1744 Chapters
  Title Author Publisher Format Buy Remix
Medium 9781902375212

Selection of temporary works

Tony Baxendale Chartridge Books Oxford ePub


Decision Making
Methodology for
Methods of Production


The aims of this methodology for decision making are to identify production opportunities and problems and also to develop strategies for the production of complex contracts. Decisions will be both of a ‘policy’ and a ‘hard’ decision in nature. Decisions will need to be made upon:

     Level, type, balancing of mechanisation to manpower resources.

     Extent and type of temporary works.

     Specific safety and protection measures.

     Storage facilities.

     Sequencing and timing of activities.

     Direction of working and access requirements.

     Whether or not the production method is economical and achieves the performance and quality requirements of binding.

The decision making process is not linear and requires constant reappraisal; be prepared to choose solutions, test them and make changes.



Consider what information you require to make a decision. On most large contracts, the information provided may well be substantial. You will need to sort out what is relevant, assess its quality and identify whether there are any information gaps.

See All Chapters
Medium 9789380386324


Dr. A.J. Nair Laxmi Publications PDF





In This Chapter









Public Perception of Biotechnology

Patenting (Intellectual Property Rights�IPR)


International Patent Laws

Patenting in Biotechnology

Varietal Protection

Ethical Issues in Biotechnology�Agriculture and Health Care


Science and Society


ur perceptions or attitudes toward things are not always rational and are often culturally influenced. They are a combination of thoughts or the cognitive dimension, feelings, or the affective dimension, and the way we react—the behavioral dimension. The cognitive dimension consists of things we know, the affective dimension comprises of things we feel, and the behavioral dimension is how we will act on the attitudes we build. Attitudes help us to become socially acceptable; belonging to a group is very important, and it gives meaning to things we experience.

Advancements in science and technology have made our life very simple and fast. At the same time some of this advancement has caused great concern regarding the long-term impacts on environment and life. In 1985, the World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED), also known as Brundtland Commission appointed by United Nations (UN), recommended sustainable development preserving the environment without any degradation. The Commission defined sustainable development as ‘the development that meets the needs of the present without

See All Chapters
Medium 9781786395146

1 Understanding the Business of Controlling Pests

Dhang, P. CABI PDF


Understanding the Business of Controlling Pests

1.1 Introduction

Urban pests are common all over the world. These include cockroaches, flies, mosquitoes, bed bugs, ticks, fleas, ants, termites, rodents and a few more.

These pests thrive in dark, warm and moist conditions in structures, particularly in places where there is food, warmth and places to hide. Moreover, a number of human activities and habits such as living in homes with insufficient ventilation, creating clutter, poor lighting, temperature control, poor recycling of rubbish, improper composting methods, poor water storage and use of wood in construction attract pests. Also, community and public areas in cities such as parks, recreation centres, wastelands, rivers, canals, sewer drains, stormwater drains, dump sites, flea markets and recycling plants often serve as ideal breeding grounds and habitats for pests.

●● A city is never free of pests, and urban pests are among the prime sources of damage and many human illnesses and injuries.

See All Chapters
Medium 9781902375212

Selection of objectives

Tony Baxendale Chartridge Books Oxford ePub


Management of


The general principles of recording data flow within a construction organisation are considered in order to specify an integrated management information system Recommendations for the initiation of a management information system are also made together with a range of possible objectives. Structured systems development is suggested to build a logical model that shows the interrelationship of data processing. The need for an interactive system is developed together with the requirement of a structured approach based on a selection of objectives. Finally a system for main contractor control and for directly employed resource control is proposed.

Data Flow

Data flow analysis is a well established methodology and has been used for management information flow in construction organisations. Other exponents of the data flow concept have modelled the regional office and site based information systems of a large contractor and an operational integrated data management system for a house building organisation.

