Results for: “Technology & Engineering”
|Hamid R. Arabnia, Leonidas Deligiannidis, George Jandieri, Ashu M. G. Solo, Fernando G. Tinetti||CSREA Press|
Int'l Conf. Software Eng. Research and Practice | SERP'14 |
Application of a Fuzzy Inference System to Measure
Maintainability of Object-Oriented Software
Nasib Singh Gill and Meenakshi Sharma
Department of Computer Science & Applications
Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak-124001
In the software development life cycle, maintenance is the most costly activity because it requires more effort compared to other activities. To reduce the cost of software maintenance, it is essential to predict software maintainability during the early phases of software development. As a consequence of early estimation, further corrective and preventive actions can be performed more efficiently to improve the maintainability of the software. Predicting maintainability of software using fuzzy logic is gaining more attention among researchers due to its ability to deal with uncertain, imprecise and incomplete data. This paper develops a fuzzy logic-based model for predicting the maintainability of a class. The given model is based on the Mamdani’s fuzzy inference system.See All Chapters
|Anand V. Kulkarni and Venkatesh K. Havanur||Laxmi Publications|
|Rao, B.D., Malleshi, N.G., Annor, George, Patil, J.V.||CABI|
Value Chain of Millets: Lessons to Learn and Prospects for the Future
8.1 Constraints and Challenges in the Value Chain of Millets
As discussed in previous chapters, millet
consumption has declined in the recent past as a result of both demand- and supply-led factors.
Some of the crucial gaps in the value chain pertained to: low marketed surpluses, inconvenience and more time required in preparation, lack of skill in the development of convenience millet products, short shelf life, lack of processing machineries and product technologies, lack of participation in processing, inadequate awareness of nutritional benefits, lack of policy support and low market penetration. Millet
(in contrast to rice, wheat and maize) utilization was constrained by the lack of processing diversification and value-addition technologies. A reduction in these value chain gaps has been attempted through demand-creating interventions.
The value chain development of sorghum was a pilot attempt to revive demand through various interventions, from on-farm production through to end-user utilization. Although it became a successful model with inherent potential for replicability in other parts of the country, it has not been altogether free from constraints and challenges. Here we elaborate on these so as to learn from the experience and benefit future attempts for replication.See All Chapters
|Bruce Fries||O'Reilly Media||ePub|
If you have vinyl LPs and 45s, vintage 78s, or old tapes you’d like to incorporate into your digital music library, you’re in luck. Digitizing a record or tape (i.e., recording it in a digital format) is an excellent way to safeguard the music and avoid wear and tear each time it is played. Another benefit is that you can permanently remove clicks, pops, and hiss once you’ve captured the recordings in a digital file.
After you’ve cleaned up the audio, you can store it on your hard disk and add it to your jukebox program’s music library, burn the tracks to CD, or export them to your iPod or other digital player. With your audio in digital form, you’ll no longer have to worry about records warping, tapes stretching, or your stylus wearing out, and you won’t have to clean records and demagnetize tape heads ever again.
This chapter focuses primarily on recording and restoring audio from records, but you can follow the same process for audio tapes. You’ll learn how to remove clicks, pops, and other surface noise, and even how to choose the right turntable, cartridge, and stylus to get the best possible sound from vintage records.See All Chapters
|Edited by F.Q, Brearley and Andrew D. Thomas||CAB International|
Effects of Land-use Changes on Biochemical and Microbial Parameters in Soils of the Andaman Islands, India
Raghavan Dinesh,1* Arkalgud Ganeshamurthy2 and Subrata Ghoshal Chaudhuri3
ICAR-Indian Institute of Spices Research, Calicut, Kerala, India; 2ICAR-Indian
Institute of Horticultural Research, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India; 3ICAR-National
Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning (Regional Centre), Salt Lake City,
Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata, West Bengal, India
Large areas of forest in the tropics are presently undergoing deforestation due to anthropogenic influences such as forest clearance, human settlement and conversion for agriculture (Gibbs et al., 2010; Villoria et al., 2014). It is well known that forest clearance for agriculture, an increasingly prevalent situation in the tropics, removes natural vegetation, reduces biodiversity, and simplifies the landscape and ecosystem structure
(Li et al., 2005; Rosa et al., 2014). The effects of these changes include reductions in productivity because of increasing losses of nutrients and soil; downstream impacts, such as reductions in water quality through increased sedimentation and changes in water yield; and widespreadSee All Chapters
|Tony Baxendale||Chartridge Books Oxford||ePub|
Productivity is defined as the quantitative relationship between what we produce and the resources which we use. Higher productivity is concerned with increasing output from the same, or smaller, use of resources. Productivity is an overall conception which can be expressed in terms of output from labour, or from services, or from the capital invested. In the long term it is only through an increase in productivity that economic success can be achieved. In the context of this chapter productivity is related to an examination of work in an operational context which leads to the investigation of all the factors which affect the efficiency and economy of the situation being reviewed, in order to effect improvement. An operations manager is mainly concerned with the control of resources on the construction site. Any cost control system tends to make comparisons with the estimate only in retrospect. What is required is a measure of the use of resources or level of productivity. A work breakdown structure is firstly defined in relation to production activity, together with relevant criteria for control models. Next, the sources of information from which operation times can be derived is considered and finally the work sampling method of investigating productivity is illustrated.See All Chapters
|Altman, Mitch||Maker Media, Inc|
PROJECTS: the brain machine
How Sound and Light
Hack the Brain
The brain produces varying proportions of brain wave types, depending on its current levels of relaxation, focus, and other mental states. Each type of wave has its own characteristic frequency range, which can be read by electroencephalography.
