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Medium 9781780648309

3: Nutritional and Health Benefits of Millets

Rao, B.D., Malleshi, N.G., Annor, George, Patil, J.V. CABI PDF


Nutritional and Health Benefits of Millets

Millets – the ‘noble grains’ – comprise sorghum, pearl millet, finger millet and five small millets.

Among the millets, sorghum used to be the most important in terms of its cropped area and food use, though its position has been overtaken in recent years by pearl millet. Pearl millet and finger millet are gaining regional importance as food staples, though their distribution across many Indian states is not as pronounced as that of ­sorghum. Direct consumption of millets has

­reduced over the past three decades because of inconvenient, cumbersome and time-consuming preparation, lack of processing technologies, and the lack of awareness of its nutritional merits. This trend in consumption can be manipulated by creating value addition to the

­millet crops through post-harvest processing, and can be enhanced through diversification of

­processing technologies as well as nutritional evaluation.

In view of this, here we examine the nutritional and health implications of millet, both in terms of the whole grain and in terms of processed products – specifically sorghum products – which have been studied in detail under the auspices of the Indian government’s

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Medium 9788131807811


Dr. R. Vaidyanathan, Dr. P. Perumal Laxmi Publications PDF






This century old method of analysing indeterminate frames in flexure is the forerunner of other methods such as Moment Distribution method and matrix stiffness method. This is an algebraic method. Any indeterminate frame such as the one shown in Fig. 2.1 is made up of members in flexure.



Fig. 2.1

Solving the frame is the process of finding primarily the bending moments at the ends of each and every member (such as AB). Once we have found MA and MB in each member we have solved for the moments in the frame.

The moment MA in a typical member AB is made up of 4 parts (Fig. 2.2).

(a) MFAB and MFBA, the fixed end moments at the ends A and B due to the transverse loading on the member, when A and B are restrained from rotation or vertical displacement (θA, θB, ΔA and ΔB are assumed zero in this step) as in Fig. 2.2(a).

(b) Moments due to the rotation θA of A only (keeping the rotation at B and vertical displacements at A and B as zero).

(c) Moments due to the rotation θB of B only and

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Medium 9789380386324


Dr. A.J. Nair Laxmi Publications PDF







supports the natural process of cells by trying to maintain their environment to provide optimum growth conditions by providing appropriate temperature, pH, substrates, salts, vitamins, and oxygen. In most of the bioreaction processes the substrate of the biotransformation and the carbon source of the organisms will be the same. Table 2.6 gives some of the carbohydrates commonly used in the various fermentation processes as the carbon source and substrate for the reaction.

Bioreactors can be classified according to the type of biocatalysts and the type of bioreaction. The first classification is based on the type of biological agent used:

• microbial fermentors or

• enzyme (cell-free) reactors.

Further classification is possible based on biochemical reactions and process requirements.

Downstream processing: The recovery and purification of the required product from the growth medium through a set of separation and purification techniques is called downstream processing. Each stage in the overall separation procedure is strongly dependent on the history and quality of the biological production process.

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Medium 9781601323286

Source Code Control Workflows for Open Source Software

Hamid R. Arabnia, Leonidas Deligiannidis, George Jandieri, Ashu M. G. Solo, Fernando G. Tinetti CSREA Press PDF

Int'l Conf. Software Eng. Research and Practice | SERP'14 |


Source Code Control Workflows for Open Source Software

Kevin Gary

Department of Engineering

Arizona State University

Mesa, AZ 85212) kgary@asu.edu

Ziv Yaniv, Ozgur Guler, and Kevin Cleary

The Sheik Zayed Intitute for Pediatric Surgical Innovation

Children’s National Medical Center

Washington, D.C. 20001 zyaniv,oguler,kcleary@childrensnational.org

Andinet Enquobahrie

Kitware, Inc.

