2711 Chapters
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Introduction

Staci Newmahr Indiana University Press ePub

The warehouses on the street had been closed for hours. Taxis thumped down the pothole-plagued city block. Rap music blasted from a nearby nightclub. I locked my Club onto the steering wheel of my car, double-checked the parking sign, and headed down the street. The pavement glittered under my boots, embedded glass reflecting the reassuring lamplight in this downtown district. Halfway down the block, I stopped at a brick wall. I parted the dirty clear plastic vertical blinds that obscured the threshold, and walked inside. A tall, thin, disheveled man was perched on a stool just inside the unlabeled doorway. He nodded at me as I entered.

The walls were gray concrete. Black stage lights lined the floor of the dark hallway. High along one wall, swirly, high-school girl handwriting welcomed me to “The Playground” in enthusiastic romantic loops. The bass of techno music lent rhythm to the muffled sound of party chatter below. I walked down the winding stairway at the end of the hall. Lorraine sat at the window before the heavy steel entrance to the club. Recognizing me, she smiled warmly and said, “Free for the lady.”

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Medium 9781574414325

Chapter 8 – Recreation

Jorge Antonio Renaud The University of North Texas Press ePub

CHAPTER EIGHT

recreation

TDCJ considers anything an inmate does out of his cell to be recreation, unless it is chow or part of his officially assigned duties. The official terms for recreation are either “programmatic activities,” which includes all officially sanctioned group meetings, and “non-programmatic activities,” which is essentially everything else.

Inmates spend most of their time at work, in their cells or socializing in the dayrooms or on the yard. Dayrooms are communal living areas. On most units, they open at 8 A.M. and close at 10:30 P.M. on weekdays and at 1 A.M. on weekends and holidays. They are open all day and are usually noisy and full of inmates. Most dayrooms have from four to ten tables, which seat four; from one bench to four, which seat from five to ten inmates; and have one or two televisions. Depending on the warden’s preferences, programs offered on television will range from the basic four networks to ESPN, USA, and various movie channels.

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Medium 9780253002150

3 The Kaguru Native Authority

T. O. Beidelman Indiana University Press ePub

The Kaguru Native Authority is the official governing body of Ukaguru. It was the outcome of British policy to rule their African possessions through Indirect Rule, allowing the British to govern with minimal staff and funds while claiming to encourage natives both to oversee themselves and to gain experience in modernization at a slow pace that would supposedly accommodate local African values and needs. I have already discussed the pros and cons of Indirect Rule as well as the ways that policy was initiated and pursued in Tanganyika. I sketched out the ties between the local British administration and the Native Authority. Here I describe the organization and general workings of the Native Authority itself. In the next chapter, I discuss how the Native Authority worked in Kaguru courts, the most prominent and significant feature of this system.

To understand political affairs in Ukaguru, one must remember a few basic facts about the British administration of this area. Ukaguru was an administrative unit within a much larger system. It was the largest and most important Native Authority within Kilosa district, which had three other smaller Native Authorities to the south as well as large areas of ethnically mixed peoples in the huge lowland sisal estates on lands alienated from African ownership.1 There were also the towns of Kilosa (the district headquarters) and Kimamba (a smaller town serving the estates). These estates and towns were not subjected to any Native Authority. Kilosa district was the most westerly of eight districts in the Eastern Province, about two hours drive from the provincial headquarters at Morogoro and about four hours drive (in the same direction) from the territorial capital of Dar es Salaam. The Kilosa district administration was responsible to the provincial administration, but local district officers were given great leeway in making on-the-spot decisions, so long as they justified such decisions in their written reports to the provincial commissioner. The Kilosa district administration had many responsibilities besides overseeing Native Authorities, and we must keep this in mind to understand why the Kaguru Native Authority was not as closely supervised as one might expect. The power of the Kaguru Native Authority in influencing social life in Ukaguru rested on the fact that it was so poorly supervised, allowing Kaguru chiefs and headmen to take a free hand in how they enforced law and order.

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Medium 9780253356727

5. Sephardi Theater: Project and Practice

Olga Borovaya Indiana University Press ePub

Sephardi Theater is one of the least documented and least studied sociocultural practices in the lives of Ottoman Jews. Since the extant memoirs hardly, if at all, mention it,1 the only available source of information on Sephardi Theater is the Ladino press, which played an exceptional role in its development. Moreover, the conceptualization of Sephardi Theater offered and promoted by Ladino periodicals was an integral element of the whole project, indispensable for its proper realization, if not for its very existence. Outside the framework of the Ladino press, Sephardi Theater cannot be adequately construed, and the data related to it appear as an unstructured assortment of random facts.

It is, perhaps, its chaotic and peculiar makeup that accounts for the fact that, as a cultural phenomenon, Sephardi Theater has attracted the attention of very few scholars; the most important of them is Elena Romero, who dedicated a few years to its comprehensive description. Her doctoral dissertation2 consists of Romanized (more precisely, Hispanicized) editions of fourteen Ladino plays with notes, detailed descriptions, and other bibliographic materials. Romero has also published a number of articles on Sephardi Theater and a valuable collection of the materials found in most extant Ladino periodicals on the shows performed by Sephardim in the Ottoman Empire.3 Finally, a chapter of her monograph on Sephardi print culture4 offers the first and only overview of Ladino theater.5

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Medium 9780253007469

6. Anthropology of the Future: Arab Youth and the State of the State

Edited by Sherine Hafez and Susan Slyomo Indiana University Press ePub

6.

ANTHROPOLOGY OF THE FUTURE: ARAB YOUTH AND THE STATE OF THE STATE

Suad Joseph

The Arab Spring began in January 2011 in Tunisia, and moved quickly through Egypt, Yemen, Bahrain, Libya, and Syria, with rousing applause from many corners of the world. It was a ringing indictment of authoritarian governments, corruption, unemployment, inadequate educational institutions, and the lack of political will on the part of Arab national leaders to address the real and urgent problems of their peoples. Throughout the Arab Spring countries, the majority of those engaged in the protests and in critical leadership positions were youth. The Arab Spring and its constituent elements should not have been surprising; yet it caught scholars and political commentators off guard.

This chapter, originally presented as a paper in April 2010 at the University of California, Los Angeles conference from which this volume is drawn—a year before the Arab Spring—calls upon anthropologists to address the pressing problems of Arab youth. Quickly, after January 2011, a surfeit of papers, lectures, online discussions, and panels at professional conferences emerged analyzing the questions presented by the Arab Spring. Most of these drew on commentaries and the expertise of journalists, political scientists, and public intellectuals from different disciplines. Some of these projects, preliminary in their formulation and empirical depth, began to examine the conditions facing Arab youth. Sociologist Samir Khalaf and English scholar Roseanne Khalaf quickly produced the insightful collection Arab Youth (2011). The volume included the works of five political scientists, five anthropologists, three journalists, and one each from the fields of demography, history, urban planning, creative writing, and Middle East studies.

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