which will allow centralized analysis and control of US trains in case of imminent danger. The system provides location and velocity information to model trains in GPS challenged environments such as real trains might find in tunnels, urban environments and underground rail yards and stations. It also provides an opportunity to develop advanced scheduling algorithms mimicking the properties of the US airspace

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Medium 9788131805381


Dr. Simmi Kharb Laxmi Publications PDF


Scientific Literature

information about nucleic acid and protein sequences, predicting protein structure, seeking research methodology and searching databases of genome program.











(100–400 words)

Figure 5.1 Preparation of abstract for oral presentation.

Computer and Internet

By using computers one can greatly broaden it use to some of the following:

(i) Searching the biomedical literature for pertinent books and journal articles.

(ii) Accessing biological databases that provide nucleic acid and protein sequences and structures.

Once connected to internet, many programs are available as free ware, softwares are provided without charge by its creator.

Basic Facilities Available for Use on Internet for Researchers e-mail (electronic mail)

One can communicate by e-mail. Messages containing text, files, and graphics may be sent to anyone who has a computer with an internet link and e-mail address. Communications among scientists is now done primarily by e-mail. Also, one can join list server discussion groups such as USE NET.

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Medium 9781902375205

(a)  Consultant Issues

Martin Wood Chartridge Books Oxford ePub

Chapter 6

What do you need to do to comply with the Act?

1.     Introduction

2.     Is your agreement covered by the Act?

3.     Payment and Notice Systems

(a)     Payment Systems

(b)     Notice Systems

4.     Adjudication Rules and Procedures

(a)     Construction Act Complaint Adjudication Agreements

(b)     Adjudication - Practical Steps

5.     Specific Concerns for Consultants/Clients/Contractors

(a)     Consultant Issues

(b)     Client Issues

(c)     Contractor Issues

6.     How and when notices are served

7.     How time limits are calculated

8.     Key Points Summary

1.   Introduction

To decide what is needed to comply with the Act, the first question is inevitably whether or not any specific agreement is covered by the Act. This can, in certain circumstances, be a complicated issue and there will often be circumstances where some of the parts of the agreement are covered by the Act and some are not. In those circumstances it is usually prudent to ensure the entire agreement is Construction Act compliant.

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