See All Chapters
Medium 9781683922018

Agile Development and Management

Edited by Hamid R. Arabnia, Leonidas Deligiannidis, Fernando G. Tinetti CSREA Press PDF

Int'l Conf. Software Eng. Research and Practice | SERP'17 |





ISBN: 1-60132-468-5, CSREA Press ©



Int'l Conf. Software Eng. Research and Practice | SERP'17 |

ISBN: 1-60132-468-5, CSREA Press ©

Int'l Conf. Software Eng. Research and Practice | SERP'17 |


IEEE 42010 and Agile Process- Create Architecture

Description through Agile Architecture Framework

Shun Chi Lo and Ning Chen

Department of Computer Science, California State University, Fullerton, California, USA

Abstract - ISO/IEC/IEEE 42010 Standard, Systems and

Software Engineering - Architecture Description [ 1 ] is a comprehensive guideline used to conceptualize system architecture in an architecture description. An agile architecture framework provides a context and environment in which software architecting and agile development activities are collaboratively carried out. When a small software system evolves into an enterprise-class system, the architecture can be too complex to track changes and document architectural decisions without a standard. Also, when an organization decides to apply agile development methodologies to development life cycles, a big-up-front architectural design becomes more difficult and conflicts with the lean design concept promoted by the agile communities. Therefore, an agile oriented framework is required to integrate architecture design effort and agile development practices seamlessly. This paper attempts to explore a framework incorporating agile principles for expressing the architecture in an architecture description conforming to ISO/IEC/IEEE 42010 standard.

See All Chapters
Medium 9781902375212

Coordinated information systems

Tony Baxendale Chartridge Books Oxford ePub


Coordinated Project Information


There is an incompatibility between estimating and the production process together with any relevance it has to resource control. In competitive tendering the completed building should reflect the information provided at tender stage but rarely does so. Any calculation of resources at the start of a contract will therefore remain fluid for much of the duration of the building process. Items like provisional quantities, provisional sums, contingencies and possible variation create gaps in the information available to the contractor. Resource control is seen to involve labour, plant and materials, but information is also a resource. It is in the form of drawings, specifications and instructions and requires control. A limited proportion of resources are in the direct control of the site manager when there is a high element of subcontracting.

The direct cost of production (labour, plant and materials) plus the indirect costs (site staff, accommodation, and the like) can be readily derived, but the detail is in different forms from that in which resources are developed or consumed. It is impossible to provide any degree of control without the provision of good budgetary information and the problem is one of quantifying needs. Those reflected in the documentation of the contract are often in the wrong terms.

See All Chapters
Medium 9789380386324


Dr. A.J. Nair Laxmi Publications PDF







n Since the microcarrier culture is well mixed, it is easy to monitor and control different

environmental conditions such as pH, PO2, PCO2, etc. n Cell sampling is easy. n Since the beads settle down easily, cell harvesting and downstream processing of

products is easy. n Microcarrier cultures can be relatively easily scaled-up using conventional equipment

such as fermentors that have been suitably modified.

Because of the many advantages of the technique itself, it has gained great popularity.

Thus, a large variety of microcarriers are available on the market.

FIGURE 20.4 Vero cells cultured on cytodex microcarriers.

6. Fixed-bed reactors. Microcarriers, macrocarriers, or encapsulated beads could be used in fixed-bed reactors. The cells are immobilized in a matrix and the culture fluid is circulated in a closed loop. There is no agitation system. If the bed of immobilized cells is disturbed by the circulating medium, it is said to be a fluidized-bed reactor. Such a process achieves a high degree of aeration and agitation.

See All Chapters
Medium 9781780640884

7 Wetlands

Boelee, E. CABI PDF



Max Finlayson,1* Stuart W. Bunting,2† Malcolm Beveridge,3

Rebecca E. Tharme4 and Sophie Nguyen-Khoa5

1Institute for Land, Water and Society (ILWS), Charles Sturt University, Albury, New

South Wales, Australia; 2Essex Sustainability Institute, University of Essex, Colchester,

UK; 3WorldFish, Lusaka, Zambia; 4The Nature Conservancy (TNC), Buxton, UK;

5World Water Council (WWC), Marseille, France


After commencing with a summary of the current status, importance and productivity of natural wetlands, the chapter reviews the contribution of wetland ecological functions to sustaining vital ecosystem services. Wetlands are vulnerable to a range of anthropogenic pressures, notably land use change, disruption to regional hydrological regimes as a result of abstraction and impoundment, pollution and excessive nutrient loading, the introduction of invasive species and overexploitation of biomass, plants and animals. Natural wetlands have often been modified to accommodate agricultural and aquaculture production, or wetlands may be created in the process of establishing farming systems. Prospects for established practices, such as culturing fish in rice