Many people’s brain waves will synchronize to lights and sounds pulsing at brain wave frequencies, and this makes the brain change its state — a process called “entrainment.” By playing sequences of pulses into your eyes and ears, you can program your brain to follow any brain wave experience you like.
The brain wave spectrum divides into
5 bands with different associated states:
Delta waves (δ), ½–4Hz:
Deep unconscious, intuition and insight
Theta waves (θ), 4–8Hz:
Subconscious creativity, deep relaxation
Alpha (α) waves, 8–13Hz:
“Spacey” and dreamy state, receptive and passive
Beta (β) waves, 13–30Hz:
Conscious thought, external focus
Illustrations by Timmy KucyndaSee All Chapters
|Klaus Homann, Rainer Reimert, Bernhard Klocke||DIV Deutscher Industrieverlag|
Purpose and background
For the final consumer natural gas is routed into houses and flats. If, despite any precautions taken, gas leaks into the rooms on its way from the entrance of the respective building to the appliance(s), ignitable mixtures of gas in the air can be formed. For widely distributed natural gases the lower and the upper concentration limits for ignitable mixtures are 4 and 17 % by vol., respectively. In order to avoid dangerous situations anyone should be able to be alerted to such a leakage in a timely manner, i.e. long before an ignitable mixture exists. The awareness of leaking gas has been achieved world-wide ever since gas has been distributed to final customers through a special smell (odour) of the gas. Once the customer recognise this smell they should be alarmed, frightened, and feel uncomfortable, resulting in the desire to leave the room with that smell and call the distribution company. Above all, the smell should not resemble smells from everyday life so that it cannot be mistaken.See All Chapters
|Glenn Fleishman||Take Control Books||ePub|
The light on the front of any Apple Wi-Fi base station indicates what the base station is up to: handling data correctly, hitting an error, or in a special mode. The guide below helps you decipher the meaning.
Off: Theres no power! Plug in the base station. If it is plugged in, check the outlet or power strip, and the places where the cord plugs into other cords or into the base station. If juice is flowing and the cord looks correct, you have a defunct base station or a bad cord.
Blinking green: The base station light blinks or flashes green in three cases:
Startup: The light flashes green on and off for 1 second.
Reset: This happens after you press the recessed reset button for long enough to trigger a reset.
Network activity: You can set the light to show green flashes that approximate the amount of network activity. In AirPort Utility, on the AirPort pane, in the Base Station view, click Options and then change the Status Light pop-up menu. (See Base Station Settings, much later.)
Solid green: The base station is configured correctly, has no updates available, and is connected to the Internet.See All Chapters
|Annmarie Thomas||Maker Media, Inc||ePub|
Makers are willing to take on risk.
They aren’t afraid to try things that haven’t been done before.
Explosions came up often in makers’ descriptions of their childhoods. I heard stories about things that were exploded, lighted, or blasted in a wide variety of ways. Looking back on this as adults, many of those who were young fire and explosives enthusiasts admit that they are shocked that they were allowed to do the things that they did. One interviewee, who had a long list of fiery exploits in his childhood, told me that “I wanted to talk to [my parents] before talking to you to find out what the hell they were thinking.”
I will admit that I had a hard time deciding whether to share these stories as I found myself realizing how close many of my friends had come to killing themselves. One friend recalled that he was only spanked twice as a child, and one of those times came at the age of four when his mother found a pile of discarded matches in the basement. They were leftovers from the “controlled burns” that he enjoyed doing, solo and in secret, as a preschooler. Almost uniformly, these makers expressed their hopes that their own children wouldn’t try the things that they themselves had done. That said, a fascination with fire and explosives was an oft-repeated theme among those I interviewed for this book, and I doubt that that is a coincidence.See All Chapters
|Mike Westerfield||Maker Media, Inc||ePub|
You saw in Chapter 14 that drag is one of the three forces that control how high and fast a stable rocket will travel; the others are the force of gravity acting on the mass of the rocket, and the thrust of the motor. You also saw that most of the drag on a rocket is proportional to the area the rocket presents in the direction of travel. That means one of the easiest ways to make a rocket go faster and higher is to slim it down. And that’s what’s done with Hebe.
