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5 Reconstruction Aides

Lettie Gavin University Press of Colorado ePub

There is no subject which deserves more immediate consideration than the physical reconstruction of disabled soldiers.

—President Woodrow Wilson, 1918

Therapy in its ancient form probably originated when humanity first discovered the relaxing and rejuvenating qualities of the bath. Much later, the Chinese employed rubbing as a therapeutic measure as early as 300 B.C., and Galen, the famous Greek physician observed in A.D. 172 that “work is nature’s best physician and essential to human happiness.” But the ancients could never have envisioned the art of reconstruction, as therapy was then known, as it developed in the wake of the First World War. Few could have imagined how therapists, physical and occupational, would be able to treat so successfully those crippled in battle and return them to useful, happy lives.

The use of exercise or activity in treating patients was not, of course, unknown in the early twentieth century. Civilian hospital programs in the United States and abroad had offered the basics of therapy for many years. Remedial work had been used in the United States since the early 1800s in treating mental patients, and early in the next century such work became important in re-educating handicapped persons.

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Chapter 14. Secret Leaders and 1269m

Mitchel P. Roth and Tom Kennedy University of North Texas Press ePub

14

SECRET LEADERS AND 1269M

Breckenridge Porter Sr. was the only Houston police lieutenant in history to be thrown out of the Texas Rangers and charged with murder within a relatively short period of time. The storied details of Porter’s life were retold around police headquarters throughout the 20th century, always in modest, down-to-earth segments, using the honest-to-goodness modus operandi of the biographic subject. Just as Ranger Porter got the hang of a job that included earning a $2 bounty for each illegal immigrant he captured in the Valley, the issue of his age cropped up.1

The Rangers’ age requirement was twenty-one; he was barely twenty. Before the state found out, Porter and a partner were assigned to Galveston, where violence frequently broke out in union picket lines at the port. During one near-riot, shots were fired and Porter was left standing with a smoking shotgun in his hands; one man was dead.2

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2 Atia Sattar · “Germ Wars: Dirty Hands, Drinking Lips, and Dixie Cups”

JONATHAN PAUL EBURNE Indiana University Press ePub

2.1. Gaar Williams. Meet Me at the Town Pump. Signed, a Typhoid Germ. Indiana Medical History Museum, Indianapolis.

2

GERM WARS

DIRTY HANDS, DRINKING LIPS, AND DIXIE CUPS

Atia Sattar

The conflict between germs and cups first came to my attention in a laboratory at the Indiana Medical History Museum, where I stumbled across an illustration by Hoosier cartoonist Gaar Williams (1880–1935) entitled Meet Me at the Town Pump. Signed, a Typhoid Germ (figure 2.1). In this drawing, a typhoid germ appears as an amphibious creature with webbed hands and feet, sitting at the edge of a wooden tub filled with water. In his right hand is the common dipper or public drinking cup of the day, a single metal can for everyone in the town, attached by chain to the water pump. Bearing this instrument of public service near his mouth, drops of water falling from his typhoid lips, the impish germ invites townsfolk to meet him at the pump. His invitation to drink is clear. Williams’s striking cartoon, I soon discovered, was not the sole critique of the common dipper, a public service turned danger to public health. In fact, the public war against germs in early twentieth-century America was waged on the rims of drinking cups.

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Chapter 2: The Science of a Living Universe

Elgin, Duane Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

Everyone who is seriously involved in the pursuit of science
becomes convinced that a spirit is manifest in the laws
of the universe—a spirit vastly superior to that of men. . .

—ALBERT EINSTEIN1

This chapter applies the tools of science to explore the possibility that our universe, taken in its totality, is a living system. I am not seeking to prove that the universe is a living system; instead I will show that, by drawing insights from different areas of science, the available evidence points strongly in this direction and offers a compelling invitation for deeper engagement and inquiry.

In thinking about how the universe could be alive, we naturally turn to the living things already known. It is understandable that many of our theories on the nature of life are based on animals and plants; however, to confine our understanding of life to these familiar forms is to confuse the material expression of aliveness with the energy of aliveness itself. The form is not the aliveness, but its container. We need to broaden our inquiry into the meaning of life.

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Appendix E Recreation Requirements

Jorge Antonio Renaud University of North Texas Press PDF

Appendix E

Recreation Requirements

Following are the minimum hours of recreation to be given each inmate, as agreed to under Ruiz. Units may offer more but not less. For these purposes, dayroom time is counted as recreation (rec) time. (In mid2001, staffing shortages were serving as an excuse for certain units to begin scaling back these requirements.)

G1, G2, and G3 Minimum—Four hours weekday, one of which must be in a gym or outside rec yard. Seven hours weekend, two of which must be in a gym or outside rec yard

G 4 Medium—Four hours weekday, one of which must be in a gym or outside rec yard. Five hours weekend, two of which must be in a gym or outside rec yard

G 5 Close—Two hours daily, outside rec only

Administrative segregation:

Level I—One hour out-of-cell rec each day, with at least two hours weekly outside; Or two hours out-of-cell rec five days per week, with two hour weekly outside; Or three hours out-of-cell four days per week, with three hours weekly outside. (The Level I schedule will be decided upon by the warden or his/her designee.)

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