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Medium 9781902375205

7.  How time limits are calculated

Martin Wood Chartridge Books Oxford ePub

Chapter 6

What do you need to do to comply with the Act?

1.     Introduction

2.     Is your agreement covered by the Act?

3.     Payment and Notice Systems

(a)     Payment Systems

(b)     Notice Systems

4.     Adjudication Rules and Procedures

(a)     Construction Act Complaint Adjudication Agreements

(b)     Adjudication - Practical Steps

5.     Specific Concerns for Consultants/Clients/Contractors

(a)     Consultant Issues

(b)     Client Issues

(c)     Contractor Issues

6.     How and when notices are served

7.     How time limits are calculated

8.     Key Points Summary

1.   Introduction

To decide what is needed to comply with the Act, the first question is inevitably whether or not any specific agreement is covered by the Act. This can, in certain circumstances, be a complicated issue and there will often be circumstances where some of the parts of the agreement are covered by the Act and some are not. In those circumstances it is usually prudent to ensure the entire agreement is Construction Act compliant.

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Medium 9781845938178

12: Rodent Control in Practice: Temperate Field Crops and Forestry

Buckle, A.P. CABI PDF


Rodent Control in Practice: Temperate

Field Crops and Forestry

A.P. Buckle1 and H.-J. Pelz2

School of Biological Sciences, University of Reading, Reading, UK;


Vertebrate Research Group, Julius Kühn-Institut – Federal Research

Centre for Cultivated Plants, Münster, Germany



Agriculture in temperate latitudes is extremely diverse. Cropping systems are sometimes based on a single, major component but more often comprise a mosaic of different elements. These elements include the farming of arable crops, such as wheat, barley and maize, the use of pasture and rangeland for the production of wool, milk and meat, the cultivation of semi-permanent topfruit tree crops (tree fruits), a wide variety of vegetable and fruit crops, including those grown for fodder, oil, sugar and energy production, and the planting of forest trees for timber and wood pulp. Without exception, agricultural production in all of these systems is adversely affected by rodent pests.

The species that are pests in temperate commensal situations belong almost exclusively to the family Muridae of the order

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Medium 9789381159620


Dr. Aminul Islam Laskar Laxmi Publications PDF



Rheology of Concrete

In this chapter, a description of fluid rheology and the different measurement techniques of rheological parameters of concrete are presented. Some important definitions related to concrete rheology has also been included so that the reader may easily understand the principles of fluid rheology. Constitutive equations of fluid flow, thixotropy, dilatancy of concrete, wall effect, plug flow, particle migration, particle sedimentation and end effect have made the chapter more comprehensive to the readers. Finally, complete description of the available concrete rheometers including the conceptual design, actual design and derivation of torque-speed relationship is provided.


Rheology is the scientific study of the deformation and flow of materials under load. A material is said to flow, if under the action of constant shear stress, its deformation increases with time.

Both viscous and plastic materials flow and, as they exhibit little or no deformational recovery on unloading, the strain energy of distortion is usually stored as potential energy.

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Medium 9781780640884

2 Drivers and Challenges for Food Security

Boelee, E. CABI PDF


Drivers and Challenges for Food Security

Jennie Barron,1* Rebecca E. Tharme2† and Mario Herrero3

1Stockholm Environment Institute, University of York, UK and Stockholm Resilience

Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; 2The Nature Conservancy (TNC),

Buxton, UK; 3Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO),

St Lucia, Queensland, Australia


At the global scale, humanity is increasingly facing rapid changes, and sometimes shocks, that are affecting the security of our food systems and the agroecosystems that are the ultimate sources of food. To plan and prepare for resilient food production and food security in a sustainable and efficient way, we are challenged to better understand the conditions and likely responses of these diverse agroecosystems under various drivers of change and scenarios of future trends. Among the many direct drivers and indirect pressures that exist or are emerging, the discussion in this chapter focuses on the main themes of drivers of demographic changes, globalization of economic and governance systems (including markets), and climate change. The current state of health of water and land resources, and of ecosystems and their services, are considered alongside these drivers, as these are critical determinants of the pathways with sufficient potential to move food-producing systems towards more sustainable production.