See All Chapters
Medium 9781780643373

1: Overview of Europe’s Woods and Forests

Kirby, K.J.; Watkins, C. CABI PDF


Overview of Europe’s Woods and Forests

Keith J. Kirby1* and Charles Watkins2

Department of Plant Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK;


School of Geography, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK


1.1  Introduction

Europe’s trees and woods range from Mediterranean olive groves to extensive forests of pine and spruce in Scandinavia, from tall lime trees in the forests of Poland to scrubby oaks barely overtopping the heather on Atlantic cliffs. Some contain beautiful orchids, strange beetles or wild wolves. These patterns reflect variations in past and present climates and soil conditions; the natural environment sets limits on what can live where. However, people have also been living in Europe for thousands of years. Since the last Ice Age, our ancestors have shaped the distribution, composition and structure of woods and forests

(Williams, 2006). There is less forest now and it is more fragmented than in the distant past; in many countries the proportion of conifers to broadleaves has increased; some animals are now extinct, such as the wild ox, while others, such as the grey squirrel, have been introduced and become pests.

See All Chapters
Medium 9789381159323


Dr. Sangeeta Chaudhary Laxmi Publications PDF







For reason associated with economics of generation and transmission, the electric power available is usually an a.c. supply. The supply voltage varies sinusoidally and has a frequency of 50 Hz. It is used for lighting, heating and electric motors. But, there are many applications (e.g., electronic circuits) where d.c. supply is needed. When such a d.c. supply is required, the main a.c. supply is rectified by using crystal diode. The following two rectifier circuits can be used:

(i) Half-wave rectifier

(ii) Full-wave rectifier.


(U.P. Tech. Sem. Exam., 2004–05)


In half-wave rectification, the rectifier conducts current only during the positive half-cycle of input a.c. supply. The negative half-cycles of a.c. supply are suppressed i.e., during negative half-cycles, no current is conducted and hence no voltage appears across the load. Therefore, current always flows in one direction (i.e., d.c.) through the load though after every half-cycle.

See All Chapters
Medium 9789381159194


Anil Kumar Shukla Laxmi Publications PDF



Learning Objectives

Upon completion of this chapter, you should be able to do the following:

Describe multimode and single mode step-index and graded-index fibers.

Explain the terms refractive index profile, relative refractive index difference, and profile parameter.

List the performance advantages of 62.5/125 µm multimode graded-index fibers.

Identify the two basic types of single mode step-index fibers.

Describe the vapor phase oxidation and direct-melt optical fiber fabrication procedures.

Describe the fiber drawing process.

List the benefits of cabled optical fibers over bare fibers.

Identify the basic cable components, such as buffers, strength members, and jacket materials.

Describe the material and design requirements imposed on military fiber optic cable designs.

Describe the advantages and disadvantages of OFCC cable, stranded cable, and ribbon cable designs.














Optical fibers are thin cylindrical dielectric (non-conductive) waveguides used to send light energy for communication. Optical fibers consist of three parts: the core, the cladding and the coating or buffer. The choice of optical fiber materials and fiber design depends on operating conditions and intended application. Optical fibers are protected from the environment by incorporating the fiber into some type of cable structure. Cable strength members and outer jackets protect the fiber. Optical cable structure and material composition depend on the conditions of operation and the intended application.

See All Chapters
Medium 9781780641409

2: Rainforest Use: Necessity, Wisdom, Greed, Folly

Bruenig, E.F. CABI PDF


Rainforest Use: Necessity,

Wisdom, Greed, Folly

2.1  Original Inhabitants and Secondary

Refugees: Forest-dwellers and the


Life on earth has been, since its origin in the

Archaeozoic period of the Praecambrium, essentially expansive and acquisitive. Life multiplies and reaches out towards the limits of the carrying capacity of habitats. Local to global scarcities of resources are the inevitable consequence. Scarcity provokes competition, forces evolution and drives conquest of new habitats. Natural “genetic biotechnology” increases the efficiency to acquire and assimilate foreign substance to one’s own.