Carrboro, NC, 27510 andinet.enqu@kitware.com

Abstract—Many open source projects rely on the dedicated and highly skilled members of distributed development teams. These teams often employ agile methods, as the focus is on concurrent development and fast production over requirements management and quality assurance. The image-guided surgical toolkit is an open source project that relies on the collaboration of a skilled distributed development team, yet addresses a safety-critical domain. Due to this rare intersection of agile and open source development processes and a safety-critical domain, the IGSTK team has had to enhance the process with key elements and a set of best practices to augment commonly applied agile methods. This paper presents our experiences and lays out some research questions for the future.

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Medium 9788131805381


Dr. Simmi Kharb Laxmi Publications PDF




Biotechnology companies especially those profitable today, face a coming decade that may be even painful than the past decade was for global pharma, when many saw their valuations cut in half, not to mention all restructuring and management havoc. Most biotech companies achieved their success behind just one or two block busting drugs that are priced boldly and marketed aggressively. In spite of billions in R and D, large pharma have failed to produce much in the way of next round of innovations. It seems increasingly clear that once a biotechnology company reaches a certain size, it, like its large pharma counterparts, becomes unable to get much out of its heavy R&D spending.

Since life science product life cycles are short, so companies should extract as much value from their products as possible and this is possible by R and D and careful planning and adequate knowledge of R and D funding and skill to draw funding help in survival of company.

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Medium 9789381159620


Dr. Aminul Islam Laskar Laxmi Publications PDF



Aggregates and Water

Aggregates are those parts of concrete that constitute the bulk of the finished product. They comprise 60%–80% of the total volume of concrete and have to be so chosen that the entire mass of concrete acts as relatively solid, homogenous, dense combination, with the smaller sizes acting as an inert filler of the voids that exist between the larger particles. Aggregates are of two types:


Coarse aggregate such as gravel, crushed stone or blast furnace slag;


Fine aggregate such as natural or manufactured sand.

Since the aggregates constitute the major portion of the mixture, the more the aggregate in concrete, the cheaper is the concrete, provided that the mixture is of reasonable workability for the specified job for which it is used.


Coarse aggregate is classified as such if the smallest size of the particle is greater than 4.75 mm.

Properties of the coarse aggregate affect the final strength of hardened concrete and its resistance to disintegration, weathering, and other destructive effects. The mineral coarse aggregate must be clean of organic impurities and must bond well with the cement gel. The common types of coarse aggregate are:

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Medium 9781780647784

20 Piscirickettsia salmonis



Piscirickettsia salmonis

Jerri Bartholomew,1* Kristen D. Arkush2 and Esteban Soto3


Department of Microbiology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, USA; formerly of Bodega Marine Laboratory, University of California-Davis, Bodega

Bay, California, USA; 3Department of Medicine and Epidemiology, School of

Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, California, USA


20.1  Introduction

20.1.1  Description

Piscirickettsia salmonis (Fryer et al., 1992) is a

Gram-negative, non-motile, facultative intracellular bacterium. The type strain, LF-89 (ATCC VR

1361), was recovered from an epizootic among coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) in seawater net pens in Chile (Fryer et al., 1990). The bacterium has since been recovered from other marine and freshwater fishes (see Table 20.1). Although isolates recovered from non-salmonid fishes are morphologically similar, only some of their identities have been confirmed (Lannan et al., 1991; Alday-Sanz et al., 1994).

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Medium 9781601323286

Session - Software Development Strategies, Agile Technology, Business Models, Reuse + Cloud and Tools

Hamid R. Arabnia, Leonidas Deligiannidis, George Jandieri, Ashu M. G. Solo, Fernando G. Tinetti CSREA Press PDF
Medium 9788170088530


Dr. B.C. Punmia ; Ashok Kr. Jain, Arun Kr. Jain Laxmi Publications PDF






The instruments for geodetic survey require great degree of refinement. In earlier days of geodetic surveys, the required degree of refinement was obtained by making greater diameter of the horizontal circles. The great theodolite of Ordinance Survey had a diameter of 36″. These large diameter theodolites were replaced by the micrometer theodolites (similar in principle to the old 36″ and 24″ instruments) such as the Troughton and Simm’s 12″ or the Parkhurst 9″.