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Medium 9781780643304

7 “Seeded-yet-Sterile” Perennial Grasses: Towards Sustainable and Non-invasive Biofuel Feedstocks

Quinn, L.D., Editor CABI PDF


“Seeded-yet-Sterile” Perennial

Grasses: Towards Sustainable and

Non-invasive Biofuel Feedstocks

Russell W. Jessup* and Charlie D. Dowling

Texas A&M University, College Station, USA


Sustainable cropping systems for leading candidate biofuel crops currently focus predominantly on perennial grasses for which assessments of invasiveness potential remain incomplete. Perennial C4 grasses have significant capacity for biomass accumulation across diverse environments, providing intrinsic value towards protection and restoration of underutilized, marginal, and degraded lands. Varied seed and vegetative reproduction mechanisms, however, contribute to their invasive potential. The development of feedstocks possessing the minimum vegetative propagules required for perennial life habit, combined with seed sterility, would therefore greatly reduce the risk of perennial biofuel crops becoming biological invaders. Pearl millet-napiergrass (“PMN”; Pennisetum glaucum [L.] R.

Br. × Pennisetum purpureum Schumach.) and kinggrass (P. purpureum × P. glaucum) are examples of such feedstocks, being “seeded-yet-sterile” crops in which fertile parents allow seeded production of hybrids that are subsequently both seed-sterile and devoid of rhizomes in biomass production fields. The use of genomics tools provide further tools suitable for both characterizing genetic mechanisms governing weediness and deploying markerassisted breeding programs for biofuel crops with reduced risk of negative environmental impacts.

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Medium 9781780648651

5: The Changing Woodland

Peterken, G. CABI PDF


The Changing Woodland

Woods are constantly changing. However fixed and statuesque they may seem to a casual, shortterm observer, both the balance between individual species and the character of the stand as a whole change constantly. Thus, for example, as trees grow larger, so their numbers must decrease, for there is a fixed amount of space for them to occupy. Here, we deal with trees as a collective, the ‘stand’, leaving the behaviour of individual species to later chapters.


How Stands Grow

Several schemes have been devised to describe how stands grow (Table 5.1). At their simplest, stands start with ‘bare ground’ (which is how foresters see land devoid of trees) and a pioneer phase of saplings with plenty of space between them. As saplings grow, branches interlock and a thicket develops. Further growth results in stratification as fast-growing trees overtop slow growers and weaker trees die, i.e. they are ‘excluded’. Eventually, trees grow to full height, at which point the stand is mature, with a canopy of individuals whose crowns are open to full sunlight, above a subcanopy of trees whose crowns spread below the canopy and an underwood of shrubs, saplings and slow- or poorly-grown trees which, necessarily, suffer the shade cast by canopy and subcanopy trees. If the trees have been grown for timber, they would be felled at this stage and a new stand would be established; or some of them would be felled, leaving space for subcanopy trees, underwood trees and even saplings to grow into the canopy. If, however, the stand is allowed to grow on, it develops a distinctive condition with aged canopy trees and a complex vertical and horizontal structure known as

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Medium 9781780647784

14 Aeromonas salmonicida and A. hydrophila



Aeromonas salmonicida and A. hydrophila

Bjarnheidur K. Gudmundsdottir1* and Bryndis



Faculty of Medicine, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland;

Matís, Reykjavik, Iceland


14.1  Introduction

Aeromonas belongs to the family Aeromonadales within the class Gammaproteobacteria (Colwell et al.,

1986). Aeromonads occur in freshwater, estuarine and marine environments, invertebrates, vertebrates and soils (Janda and Abbott, 2010). The type species is the motile A. hydrophila, an animal pathogen; in contrast, the species A. salmonicida, a fish pathogen, is non-motile. Aeromonads induce furunculosis, atypical furunculosis, ulcerative diseases, motile

Aeromonas septicaemia (MAS) and tail and fin rot in fishes (Cipriano and Austin, 2011). A. hydrophila and other motile species (e.g. A. veronii biovar. sobria, A. bestiarum, A. dhakensis) cause diseases in aquaculture and are potentially zoonotic pathogens (Rahman et  al., 2002; Janda and Abbott,

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Medium 9788131805244


Abhishek Yadav and Poonam Yadav Laxmi Publications PDF













Till now we have extracted the features ‘or’ attributes of an image by segmentation and other processes.