Human biological and social evolution are no exception to this natural rule (Markl, 1986, p. 19), except for the challenges, opportunities and dangerous temptations of the three special gifts of language, abstract thinking and free will (see Chapter 1). The early abode of the precursors of the human species most probably was the aseasonal to weakly seasonal tropical (rain) forest. An indication is the association of the fossils of early Pliocene hominids at Aramis, Ethiopia, with faunal and floral fossils of a closed forest, suggesting that some kind of rainforest was the habitat of the hominids 4 million years ago, in which they lived and died (Woldegabriel et  al., 1994). The rainforest canopy provides the only type of habitat on earth in

See All Chapters
Medium 9781780647098

24: IPM Case Studies: Grain

van Emden, H.F.; Harrington, R. CABI PDF


IPM Case Studies: Grain

Hans-Michael Poehling,1* Thomas Thieme2 and Udo



Institute of Horticultural Production Systems, Section Phytomedicine, Leibniz

Universität Hannover, Hannover, Germany; 2BTL Bio-Test Labor GmbH, Groß

Lüsewitz, Germany; 3Julius Kühn-Institut, Braunschweig, Germany


Today, aphids are major insect pests in many cereal-growing regions of the world. Damage results from direct feeding and honeydew production, as well as virus transmission. Although first descriptions of outbreaks date back to 1970, cereal aphids are still a focus of agricultural research and extension services to estimate damage potential, to develop forecasting and control models, to select partially selective IPM-compatible pesticides, to improve pesticide application methods and to elucidate and re-establish natural control by predators and/or parasitoids, in particular in programmes aimed at improving ecosystem services. In central

See All Chapters
Medium 9781780648507

3 Sensing for Stress Detection and High-throughput Phenotyping in Precision Horticulture

Zhang, Q. CABI PDF


Sensing for Stress Detection and High-throughput

Phenotyping in Precision


Sindhuja Sankaran*, Chongyuan Zhang and

Afef Marzougui

Washington State University, Pullman, Washington, USA

3.1 Overview

Sensing is a critical component of automation in tree fruit production, which includes site-specific management of resources (water, nutrients), precision chemical application for disease control, mechanical harvesting, and other crop protection applications to enhance the production efficiency and environmental stewardship. Another application of advanced sensing technologies that has developed in the past decade is crop scouting. The sensing technologies have a potential to assess abiotic (water stress, nutrient deficiencies, etc.) and biotic (bacterial, viral, fungal diseases, insect damage, etc.) stress conditions in different crops, sometimes in asymptomatic stages. The sensor technologies are greatly beneficial in determining the regions within an orchard that have anomalies (unhealthy or poorly performing trees), rather than specific types of disease or stress condition. The identification of such localized regions through remote sensing technologies can assist in the scouting process, thereby enhancing the scouting efficiency and decreasing the associated costs. Similarly, in the past few years, there has been great interest in high-throughput crop phenotyping using sensing technologies to assist genetics and breeding programs towards crop improvement efforts. The controlled studies (­focusing on one or few traits at a given time, e.g. disease resistance) and assessment of relative differences between different cultivars enhance the feasibility of using sensing for crop trait/phenotype

See All Chapters
Medium 9783835632141

Service lines

Klaus Homann, Rainer Reimert, Bernhard Klocke DIV Deutscher Industrieverlag PDF

[Construction of service lines]   Service lines

Service lines

Purpose and background

The last part of the supply chain from exploration to the customer is the service-line (see → Basics of Natural Gas Economy). The task of the service-line is delivering the gas from the distribution grid into the house of the customer or – if the boundary between the responsibility of the DSO and the customer lies outside of the house – to a similar point outside. Because there is no international standard for describing service-lines the focus here is on the German standard.

Construction of service lines

Service lines are the connecting element between the distribution grid and the in-house installation. They describe the pipe from the tapping of the main pipe over the service entry to the main stop device mounted in the house. Usually the pressure regulator and the filter, if necessary, as

Fig. 1: Elements of a service line (courtesy of ASUE e.V.)

1  Main pipe

2  Adapter piece of tapping saddle

3  Service line

See All Chapters

Load more