Hebe’s body tube is the same diameter as the motor, keeping the frontal area presented by the rocket as small as possible. That’s what a minimum-diameter rocket really is; it uses the smallest possible body tube for a given rocket motor. This also helps keep the rocket light. This combination means Hebe will fly much, much higher on a given class of motor than Juno. Table 15-1 shows the expected altitudes for both rockets on equivalent motors. Juno doesn’t use exactly the same motors, though. Because Hebe flies so much higher and faster on, say, a B6 motor, it needs a longer ejection charge delay. The ejection times on the motors shown are appropriate for Hebe, but not Juno.See All Chapters
|Chris Walker||Maker Media, Inc||ePub|
Speakers generate sounds by vibrating.
You can generate those sound vibrations with the same PWM feature you used in Chapter6 to adjust the intensity of LEDs. By changing the period and length of pulses, you can change the frequency of the sounds. And by using pulses that correspond to musical notes, you can play songs.
You can also use the length of pulses as a signal to a servo (motor), setting the servo to certain angular positions through specific pulse lengths.
To play a song, youll need a speaker. For this example, use a common and inexpensive piezo speaker.
Wire up the piezos positive wire to pin D5 on your Netduino. Wire up the piezos negative (ground) wire to the GND pin on your Netduino. Figure7-1 shows the connections.
Some piezos have legs rather than wires. In most cases, one leg is longer than the other, and the long leg is positive. There may also be faint markings on the piezo indicating which is positive and which is negative. If in doubt, check your piezos instructions or datasheet for proper wiring.See All Chapters
|Andrew Everett||Brooklands Books||ePub|
Ratings in amperes, items of equipment supplied, relays
Adjusting the alternator belt on an M40 engined car is shown
This photos shows why the M20 starter is such a nightmare to replace
In the centre of this picture is the earthing point (10mm bolt). If it comes loose you will have weird electrical problems - find them behind the glove box
All cars use the press-in fuse. They can corrode with age and cause a myriad of electrical problems. A good idea is to buy a new set, clean up the fuse connectors in the fuse box (disconnect the battery first though!) and fit them. Spraying a contact preservative is also a good idea.
Fuses that blow are caused by a short circuit somewhere. A problematic central locking system can blow its fuse and fuse 10 can be blown randomly with no immediate cause. However, it’s known now that the wire that passes though the gearlever rubber boot going to the reverse light switch can rub through and short out, blowing the fuse.
All BMWs have an alternator that is mounted with rubber bushes to damp out vibrations and improve engine refinement. This is a great idea but, after a decade or two, the bushes wear out and the alternator begins to sit at a strange angle. Rather than putting up with it, it is very easy to fit new bushes. You just take off the alternator, remove the circlips holding in the centre guide pins and remove them followed by the old bushes. Refitting new ones is equally easy and the whole job should not take more than an hour. A toothed nut that runs on a toothed bracket takes up the alternator adjustment. Over the years they rust and the teeth wear out but new ones are surprisingly cheap.See All Chapters
|Anna Kaziunas France||Maker Media, Inc||ePub|
Age 3D-printed objects to look like battered metal.
Weathering plastic or wood to make it look like aged metal (Figure 14-1) is an effect you can achieve in fewer steps than most people expect. The most basic weathering can be done with only two paints. Here, I’ll show you how to weather and age using only three paints. This technique is how I weathered, in less than 10 minutes, a 3D-printed robot that we made here at the MAKE offices.
The Mega Make robot, designed by Make: Labs intern Dan Spangler, is coming soon as a downloadable, desktop-3D-printable project.
Here’s what you’ll need:
The white piece shown in Figure 14-2 is actually from the back of the robot. It was 3D-printed here at the MAKE office. I painted the robot bright red, to mimic our Maker Faire robot mascot. I chose Krylon’s Fusion brand, with the right red I was looking for. It dries pretty quickly and adheres to plastic really well. I skipped the priming process, but you can put this paint over primer easily enough.See All Chapters
|Hamid R. Arabnia, Leonidas Deligiannidis, George Jandieri, Ashu M. G. Solo, Fernando G. Tinetti||CSREA Press|
Int'l Conf. Software Eng. Research and Practice | SERP'14 |
Contemporary Build Systems and Techniques for Improvement
Jason White and Kay Zemoudeh
School of Computer Science and Engineering,
California State University, San Bernardino,
California, United States
Abstract— A build system plays a critical role in the software development process; particularly on large software projects. Having a build system that is fast, reliable, and easy to use can have a large, positive impact on a project. Iteration times can be reduced, giving more immediate feedback on changes; complete rebuilds can become less common or non-existent; and describing the build can become easier and more ﬂexible.
Background on how build systems work will be given; the strengths and weaknesses that apply to a vast majority of existing build systems will be shown; and methods by which contemporary build systems can be improved to achieve signiﬁcant gains in developer productivity will be discussed.
Keywords: Build System, Software Tool, AutomationSee All Chapters