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EIGHT Hohokam Household Organization, Sedentism, and Irrigation in the Sonoran Desert, Arizona

John G. Douglas University Press of Colorado ePub

RICHARD CIOLEK-TORRELLO

Studies of Hohokam households have most often focused on identifying and describing them as elements of the distinctive social structure that emerged in the low desert areas of the Southwest. Such studies have generally taken a static view that emphasizes continuity through time and space. Recent anthropological theories, however, take a more dynamic view of household structure and organization, linking changes to processes such as increased agricultural dependency and sedentism (Flannery 1972; Netting 1990; Wilk and Rathje 1982). According to these theories, agricultural dependence influences the degree of sedentism, the makeup of the units of production, and the systems of land tenure in which households participate (see Neff, this volume). As is envisioned by many of the authors in this volume, the household is the elemental social and economic unit in preindustrial societies. It is isomorphic with the basic unit of consumption and is distinguished from the reproductive unit commonly known as the family (Ciolek-Torrello and Reid 1974; Goody 1972; Wilk and Rathje 1982; also see Douglass and Gonlin, this volume). The family as a set of individuals and the household to which these individuals may belong are not necessarily the same (Buchler and Selby 1968:21–23).

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5 The Commercial Construction of “New” Nations

Robert J. Foster Indiana University Press ePub

Almost all the questions and issues that I explore in this chapter were raised, as is often the case, by a cartoon in the New Yorker magazine. A man in pajamas lies propped up in bed, a companion sleeping soundly at his side. He stares ahead with glazed eyes at a television set, one finger poised on the remote control. The caption reads: “Ladies and gentlemen, our national commercial.”

I read the cartoon two different ways, but to the same effect. In the first reading, the viewer is watching the start of a late-night baseball game; the stadium announcer alerts the crowd not to the singing of the national anthem, but rather to the playing of the national commercial. In the second reading, the viewer is watching late late-night television; the station is about to sign off, but with the national commercial instead of the national anthem. This alternative reading, however, seems less likely, or at least less available to all readers. How many young Americans, I wonder, having grown up in a world where there is no end to the broadcast day, simply do not get the reference to the old convention of opening and closing television transmission with the national anthem?

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Porch Hunting

Edited by Kenneth L. Untiedt University of North Texas Press PDF

7978-ch05.pdf

10/6/11

8:17 AM

Page 281

PORCH HUNTING by Sue Friday

I can see Grandpa, Adron Alford, sitting on the porch, reared back in his favorite hide-seat straight chair. He has on dusty field boots, frayed-at-the-hem jeans, and is bare chested because he took off his heavy denim jumper to cool off. There is a ring of sweat around his head from his hat. My sister and I, at most 3rd or 4th graders, are fighting over the swing although it is big enough for both of us.

Grandpa gives us “the look” and we settle down. For amusement all summer we either read, go to church, help with light farm work, or listen to Grandpa tell stories—always about hunting or fishing or the animals involved.

Today’s story is about an ol’ boy being chased by a wildcat.

“And that ol’ boy ran and ran until he couldn’t run anymore and fell out on the ground!” Grandpa says, “and the old cat hops up on a log . . .” and Grandpa’s hand and arm make the arc of the wildcat jumping onto the log . . . “and looks with his yellow eyes at the ol’ boy laying there, gasping for breath, and says . . . .” And here I lose the story. I can see my grandpa clearly, see from his eyes that this will be funny, can hear his voice—and then I can’t.

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XI. Orthodox Christianity, the Nation-State, and Philanthropy: Focus on the Serbian Orthodox Church

Warren F Ilchman Indiana University Press ePub

This chapter attempts to situate the philanthropic practices of the Serbian Orthodox Church within the history of Serbian society and its background within the Byzantine Empire and Orthodox Christianity. While the latter is necessary for understanding the nature and practice of the Serbian Orthodox Church, without incorporating the distinctive paths of Balkan history any understanding of the concepts and practices of philanthropy within the SOC would be incomplete and misleading.

The first part of this essay focuses on the distinctive nature of the Orthodox Church’s understanding of philanthropy as a whole, the presumption being that there exist few substantial differences between the national orthodox churches sharing the Byzantine legacy (Greece, Bulgaria, Romania, Russia, and Serbia).

The second part centers on the Serbian Orthodox Church itself. This story consists mainly of the formulation of numerous survival strategies designed to maintain the essence of the Church unchanged. Unfortunately, the international and local research communities have neglected this domain. The autocephalous churches within Orthodoxy, and the Serbian Orthodox Church in particular, have not encouraged analytical self-studies. There exist, therefore, no critical or reformist lay movements where believers seriously could address key dogmatical or social issues. Additionally, the role played by the Church in constructing Serbian identity and in maintaining its own survival within the context of Balkan history has tended to make all historical narratives partisan by definition. For these reasons this paper must be viewed as a first and mainly conceptual draft for future study.

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15 Between Nationalism and Pan-Africanism: Ngũgĩ wa Thiong’o’s Theater and the Art and Politics of Modernizing African Culture

Peter J Bloom Indiana University Press ePub

  Aida Mbowa

None of these cultures can be conceived as anthropologically independent or autonomous, rather, they are all in various distinct ways locked in a life-and-death struggle with first-world cultural imperialism—a cultural struggle that is itself a reflection of the economic situation of such areas in their penetration by various stages of capital, or as it is sometimes euphemistically termed, of modernization.

—Frederic Jameson (1986)

Modernization was an important and guiding philosophy on how best to build the newly formed nation-state in post-independence Africa. Modernization encapsulated more than the matter of industrialization and infrastructure. It also incorporated cultural efforts to bolster the psychology of the formerly colonized. Significant objectives for cultural politicians to achieve under the rubric of modernization included how to empower citizens, how to facilitate pride and allegiance to the nation-state, and how to overcome divisions or in some instances maintain ethnic specificity while facilitating national unity. The arts in general, and performance arts in particular, were a key method through which to disseminate the ideologies geared toward engendering modern subjects. The arts disseminated modernist ideologies through the artistic productions they offered their spectators who were engaging in the consumption of cultural products.

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