However, more recently the tendency has been to replace the micrometer theodolites by others of the double reading type (glass arc) such as the Wild, Zeiss and Tavistock having diameters



of 5 ″ and 5″ respectively. The distinguishing features of the double reading theodolite with optical micrometers are as follows:

(i) They are small and light.

(ii) The graduations are on glass circle, and are much finer.

(iii) The mean of the two readings on opposite sides of the circle is read directly in an auxiliary eye-piece generally besides the telescope. This saves the observing time, and also saves disturbance of the instrument.

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Medium 9780870819469

Chapter 4 “The Realms of Puff”

James Fell University Press of Colorado ePub

IN 1858 SOME PROSPECTORS HEADING FOR THE NEW EL DORADO decided to eschew the well-publicized gravels of Clear Creek in favor of the unknown country in the Arkansas Valley. Some parties ascended the river from Bent’s Fort. Others crossed the Mosquito Range from South Park. Still more arrived by way of Fremont Pass or Tennessee Pass. Regardless of the route they traveled, this was an arduous passage, for the headwaters of the Arkansas rose amid the highest peaks of the Rocky Mountains. Once in the river valley, these fifty-niners fell to work along the floodplain. Their supplies and fortitude dwindled as summer passed, but they still unearthed traces of placer gold at Kelly’s Bar, Cache Creek, Georgia Bar, and other nondescript sites now long forgotten.

When the first snows of winter blew down the valley, the prospectors retreated from the mountains to spend their winnings and replenish their outfits for another season. Many went to “Denver City,” still hardly more than a few tents, log cabins, and tepees huddled along the banks of the South Platte River. Like the Cherry Creek placers that touched off the gold rush, none of the discoveries on the Arkansas really amounted to much, but stories of easy wealth to be found in the valley abounded in Denver that winter. During the long months of inactivity, as the miners shivered on the cold, windy plain, flakes of placer gold grew by inference, suggestion, and fantasy into the harbingers of a real bonanza. And so early in 1860 new companies of fortune hunters, disappointed by their luck at the Gregory diggings, set out for the Arkansas country even before the snow was off the trails.

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Medium 9789381159323


Dr. Sangeeta Chaudhary Laxmi Publications PDF





Type of amplifier: Type of analysis: Approximate CC with fixed bias.

First, let us draw the h-parameter equivalent circuit as shown in Fig. 8.28.

We know that current gain of transistor (Ai) is given by

Ai = – hfc = – [–(1 + hfe)] = – [– (1 + 50)]

Ai = 51


Overall current gain is given by

Ais =









= o × b = Ai × b






Ais = 51 ×


Ais =

[ hie + (1 + h fe ) RE ]


= 51 ×

(Zi + RB )

100 kΩ + [hie + (1 + h fe ) RE ]

51 × [1.1 kΩ + ( 51 × 1 kΩ)]

= 17.49 Ans.

100 kΩ + [1.1 kΩ + ( 51 × 1 kΩ )]

Input resistance is expressed as

Zi = hie + (1 + hfe) RE = 1.1 kΩ + (51 × 1 kΩ) or

Zi = 52.1 kΩ


Z1′ = Zi || RB = 52.1 kΩ || 100 kΩ = 34.25 kΩ

Also, voltage gain is given by

Av = A i ×

Avs =

FG R IJ = 51 × F 1kΩ I = 0.9788

GH 52.1kΩ JK


L i

A v × Zi

( Zi + Rs )

But, RS is not given. So, assume RS = 0


Avs = Av = 0.9788

Output impedance is given by

Zo =

(0 || 100 kΩ) hie + ( Rs || RB )

= hie +

(1 + h fe )

(1 + h fe )


