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5. Belonging amidst Shifting Sands: Insertion, Self-Exclusion, and the Remaking of African Urbanism

Edited by Abdoulaye Kane and Todd H Lee Indiana University Press ePub

LOREN B. LANDAU

I have been here for six years, but I don’t think any right thinking person would want to be South African. . . . They are just so contaminated.

—SOTHO MIGRANT IN JOHANNESBURG, 2005

In the diversity of African cities, dynamic and overlapping systems of exchange, meaning, privilege, and belonging are the norm. These systems stem from longstanding patterns of political and economic domination—apartheid, indirect colonial domination, monopolistic party rule (Zlotnick 2006)—enacted across national territories, mixing together groups that might otherwise have chosen more autonomous trajectories. With differences and diversity heightened by recent mobility, Africa’s cities are increasingly characterized by greater disparities of wealth, language, and nationality along with shifting gender roles, life-trajectories, and intergenerational tensions. Through geographic movement—into, out of, and within cities—urban spaces that for many years had only tenuous connections with the people and economies of the rural hinterlands of their own countries are increasingly the loci of economic and normative ties with home villages and diasporic communities spread (and spreading) across the continent and beyond (Geschiere 2005; Malauene 2004; Diouf 2000).

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Medium 9780253330178

IV. Slave Women on the Brazilian Frontier in the Nineteenth Century

David Barry Gaspar Indiana University Press ePub

Mary Karasch

In the interior of Brazil, between the Araguaia and the Tocantins rivers, there is a strangely beautiful land of low mountains, wide savannahs, and thorny vegetation. Six months of rain and six months of dry season twist vegetation into contorted shapes, while the spring months cover the trees with yellow, purple, and orange flowers. Besides the two great tributaries of the Amazon which flow to the north from central Brazil, a third river, the Paranaiba, demarcates the southern border of the region known in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries as Goiás.

Into this forbidding terrain, once roamed by Gê-speaking populations, came explorers from São Paulo. They invaded, seeking new sources of Indian slaves to replace those who had died on the farms of São Paulo and the legendary gold and emerald mines of the interior. They found both slaves and gold in Goiás in the 1720s and put their Indian and African slaves to work in the mining camps. Portuguese and Spanish immigrants joined the gold rush with their slaves, and almost overnight the mining camps became towns with churches, stores, and small houses.

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Medium 9781609948870

Chapter 3 Personalismo: The Character of the Leader

Bordas, Juana Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

I WAS A YOUNG LEADER working as the executive director of Mi Casa Women’s Center when my mentor Bernie Valdez showed me, through his example and extraordinary life, how personalismo was a powerful determinant in leading people. Like many early Latino leaders, Bernie didn’t read leadership books. He earned respect because of the kind of person he was and by the way he valued and validated everyone.

The first time I picked up Bernie for our monthly lunch, I expected his home to mirror his stature in the community. Much later, Bernie would have the Colorado Hispanic Heritage Center and a public library named after him. Yet he lived in a little house behind the stadium where the Broncos played football. It was the house where he and Dora had raised their children. He lived simply and modestly, much like the people he led.

Bernie had worked in the sugar beet fields and been a union organizer. By the time we were having lunch together, he had served as president of the Denver Board of Education, headed the Social Services Department, and started numerous community organizations. Bernie had impeccable follow-through, no matter how long it took or how difficult it would be. “You have to work hard and not give up,” he would tell me. In the turbulent 1960s, when Latinos were just beginning to forge their identity and to organize as a community, Bernie inspired others to do the same. The decades it took to desegregate the Denver Public Schools are a testament to his endurance and persistence.

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5 The Raw and the Cooked: Transnational Media and Violence in Italy’s Cannibal Pulp Fiction of the 1990s

Ellen Nerenberg Indiana University Press ePub

Transnational Media and Violence in Italy’s Cannibal Pulp Fiction of the 1990s

Il primo gennaio

So che si può vivere
non esistendo, emersi da una quinta, da un fondale,
da un fuori che non c’è se mai nessuno
l’ha veduto
.

EUGENIO MONTALE

(I know that one can live
without existing,
emerging from offstage, or from behind a curtain,
from an outside that isn’t there if no one
has ever seen it.)

THE PRECEDING CHAPTER, WHICH detailed the 2001 murders of Susy Cassini and Gianluca De Nardo in Novi Ligure, began and ended with a motif of indistinctness. I argued that the blur of the photographically reproduced faces of the two adolescents, Erika De Nardo and Omar Fàvaro, accused and convicted of premeditated double murder, came to signify the blurry outlines of the rising generation of adolescents in Italy at the waning of the twentieth century and the start of the twenty-first. The motif of an indistinct and inscrutable younger generation in Italy continues in this chapter, which explores the violence in (and of) the work of a cohort of young writers who emerged in the second half of the 1990s, called the “Giovani Cannibali,” or Young Cannibals.

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9 - Philanthropic Decisions of American Jews: The Influence of Religious Identity on Charitable Choices

NoContributor Indiana University Press ePub

The Influence of Religious Identity on Charitable Choices

Arnold Dashefsky and Bernard Lazerwitz

A tourist to a foreign country entered the premier concert hall in the capital for a tour and inquired of the guide, “Is this hall named after the famous prize-winning author?” “No,” replied the tour guide, “it is named after a local person.” “So,” inquired the tourist of the guide, “what great work did your local author write?” To which, the tour guide replied, “A check!” Gifts of charity are generally viewed as generous, selfless acts, but Marcel Mauss and other social scientists noted that there is a payoff of some sort to the giver, although it may be viewed by some as in this world (i.e., social recognition or psychic gratification) or by others as in the next world (i.e., eternal salvation or a heavenly abode).1

Despite these rewards, a specter is haunting American society and the European community. It is the specter of devolution—the devolution of the responsibility for the poor, the ill, and the infirm from the government to the citizenry. This essay examines the conditions under which charity may fill the gap. Charity and philanthropy are conceptualized as part of the literature on gift exchange in society. Such gifts have reached extraordinarily high levels in recent years in the United States: $260 billion in 2004, representing 2.1 percent of GDP, with about three-quarters of that sum (or $199 billion) coming from individuals.2 The largest beneficiaries of those charitable gifts in 2004 were religious congregations and denominations, which received $93 billion or 36 percent of total contributions. That religion should receive the largest share of such contributions is not surprising since charity is a central tenet in the major religious traditions.

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