Our basic purpose of feature extraction is to make useful image for different processes and purposes.

But till now we have only raw data. These extracted feature and attributes are of no uses for computer and other machines. For that purpose we use descriptors which makes image ready for recognition.

It is possible that the raw data extracted from image can be applied directly to descriptor. But it is better to use representation before description. By representation, compactness of an image is increased.

So let us start with representation and then study descriptors.



As described earlier “after segmentation, we can apply the image directly for descriptor, but if we are using representation, that will increase compactness of image”.

For representation of an image, we may use different techniques some of them are as given below:

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Medium 9781780648422




Gender and International Development

B.B. Bock* and M. van der Burg

Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands


Gender equality has gained a prominent place on the agenda of international development during the early decades of the 21st century. Rising concerns about food insecurity, in combination with increasing worries about the effects of climate change, other natural disasters and political conflicts, have contributed to this change. Criticism of the impacts of the structural adjustment programmes of the 1990s and a drastic questioning of the efficiency of investments in development have led to a re-examination of many obvious development routines.

Attempts to secure pathways to fair and sustainable development induced the for­ mulation and ratification of the United

Nations’ (UN) Millennium Development

Goals (MDGs) in 2000, which were to be reached by 2015. In 2015, the MDGs were followed by a new initiative of the UN: the

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Medium 9788131806135


Mahesh M. Rathore Laxmi Publications PDF

Conduction—Basic Equations


2.1. Generalised One Dimensional Heat Conduction Equation. 2.2. Three Dimensional Heat Conduction Equation—For the cartesian coordinates—Three dimensional heat conduction equation in cylindrical coordinates—Three dimensional heat conduction equation in spherical coordinates. 2.3. Initial and Boundary Conditions—Prescribed temperature boundary conditions—Prescribed heat flux boundary conditions—Convection boundary conditions : Surface energy balance—Radiation boundary condition—Interface boundary condition. 2.4. Summary—Review Questions—Problems.

The objective of this chapter is to provide a good understanding of the heat conduction equations and boundary conditions for the use in mathematical formulation of heat conduction problems.




For the thermal analysis of the bodies having shapes such as slab, rectangle, the cartesian coordinates are used, while for cylindrical and spherical bodies, the polar and spherical coordinate systems are used.

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Medium 9781780644370

4 Resistance of Busseola fusca to Cry1Ab Bt Maize Plants in South Africa and Challenges to Insect Resistance Management in Africa

Soberon, M. CABI PDF


Resistance of Busseola fusca to

Cry1Ab Bt Maize Plants in South

Africa and Challenges to Insect

Resistance Management in Africa

Johnnie Van den Berg1* and Pascal Campagne2


for Environmental Sciences and Management, North-West

University, Potchefstroom, South Africa; 2Institute of Integrative

Biology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK


The evolution of resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize by the African stem borer, Busseola fusca, in South Africa highlighted the importance of the development of appropriate integrated resistance management (IRM) strategies for stem borers in Africa. Landscape heterogeneity is characteristic of African agroecosystems.

This heterogeneity, in addition to betweenfield and within-field spatial mosaics resulting from variable gene expression in

Bt maize, will provide challenges to managing resistance evolution of the lepidopteran stem borers that attack maize. Adding to this landscape heterogeneity is the cultivation of open-pollinated maize varieties

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Medium 9789381159118


Rajesh Mehra; Vikrant Vij Laxmi Publications PDF







After reading this chapter, you will be able to explain :





Use of Alarm, Alarm configurations

Procedure for Alarm set up

Alarm start up and operation

Concept of Alarm summary and Data logging



Alarms are important part of most plant control applications so as to identify any accident in plant operation. It is often equally important to have a record of the alarm and whether the alarm was acknowledged. The following type of alarms can be configured:

1. Analog Alarms

2. Digital Alarms

The alarm operation basically consists of three steps:

(i) Alarm Configuration

(ii) Alarm setup

(iii) Alarm startup




Digital Alarm

Digital tags are either on or off. Therefore, alarms for digital tags do not have thresholds. They have alarm states which are listed below:

(a) On: Triggers an alarm when a tag has a value of 1.

