435 Chapters
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6 - “Intelligent Leadership in the Cause of Racial Brotherhood”: Quakers, Social Science, and the American Friends Service Committee's Interwar Racial Activism

NoContributor Indiana University Press ePub

Quakers, Social Science, and the American Friends Service Committee's Interwar Racial Activism

Allan W. Austin

RECALLING THE EARLY years of the American Friends Service Committee (AFSC), Rufus Jones wrote that he and the organization's first members, “conscious of a divine leading,” had gone to work “aware, even if only dimly, that we were ‘fellow-laborers with God’ in the rugged furrows of the somewhat brambly fields of the world.”1 Jones's remark reveals a fundamental characteristic of Quaker religious identity: a belief in “the duty of Friends to live their faith and in so doing make the world a better place.”2 The many Quaker books of discipline today with “faith and practice” in their titles bear clear witness to this enduring foundational tenet of Quaker identity. The 1997 edition of Philadelphia Yearly Meeting's Faith and Practice, for example, connects belief and activism in Friends’ testimonies, which it describes as “expressions of lives turned toward the Light, outward expressions reflective of the inward experience of divine leading.”3

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10 - Myth vs. Reality: Muslim American Philanthropy since 9/11

NoContributor Indiana University Press ePub

Muslim American Philanthropy since 9/11

Shariq A. Siddiqui

THERE ARE DEFINING moments in our lives. I remember my parents describing the moment they first heard that John F. Kennedy was assassinated and when my professors talked about the moment Martin Luther King, Jr., or Robert Kennedy was killed. I was amazed by their memory and used to be thankful that such an event had not occurred in my generation's lifetime. That changed on September 11, 2001.

As I watched the horrific images on television, praying that the perpetrators were not Muslims, I knew that this moment was significant, but I did not realize that it would be a defining moment for Muslim Americans. The lives of Muslim Americans were changed in profound ways on that day. Many have argued that the events that followed due to the tragedy of 9/11 have had a negative effect on Muslim Americans and especially their philanthropic activity. In order to understand the impact on Muslim American philanthropy after September11, 2001, it is important first to understand Islamic philanthropy, learn about Muslim American history, and explore who Muslim Americans are before looking into their philanthropic activities.

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8 - Juggling the Religious and the Secular: World Visions

NoContributor Indiana University Press ePub

World Visions

Susan McDonic

WORLD VISION INTERNATIONAL is a Christian multinational relief and development organization with operations in nearly one hundred countries. Their annual report for 2011 claims that they “served” 100 million people, directly benefited 4.1 million children through child sponsorship, and raised $2.79 billion in cash and goods.1 As such, this organization of nearly unbelievable magnitude is growing at an exponential rate. For instance, the World Vision partnership's income has tripled in the last eight years. It has been called variously “the largest development organization aside from the United Nations,”2 “the largest privately funded aid organization in the world,”3 and the world's largest Christian development organization. World Vision is clearly a huge player in the international field of development, with representatives lobbying and consulting with governments and the United Nations and others working with international ecumenical groups such as the World Council of Churches and the Jubilee movement. Further, it acts as a media source monitoring on the ground the political, environmental, and economic state of the world, providing information and news stories to all the major news agencies. Beyond this, World Vision had, until recently, a publishing house in the form of its subsidiary, Mission Advanced Research and Communication Center (MARC) publications.4 Additionally, each national office is involved in the production of numerous videos, magazines, and newsletters of its own. This is an organization with a massive global reach that circulates money, information, images, and material help transnationally, shaping and responding to global shifts of power, ideology, and economics.5

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2 Métis Society and Transformations in the Colonial Economy (1820–70)

Jones, Hilary Indiana University Press ePub

Whereas a self-conscious métis population emerged in the second half of the eighteenth century, the social, economic, and demographic conditions that allowed for the consolidation of métis identity occurred in the early nineteenth century. By the 1820s, métis habitants constituted a veritable oligarchy. They obtained a level of economic success that set them apart from Muslim traders and grumets. Métis habitants were chosen to serve on the governor’s advisory council, as mayor of the town, and also in the General Council, a short-lived electoral body established in the 1830s. In 1848, métis habitant Durand Valantin represented Senegal in Paris when the Second Republic established a seat.1 Signares continued to play key roles as property owners and labor recruiters in the towns, but the economic foundations of métis society increasingly centered on male-headed trade houses that controlled the gum trade in the ports on the north bank of the Senegal River. People of mixed race used their access to metropolitan capital, their familiarity with French industry, and their knowledge of the landscape and customs of Senegal’s interior to establish the most highly capitalized trade houses among Saint Louis residents before 1850.

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1 - New Wineskins or New Wine? The Evolution of Ecumenical Humanitarian Assistance

NoContributor Indiana University Press ePub

The Evolution of Ecumenical Humanitarian Assistance

Elizabeth G. Ferris

THIS IS THE story of the global ecumenical movement and the way it has structured its philanthropic action in response to the needs of the world—and the needs of its members. In particular, it is the story of six decades of the World Council of Churches (WCC) and its many related organizations as they have grappled with the question of Christian responsibility to the poor and needy, to refugees, and to victims of floods, tsunamis, and earthquakes. The focus of this essay is on ecumenical humanitarian response—a term that perhaps needs some unpacking. An “ecumenical response” is one in which churches work together in their humanitarian action and see themselves as part of the global movement toward Christian unity. “Humanitarian response” refers to those actions toward people in immediate need or for people who are victims of conflicts, natural disasters, or oppressive governments. In its ideal form, humanitarian work is shaped by the basic principles of humanity, independence, impartiality, and neutrality.

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