Zo =


= 21.58 Ω



Z′o = Zo || Rc =

21.58 × 1000

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Medium 9781607321521

I. El Cobre

Christopher J. Huggard University Press of Colorado ePub


In 1799 José Manuel Carrasco struck virgin copper. The retired lieutenant colonel had rediscovered the richest native copper deposit in North America. Taken to the lustrous outcroppings by a small group of Apaches he had assisted in hard times while serving as captain of the Presidio of Carrizal in northern Chihuahua, the Spaniard thought he had found the mother lode of copper deposits (see figure 1.1). But he knew he and those who followed him to this place would have to contend with the native peoples. The Spanish officer had spent much of the preceding thirty years pursuing and fighting the nomadic inhabitants of Apachería, the expansive territory of the Apaches. Located in the heart of the Chihenne band’s homeland, the minas de cobre (copper mines) promised riches to the seasoned Spanish warrior. Or at least that was Carrasco’s hope. Unlike Francisco Coronado in the 1540s, who pursued the myth of Quivira and the seven cities of Cíbola, this Spaniard found his treasure. Yet, as this story will reveal, like Coronado, he would experience disappointment and conflict, and the fortune he sought to glorify Spain and to enrich himself would never be realized. Still, six years later in testimony to the Deputacíon de Minería (Mining Bureau) in Chihuahua, he claimed “divine providence” had intervened to protect him from the risks of journeying into Apache country. God, copper, and glory, he believed, were at hand.1

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Medium 9789351381204


V.V.Mahajani and S.M.Mokashi Laxmi Publications PDF

Process Selection



Process Selection


The long-time business success of any project greatly depends upon the selection of an appropriate sustainable process or technology. The routine financial calculations, such as return on investment, payback period, internal rate of return, and so on, are not adequate indices of success of any project that is being conceived. For instance, a project to manufacture ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE) as an octane booster may be financially lucrative but its success over its lifespan will depend primarily upon availability of ethyl alcohol and isobutylene, as raw materials.

After having decided to go ahead with the project implementation based on preliminary feasibility report, a dilemma of selecting the most suitable process or technology arises. There may be more than one route available to manufacture the product under consideration. Also, after having selected the route, there may be more than one process licensor available for know-how.

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Medium 9788131807484


Mohan Sen Laxmi Publications PDF

Basic Concepts of




Since ages it has been the human tendency to search for more and more power. In early days men used animals for producing power. However the industrial revolution of the nineteenth century had motivated the engineers to search for the more effective and reliable sources of power. Being closer to nature, man first came in contact with fossil fuel followed by petroleum based fuel and then nuclear fuel and now lot of emphasis is being put on renewable resources. The continuous efforts made by the man in the direction of getting mechanical work resulted in the invention of a heat engine so that he can convert the energy stored in these fuels into useful energy capable of doing some useful work. Thermodynamics is the fundamental science that governs the processes taking place in a heat engine. Historically, the origin of thermodynamics is traced to a publication in 1824 by a French engineer, N.L.S.

Carnot about his early studies on the performance of steam engine.

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Medium 9781780646282

19: A Summary of the Results of the IDRC-UWI/Belize Forage Legume Adaptation and Productivity Trials, 1973–1977

Lazier, J.R. CABI PDF

19 A Summary of the Results of the

IDRC-UWI/Belize Forage Legume Adaptation and Productivity Trials, 1973–1977

J.R. Lazier*1

*Formerly International Livestock Centre for Africa


The results of 4.5 years of research of the IDRC-UWI/Belize legume adaptation and productivity trials over the years 1973–1977 are summarized. Numerous replicated and unreplicated trials were conducted on the terraces of the upper, mid and lower Belize River Valley and on the Mountain Pine Ridge on a wide range of clay soils. Data were acquired through both observation and harvesting; grazing was imposed on many of the trials. Adapted and persistent herbaceous and woody legume species were identified for all soil types and numerous companion grasses. For vigorous growth, fertility was required for most sites; grazing management was critical for legume persistence.

19.1  Introduction

19.3  Results and discussion

It is appropriate at this point to review the

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