(b) Off: Triggers an alarm when a tag has a value of 0.

(c) Any Change: Triggers an alarm when a tag value changes from 0 to 1 or from 1 to 0.

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Medium 9781780644707

7: Evaluating Land Quality for Carbon Storage, Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Nutrient Leaching



Evaluating Land Quality for Carbon

Storage, Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Nutrient Leaching

Joanna M. Cloy,1* Bruce C. Ball1 and T. Graham Shepherd2


SRUC, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK; 2BioAgriNomics Ltd,

Palmerston North, New Zealand

7.1  Introduction

Recently the importance of good soil structure in mitigating climate change and environmental contamination has been recognized because soil structure influences the storage of carbon (C) sources and sinks of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and cycling of nutrients, which are key soil system processes. This is because the maintenance of soil structure by aggregation, particle transport and formation of soil habitats operates across many spatial scales to regulate water drainage, water retention, air transfer to roots for favourable gas exchange and mineralization of nutrients for release to crop roots (Kibblewhite et al.,

2008; Ball et al., 2013a). For the functions being considered, the most important aspect of soil structure is the soil pore network, which determines the movement of gases, liquids and associated solutes, as well as particulates and organisms, through the soil matrix (Haygarth and Ritz, 2009;

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Medium 9788131805817


Administrator Laxmi Publications PDF





Large amount of power is generated at the generating stations. The present trend is to install bigger size of alternators to generate large amount of power to supply to require increasing demand. The centralized generation of electrical power is through the thermal power plant, hydro power plant and nuclear power plant whereas the 70% demand is fulfilled by thermal power plant in India. In spite of the high cost of the production of the power per KWHr, the DG set is a preferable way for decentralized generation of power by many industries and commercial places because of the high reliability and stability of power supply. Many renewable ways are also growing very fast to balance the demand of supply due to the swift increase in the cost of the fuel. The site of the power station depends upon the type of the power station. The new thermal stations are being construction at pit head near the coal mines because of the higher cost of the transportation of the coal. Hydro power plant is governed by the availability of the water resources. The nuclear plant are also situated remote from the centers of the consumption due to safety reason. Thus, the difficulty of the getting power station sites near the consuming centers make it inevitable to transfer bulk electrical energy through longer distances. Long distance bulk power transfer is only possible by high voltage transmission system. Extra high voltage and ultra high voltage system have been developed in various countries for transporting energy from remote power station.

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Medium 9780870816314


Robert A. Trennert University Press of Colorado ePub


The discovery of gold at Sutter’s Mill by James Marshall in January 1848 changed American mining. It sparked the California gold rush, which in turn led to the development of fabulous mineral properties across the Far West. From the Great Basin and the Rocky Mountains to the Klondike and Alaska, prospectors and miners sought out the vast fortune of mineral wealth locked up by Mother Nature for millions of years. Indeed, from 1850 until the early decades of the twentieth century, mining opened the West. It sparked the growth of such major cities as San Francisco and Denver, encouraged the invention and manufacture of thousands of new technological devices, led to financial investment on an unprecedented scale, and changed the western landscape and the people living on it.

During the first decade after Marshall’s discovery, perhaps three hundred thousand people came to California. Gold fever quickly spread into the interior as prospectors discovered mineral deposits all along the western slope of the Sierra Nevada range. Other entrepreneurs just as quickly went into the business of supplying miners with all their needs. The forty-niners benefited from good luck. They were able to recover large amounts of gold with little effort and almost no knowledge of geology or mining techniques because California’s first gold rested in streambeds, the result of erosion that had washed it down from the mother lode. As a consequence, mining required only a minimal outlay of money. All a man needed was time, a pan to separate the gold from the gravel, and perhaps a rocker, long torn (trough), or sluice, all easily constructed. Of course, the supply of placer gold was quickly depleted and the day of the individual prospector soon faded. He would be replaced by eastern capitalists willing to finance hydraulic and, eventually, quartz or hard-rock mining. Within a decade, mining made the transition from small-scale surface efforts to a large industry, requiring expensive new technology in order to extract even greater wealth from under the ground.1

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